Some highlights of the Rebbe's life, taken from the "Genealogy and Brief Notes" on the Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbes, found at the beginning of the book, "Hayom Yom."

[It should be noted emphatically that this biography consists merely of brief notes and sketchy outlines; in no way does it even attempt to give a full picture of the Rebbe's activities, teachings, accomplishments or leadership. In fact, most of the highlights documented here are culled from a cursory read of the Rebbe's public addresses - while in reality many of the Rebbe's greatest accomplishments were not launched in public forums and are therefore missing from this record.

Also, if you have little-known biographical information about the Rebbe, please e-mail us at: [email protected].]

5662 (1902): Birth, on 11 Nissan, in Nikolaev, Ukraine.

5669 (1909): Moves together with his family to Yekaterinoslav (later called Dnepropetrovsk). For several years, would spend several weeks at the end of the summer with his grandmother, Rebbetzin Rachel, who took care of him. (He would stay at the home of his grandfather, the Gaon Rabbi Meir Shlomo Yanovsky, who had been a senior student in Lubavitch at the time of the Rebbe MaHaRaSh and was later the Rabbi of Nikolaev, succeeding his grandfather Rabbi Avraham David Lavut, author of Kav Nakki, Beis Aharon with Additions, etc.)

Studies with prodigious assiduousness (and is blessed with great success) under the direction of his father, the Gaon, Chassid and Kabbalist Rabbi Levi Yitzchak, Rabbi of Yekaterinoslav, gaining in his earliest youth a wide knowledge in the entire spectrum of Torah subjects, both the exoteric and esoteric portions.

5678 (1918): Assists his father in (among other areas) administering the community, and organizing aid to Jewish refugees from Poland who arrived in Yekaterinoslav in large numbers because of World War I.

5682 (1921-2): Visits Yeshivat Tomchei T'mimim in Kharkov (and again in 5684-1924).

5683 (1922-3): Travels to visit Rostov, where he meets the Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak, for the first time.

5684 (1924): Travels to Leningrad, where he is present for the first time at a Farbrengen of the Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak, who shows him special affection. The Rebbe draws him into his inner affairs and communal leadership, giving him special responsibilities in various areas, calling him, among other titles, his Minister of Intelligence. In particular, he assists the Rebbe in his battle to protect the Jewish people in Soviet Russia. In accordance with the instructions of his late father, the Rebbe RaShaB, the Rebbe designates him as the future husband of his daughter, the Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka.

5685 (1924-5): Travels to the Rebbe for the month of Tishrei. During this period he meets the Gaon Rabbi Yosef Rozin of Rogatchov, receiving Rabbinical ordination from him. Later he maintains a frequent correspondenee with him.

5686 (1925-6): Travels on a mission of the Rebbe to visit Yeshivat Tomchei T'mimim in Kremenchug.

5687 (1926-7): During Marcheshvan, participates in meeting of Rabbis in Korostin, Volhynia. Afterwards he stays in Leningrad, and during the imprisonment of the Rebbe works diligently on behalf of the Rebbe's release.

5688 (1927-8): Spends Tishrei in Yekaterinoslav. On the day after Sukot, travels with his mother to Kursk and from there to Leningrad. On Sunday after Shabbat Bereishit, travels to Riga where he serves as the Rebbe's private secretary. In Marcheshvan, participates in a meeting of the Committee for Strengthening Torah and the Religion established by the Rebbe in Russia and transferred to Riga. Before Pesach travels to Berlin. During the summer travels several times to Bolduri to visit the Rebbe.

5689 (1928-9): Travels to Riga for the month of Tishrei. On 3 Kislev, becomes officially engaged to Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka. On 12 Kislev, travels with the Rebbe and his family to Warsaw, where on 14 Kislev, he marries the Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka, daughter of the Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak. On the day of the wedding he meets the Gaonim Rabbi Menachem Zemba and Rabbi Meir Shapiro and other great Torah leaders. On Thursday, 16 Kislev, they return to Riga. After his wedding, his father-in-law the Rebbe gives him the responsibility of holding occasional farbrengens (on the Shabbat when a new month is blessed and on special chassidic holidays) with the chassidim, speaking on subjects that would inspire them with awe of G‑d and to serve Him through the approach of Chassidut. The Rebbe also refers to him many queries in areas of Jewish law, Kabbala and Chassidut, and gives him special responsibilities in matters concerning leadership of the chassidim and the general Jewish community. In Shvat, accompanied by the Rebbetzin, he returns to Berlin where he resides until winter of 5693-1933. (Several times during this period he travels to meet his father-in-law the Rebbe in Riga, and also to the wedding of the Rebbe's daughter Sheina to the Chassid Rabbi Menachem Mendel HaKohen (may G‑d avenge his blood), in the city of Landvorov, Poland, etc.)

5692 (1931-2): Travels on a mission of his father-in-law the Rebbe to visit the Gaon Rabbi Chaim Ozer Grodzinsky. Meets the Gaon Rabbi Baruch Ber Leibowitz.

5693 (1932-3): Meets the Tzadik Rabbi Chaim Elazar of Munkatch, author of Minchas Elazar, and the Gaon Rabbi Shimon Shkop. At the end of the winter, he is forced to move to Paris, where he resides until 5700 (1940). During this period, he often serves as his father-in-law's private secretary.

5695 (1934-5): Travels for the month of Tishrei to his father-in-law in Warsaw. At the end of Marcheshvan, travels on a mission of his father-in-law to pay his condolences to the Gerer Rebbe, Rabbi Avraham Mordechai Alter, author of Imrei Emet. Travels to Perchteldsdorf near Vienna to visit his father- in- law. During this period he prepares his father-in-law's letters for publication, and is also involved in the editing of the journal Hatomim.

5696 (1935-6): Visits his father-in-law several times in Otwock, Poland. Appointed as Honorary Chairman of the Students Fund of Yeshivat Tomchei Tmimim. Meets the Gaon Rabbi Shab'tai HaKohen Rapaport, author of Siftei Kohanim. Visits the Belzer Rebbe, Rabbi Aharon.

5697 (1936-7): Serves as secretary to his father-in-law when he stayed for some time in Paris.

5700 (1940): Leaves Paris (because of the Nazi occupation) and moves to Vichy, where he arrives on the eve of Shavuot. After several months, moves to Nice, where he stays from the end of the summer until the following spring.

5701 (1941): On 28 Sivan, arrives with the Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka in New York.

5702 (1942): Appointed by his father-in-law as chairman of the Executive Committees of Machne Israel (the Chabad-Lubavitch movement's social service arm), Merkos L'inyonei Chinuch (the movement's educational arm) and Kehot Publication Society.

5703 (1942-3): Appointed editor-in-chief of Otzar Hachassidim Library of Lubavitch, and since then publishes books, booklets and monographs with his glosses and commentaries. Compiles and publishes Hayom Yom.

5704 (1943-4): Starts publishing in Kovetz Lubavitch periodical his Responsa and Explanations to queries on subjects of Jewish law, homiletics, Kabbala and Chassidut.

5706 (1946): Publishes Passover Haggada with his compilation of customs and explanations.

5707 (1947): Travels to Paris on 25 Adar to meet his mother Rebbetzin Chana, and stays there for about two months, returning to New York on 28 Sivan, accompanied by his mother. During his stay in Paris, he Farbrengs with the Lubavitcher Chassidim, urging them to support the Maamad fund and become more devoted to the Rebbe and his work.

5710 (1950): On Friday, 9 Shvat, publishes Kuntres Yud Shvat, 5710 (containing the Chassidic discourse Bati Le'gani), in the series of his father-in-law's discourses.

On Shabbat of the Torah-portion Bo, 10 Shvat, his father-in-law the Rebbe, passed away. Now the crown of leadershíp is placed upon him.

Immediately after the passing, he comforts the Chassidim and encourages them to continue on the path on which the Rebbe Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak had ínstructed them. He continues publishing the works of his father-in-law and the other Chabad Rebbes, accompanied by longer introductions. He publicizes letters to the Jewish public, containíng words of inspiration and encouragement.

Throngs of Jews from both chassidic and other communitíes begin streaming to his farbrengens which he continues as previously on the Shabbat when a month is blessed and on special occasions during the year, as his father-in-law had instructed him. The audience avidly listens to his addresses at these farbrengens and later they are recorded in writing, after which he often edits them for publication. Many approach him for advice and blessings. Engages vigorously in expanding and extending the Torah institutions established by his father-in-law.

Establishes Oholei Yosef Yitzchak Lubavitch schools in North African countries, sending his first emissary to there. Urges increase in traveling on Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch missions to distant and isolated communities during the summer (Merkos shIichut).

5711 (1951): On 10 Sh'vat he accepts the post of Rebbe and delivers his first Maamar (chassidic discourse), Bati Legani.

5712 (1951-2): Urges yeshiva students and also married men to give speeches on concepts of Chassidut in synagogues. Urges them also to receive Rabbinic ordination, besides gaining familiarity with a wide spectrum of Talmudic and Halachic subjects. Completes establishment of ATA (Iggud Talmidei HaYeshivot). Proclaims that education of children in Torah schools is the only way to cancel negative Divine decrees. Begins to explain one Mishna of Pirkei Avot every Shabbat between Pesach and Shavuot. Establishes Tze'irei Agudat Chabad (Lubavitch Youth Organization) in the Holy Land as well as the Agudat N'shei Ubnot Chabad (Lubavitch Women's and GirIs' Organization) there; establishes the network of Oholei Yosef Yitzchak-Lubavitch schools in the Holy Land and Australia, and the Keren Oholei Yosef Yitzchak fund to support all schools called by this name.

5713 (1952-3): Emphasizes necessity for study of Halachot required for day-to-day Jewish practíce; renews the custom of arranging a Chalukat Hashas (apportioning the tractates of the Talmud for study by many participants) on 19 Kislev; establishes Lubavitch Women's Organizations in the United States and other lands.

5714 (1953-4): Urges for a campaign to give the privilege of saying the blessing for the Lulav and Etrog, etc., to Jewish men and women on Sukot (effectively the first of his Mitzvah Campaigns). Publishes his Indices To Tanya; establishes agricultural school in Kfar Chabad in the Holy Land; establishes the Keren Hashana Fund (charity given in multiples of the days of the particular year); urges for a campaign to give as many Jews as possíble the privilege of eating Sh'mura Matza for Pesach; teaches the song Tzama Lecha Nafshi.

5715 (1954-5): Issues a call against study of secular subjects in Yeshivos until a certain age; publicizes the prohibition of traveling on Israeli ships on Shabbat; establishes Lubavitch Youth Organization in the United States and Canada; establishes Keren Torah fund; establishes Vocational Schools in Kfar Chabad.

5716 (1955-6): Establishes Yeshivat Oholei Torah; establishes summer camp for boys, instructing that it be named Gan Israel, and visits there on Monday, 16 Tammuz, before it opens, holding a Farbrengen. In connection with the tragedy in the Holy Land, sends a group of students to provide encouragement to all residents of the Holy Land, and establishes Yad Hachamisha institute in Kfar Chabad. Establishes Beth Rivkah Schools in Australia and in Montreal, Canada. Teaches the song Darkecha Elokeinu.

5717 (1956-7): Visits Camp Gan Israel on Sunday, 15 Tammuz, holding a Farbrengen there. Establishes Lubavitcher Yeshiva in Toronto, Canada. Teaches the song Ki Anu Amecha.

5718 (1957-8): Calls for dissemination of Chassidic teachings etc. in a manner of Ufaratza (unlimited expansion to all points of the compass). Teaches the song Tzama Lecha Nafshi... Ech Ti Duren Marku... (with Russian words).

5719 (1958-9): Teaches the song Shamil.

5720 (1959-60): Starts explaining (at farbrengens) the Baal Shem Tov's work Tzavaot Harivash; Tanya lessons start on the radio, after being edited by the Rebbe; phonograph records of Chabad melodies begin to appear, issued by Nichoach Society. To mark the 200th anníversary of the Baal Shem Tov's passing, announces an appeal for charity in multiples of 200 towards disseminating Chassidic teachings. In this connection, he visits Camp Gan Israel — named for the Baal Shem Tov — on Sunday, 15 Tammuz, holding a farbrengen there. Establishes Shikun Chabad housing project in Jerusalem. Teaches the song Rachamana D'anei.

5721 (1960- 1): Teaches the song Ata Vchartanu.

5722 (1961-2): Calls for establishment of congregations to follow the Alter Rebbe's prayerbook text in their prayers. Urges utilizing vacation time for extra Torah study. Establishes a Kolel advanced Torah school for young married men. Announces that on 24 Tevet, 5723, would be the 150th anniversary of the Alter Rebbe's passing, and establishes Keren Schneur (to finance publication of the Alter Rebbe's works, and support institutions that follow and study his teachings); calls for apportioning study of the Alter Rebbe's works Tanya and the Shulchan Aruch among many participants in order to conclude study of the entire works by the anniversary; urges that men, women, and children increase their contributions to charity. Teaches the song An'im Zmirot.

5723 (1962-3): In connection with the 150th anniversary of the Alter Rebbe's passing, announces an appeal for charity in multiples of 150, and for 150 extra hours of Torah study. Sefer Chassidim (listing all members of Chabad chassidic families) is completed. Initiates campaign to liberate Jews and also manuscript works of the Chabad Rebbes still confined behind the Iron Curtain. Teaches the song Stav Ya Pitu.

5724 (19634): Establishes Keren Levi Yitzchak fund, named for his father (providing loans for Torah teachers and schools). Teaches the songs Ki Anu Amecha (with a different melody from the first) and Hu Elokeinu.

5725 (1964-5): Calls for holding chassidic farbrengens every day of Ten Days of Teshuva (first ten days of Jewish year).

In memory of his mother, Rebbetzin Chana, who passes away on 6 Tishrei, begins his practice of explaining at every Shabbat farbrengen a comment of Rashi on the Chumash, according to both the plain meaning and also esoteric teachings implicit within the commentary.

To mark publication of the first new edition of the Alter Rebbe's Likkutei Torah in many years, proposes study of the weekly portion each week, completing the entire work that year. Holds farbrengen every Shabbat of the year.

5726 (1965-6): Establishes Keren Chana fund in memory of his mother (to assist young women to continue their Torah studies). In connection with the 100th anniversary of the Tzemach Tzedek's passing later in the year, announces an appeal for charity in multiples of 100. Commences publication of the Tzemach Tzedek's chassidic discourses (42 volumes have since been published, most under the name Or Hatorah).

5727 (1966-7): Announces that this is a Hakhel year, in connection with which he urges the ingathering of all works of the Chabad Rebbes still in manuscript. Establishes a senior Yeshiva in Melbourne, Australia; launches the Tefllin Campaign; restores the Tzemach Tzedek synagogue in the Old City of Jerusalem; starts to advocate against giving back the territories returned to Israel during the Six Day War because they are vital for the security of human life. In connection with the 40th anniversary of the previous Rebbe's liberation from Soviet imprisonment on 12-13 Tammuz, announces an appeal for charity in multiples of 40.

5728 (1967-8): Emphasizes American Jews' obligation to utilize their nation's influence upon the entire world in the area of education.

5729 (1968-9): Begins his practice of explaining the Alter Rebbe's Iggeret Hateshuva (Tanya, part Ill) at farbrengens, continuing into 5730; proposes that every Jewish gathering include some Torah content and giving charity, and that wellwishers to every wedding connect their good wishes to charitable contributions and Torah study. Calls for strengthening Jewish neighborhoods; establishes Nachlat Har Chabad suburb (at Kiryat Malachi) in the Holy Land.

5730 (1969-70): Announces that "Moshiach's Reception Sefer Torah," commenced many years before by the prevíous Rebbe would be completed before 10 Sh'vat, 20th anniversary of the previous Rebbe's passing, and calls for public participation in inscribing its final letters; starts to campaign, now also publicly, against Israel's Who Is A Jew legislation; starts publication of the works of his father, the holy Gaon, Chassid and Kabbalist Rabbi Levi Yitzchak, begins his practice of explaining his father's commentaries in Likutei Levi Yitzchak on Tanya at every Shabbat farbrengen, continuing into 5731.

5731 (1970-1): Calls for "conquest" of the world through Torah study. Begins his practice of explaining his father's commentaries in Likutei Levi Yitzchak on the Zohar at every Shabbat farbrengen.

5732 (1971-2): Calls for assistance to Jewish emigrants from Soviet Georgia and Bukhara (Uzbekistan) etc.; states his opposition to drafting women and girls in armed forces; calls for encouraging Soviet emigrants to observe the Mitzvos of Purim; establishes Committee for the Foundíng of Seventy-One Institutions; holds farbrengens on first two days and last two days of Pesach; calls for educating children of Soviet emigrants, and special assistance for new Soviet emigrants from the new Keren Hashiv'im fund founded this year.

5733 (1972-3): Calls for establishing Torah libraries throughout the world, and that every Jewish home be a house full of Torah-books. Calls for renewing the custom of Chanuka gelt. Calls for giving Jews everywhere the opportunity to fulfill the Mitzvot of Purim. In the summer he issues a call for strengthening Torah education, citing the verse in (Psalms 8:2): From the mouths of babies and infants You have established strength... to destroy the foe and avenger; announces that he will contribute towards enrollment of Soviet emigrant children in Torah-observant summer camps; calls for establishment of many new free-loan funds; before Tisha B'Av, proposes holding a Jewish children's rally at the Western Wall in Jerusalem. Establishes Kiryat Chabad in the holy city of Tzfat in the Holy Land. Issues instruction to arrange special Torah-study sessions, separately for men and for women for the many guests arriving for the month of Tishrei; urges extra charitable contributions on 29 Elul, eve of the New Year.

5734 (1973-4): Calls for special increase in Torah study and charity on the day before Sukot (repeating this call on later occasions). During Hakafot on Simchat Torah, teaches "Haaderet V'ha'emuna" (to the tune of the French anthem). Calls for holding rallies for children during Chanuka, telling them about the miracles of Chanuka and giving them Chanuka Gelt. Urges that every Jewish soldier have a Siddur (prayerbook), Tehillim and charity box, and be given Chanuka Gelt, from which he should donate something for charity. Calls for every home to have a Tanya, Torah Or and Likkutei Torah (the Alter Rebbe's three main chassidic works), and to establish a library of Torah books. Establishes senior Yeshiva in Greater Miami, Florida. Announces he will contribute financially to help Jews put up Mezuzot in their homes; calls for family unity through eating Shabbat meals together; announces establishment of new institutions; in addition to the mivtza (campaign) of tefilin launches new mivtza campaigns for observing the Mitzvot of Torah study, Mezuza, Tzedaka (charity), "a home full of Torah hooks - Yavneh and its Sages," lighting candles before Shabbat and Festivals by women and girls aged over three; launches dissemination of Judaism through "Mitzva tanks."

5735 (1974-5): Calls for increase in Torah study, prayer and charity during the Three Weeks (of mourning for destruction of the Beit Hamikdash). Launches Mitzva campaigns for Kashrut of food and Taharat Hamishpacha (Mikveh observance etc.). Calls for Siyumim — completing study of Talmud tractates — during the Nine Days between Rosh Chodesh Menachem Av and Tisha B'Av, accompanied on weekdays by giving of charity (repeating this call in future years).

5736 (1975-6): Repeats call for those capable of doing so to receive Rabbinic ordination. Calls for all males aged thirteen and older to don tefillin in accordance with Rabbeinu Tam's specifications (in addition to those in accordance with Rashi's). Establishes senior Yeshiva in Seattle, Washington. Sends emissaries to the holy cities of Jerusalem. and Tzfat. Calls for Mitzva campaign activities among Jewish prisoners in correctional institutions. Launches the Mitzva campaign of chinuch (Jewish education) and proclaims this year the "Year of Education," establishing a senior Yeshiva in New Haven, Connecticut; requests that every Jewish child memorize the "Twelve Passages from the Torah and Teachings of our Sages," and calls for "pen-pal" correspondence between Jewish children living in Eretz Yisrael and elsewhere. CalIs for study of laws about the Beit Hamikdash during the Three Weeks of mourning for it; initiates publication of periodicals containing Talmudic and Halachic writings of the Chabad Rebbes and their disciples. Due to the unusual situation, proposes that everyone donate to charity the value of the three meals of the day before Rosh Chodesh Menachem Av, give extra charity before the morning and afternoon prayers of 5 Menachem Av (anniversary of the passing of the Ari-Zal, Rabbi Yitzchak Luria), and study works of the Ari-Zal during these days. Calls for visits to hospitals and army units in the United States and the Holy Land during the month of Elul; proclaims the Mitzva campaign of Ahavat Yisrael (love of our fellow-Jew); proposes that all synagogues institute or expand Torah-study programs and free-loan funds (if the latter already exist, to add new members).

5737 (1976-7): Proposes that Torah institutions, etc., include among their activities congregational prayer and giving of charity (i.e. in a group of at least ten), while charitable institutions and free-loan funds should assist and give loans for helping Torah study and prayer (in synagogues etc.). Proposes holding "Second Hakafot" (on the night following Simchat Torah) in the Holy Cities of Hebron and Jerusalem (in the Tzemach Tzedek Synagogue) in conjunction with Torah study, prayer and donation to charity; calls for renewing institution of Mashpi'im and Mashpiot (spiritual guides in Chassidic communities). Publishes renowned series of ma'amarim of the Rebbe, Rabbi Shalom Dovber, delivered in the years 5672-6 (1912-15), inviting public participation until no later than a few days before 10 Sh'vat, anniversary of the previous Rebbe's passing). Orders that a compendium be compiled of the explanations of many subjects of Chassidut and general Torah subjects in all Chassidic works of the Tzemach Tzedek published to date, to be published under the name Sefer Halikutim - Da"ch Tzemach Tzedek. Sends additional emissaries to the holy city of Tzfat; establishes senior Yeshiva in Caracas, Venezuela. Proposes holding children's rallies during the days of "tashlumin" after Shavuot (the make-up days of the festival when the holiday offerings may still be offered); calls for a Siddur and charity box to be owned by every Jewish child.

5738 (1977-8): Renews practice of assisting the needy for the extra expenses of Rosh Hashana, of the meals eaten before and after the Yom Kippur fast, of Sukot, Sh'mini Atzeret and Simchat Torah - in the spirit of the verse (Nechemia 8:10): "Eat rich foods and imbibe sweet drinks, and send gifts to those for whom nothing is prepared." Calls for extra joyousness during Sukot. Calls for every community to establish an institution connected with Torah study and prayer (and to establish others where such already exist). Intensifies struggle against returning territories liberated in the Six-Day War, and against the Camp David accords. Renews custom of moral exhortation on fast-days following afternoon prayers. In connection with 24 Tevet (anniversary of the Alter Rebbe's passing), calls for special study on this day of Mishna chapters starting with letters of the Alter Rebbe's name and of his Torah works. Condemns study of Arabic in schools in the Holy Land. Establishes senior Yeshiva — "Ohr Elchanan-Chabad" — in Los Angeles, California. Sends additional emissaries to the holy cities of Jerusalem and Tzfat. Establishes special institute for preparing Chassidic manuscripts of the Chabad Rebbes for publication. Calls for free-loan funds to be established in every school. Calls attention to Halachic rule that Jews should have elective medical procedures performed at least three days prior to Shabbat. Calls for raising salaries of Yeshiva teachers. Orders renewal of "Tzemach Tzedek Synagogue" in the holy city Tzfat. Calls for the Tanya to be published in all countries of the world.

5739 (1978-9): Proposes estabishing women's groups to promote observance of Taharat Hamishpacha. Arranges for rescue of youth from Persia and their resettlement in the free world. Calls not to waste money on inessential travel to celebrations of relatives etc. Establishes Kolel for married men in Melbourne, Australia. Calls for increased Torah study and charity as a preparation for the "Giving of the Torah" on Shavuot, and for giving Jewish children a Siddur (prayerbook) and money to be given for charity. Calls on psychiatrists to extend their knowledge in the use of meditation (only in a manner permitted by the Torah) in order to help thousands of Jews who need this therapy (but now become involved in other approaches to meditation that may border on heathenism, yet, if they would know of meditation approved by the Torah, would seek it from doctors who practice it).

5740 (1979-80): Announces campaign to "return the hearts of parents through children." Establishes senior Yeshiva in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Requests that Lag B'omer parades be organized throughout the world; urges that Jewish children including infants be in present in synagogue on Shavuot to hear reading of the Ten Commandments. Emphasizes importance of Mitzva of having children and strongly urges against using birth control. Calls for establishing Kolelim for seniors, both men and women, as well as for younger people, those for men to be called "Kolel Tiferet Z'keinim-Levi Yitzchak," and for women "Kolel Tiferet Chochmat Nashim." Proposes holding occasional rallies of Jewish children below Bar- and Bat-Mitzva age.

5741 (1980-1): Emphasizes that this is a year of Hakhel: "Gather the men, women and children& to practice all the words of this Torah" (Devarim 31:12). Calls on all Jewish children below Bar- and Bat-Mitzva age to organize as "Tzivot Hashem" (Army of G‑d), with the motto "We Want Moshiach Now!" Emphasizes importance of Simchat Beit Hasho'eva celebrations during Sukot. Urges publication of indices for chassidic works of the Alter Rebbe and his successors. Establishes senior Yeshiva in Casablanca, Morocco, and Kolel for married men in Montreal, Canada. Arranges Seder Birkat Hachama Al Pi Minhag Chabad (Order of Blessing of the Sun - According to Chabad custom). Issues call that every Jewish child below Bar- and Bat-Mitzva age be united by participating in writing a special Sefer Torah scroll in the holy City of Jerusalem, urging particular effort to get children behind the Iron Curtain to participate and also to enroll them in Tzivot Hashem in any manner possible there; when the first scroll is completed near the Western Wall, a second should immediately be started. Condemns proposed witholding of assistance to emigrants from Iron Curtain countries unless they immigrate to Israel.

5742 (1981-2): Urges that all Jews, men and women, be united in a "true and everlasting unity" by buying a letter in the all-inclusive Torah scrolls to be written for them, according to one's custom (the Hebrew letters following Ashkenazi, Sefardi or Yemenite ritual, or that of the Ari-Zal. etc.); instructs the directors of Yeshivat Tomchei Tmimim to immediately start writing a Sefer Torah for their students and supporters with their families, and the directors of Beth Rivkah schools for their students and supporters with their families, emphasizing that this is the last of the 613 Mitzvot of the Torah and some authorities associate it with the conclusion of the Exile. Calls for utterly extraordinary efforts for disseminating Chassidut and the Chanuka campaign. Notes that certain sacred books consider the year 5742 an appopriate time for the "End" (of exile), and that Jews commenly consider the Hebrew letters indicating this year — Tav-Shin-Mem-Bet — to be an acronym for "T'hei Shnat Biat Moshiach" (may this be the year of Moshiach's coming). Proposes writing a special all-inclusive Sefer Torah to unite all soldiers in Israel's Defense Forces — the soldiers protecting the Holy Land. Orders publication of a special edition of Tanya to include copies of title-pages of all editions to date, and at the conclusion of the farbrengen of 11 Nissan — "eighty years," distributes it, together with a dollar for charity to all in attendance. Calls attention to the urgency of bringing "Operation Peace in the Galilee" (the Lebanon war) to a swift conclusion, thereby avoiding further victims on both sides.

5743 (1982-3): At beginning of year proclaims it as the hundredth anniversary year of the passing of the Rebbe Maharash who epitomized the concept of "L'chatchila Ariber" ("from the very first transcend all obstacles and limitations," i.e., adopting the supernatural path from the outset), therefore all matters of the year should be permeated with that spirit; declares also that the Hebrew letters indicating this year are an acronym for "T'hei Shnat Geulat — or Giluy — Moshiach" (may this be the year of Redemption by — or revelation of — Moshiach). Calls for separate gatherings of men of women, and of children at the beginning of Marcheshvan.

Urges that all peoples of the world — the "Children of Noach," be influenced to practice the "Seven Noachide Laws" that apply to them. Urges enacting a "Moment of Silence" at the start of the day in schools throughout the world, so that youth be aware of the "(Divine) Eye that sees and Ear that hears." In accordance with this, suggests signing a petition to leaders of the American people (and of all other nations) about the great urgency of such legislation, and also a petition about the urgency of government assistance to parochial schools.

5744 (1983-4): Declares at start of year that the Hebrew letters indicating the year are an acronym for "T'hei Shnat Divrei Moshiach" (may this be the year for the words of Moshiach). Urges everyone to utilize the time before Hakafot on the evening of Simchat Torah to bless each other with the Priestly blessing; later (at the farbrengen of Shabbos Parshas Noach) gives every Kohen a bottle of Mashkeh. CalIs for efforts to ensure that Jewish children be educated with toys depicting only Kosher animals (to the exclusion of non-Kosher ones), and also to ensure that children's picture-books depict only kosher animals. In light of the shaky world situation, calls for additional prayer, suggesting that all Jews (regardless of their customary prayer-text) say before morning prayers "Hareini Mekabeil..." ("I hereby accept upon myself the commandment to 'Love your fellow as yourself") and, after each of the three daily prayers, the verse (Tehilim 140:14): "Ach Tzadikim..." ("However, the righteous shall acknowledge Your Name, the upright shall sit before You.") Establishes a senior Yeshiva in Johannesburg, South Africa. Instructs that the Tanya be published in every Jewish populated city and town where it has not yet been published. Declares that every Jew is capable and obligated to demand that G‑d immediately bring the true, total Redemption through our righteous Moshiach Orders new edition of Likkutei Torah with many extra explanatory notes and references to the works of all Chabad Rebbes. After publication, calls for a farbrengen to mark the event. Orders publication of a special edition of Tanya to include copies of title-pages of all editions to date and at the conclusion of the farbrengen of 11 Nissan, distributes it in addition to a dollar for charity (by means of the Kolel students).

Proposes that everyone study daily Maimonides' Mishneh Torah (Yad Hachazaka) code, thereby unifying all Jewry in a study encompassing the entire Torah; the study-cycle should be one of the following: a) three chapters daily, concluding the entire Code within the coming year (preferably celebrating its completion close to Maimonides' birthday (14 Nissan), b) those who for some reason cannot manage three chapters should study one chapter daily, concluding the code within three years, c) those unable to study Mishneh Torah (for whatever reason, including their youth — in years or knowledge etc.) should study Maimonides' Sefer Hamitzvot, the Mitzvot studied daily to parallel the subject-matter in the one-year-cycle. of Mishneh Torah. Calls for compilation and publication in a single volume of the sources for Mishneh Torah's rulings. Instructs giving special discount on all Chabad publications (repeating this on several future occasions).

5745 (1984-5): Calls on women and girls, both Jewish and non-Jewish, to vigorously urge speedy introduction of a "Moment of Silence." Proclaims at start of year that the Hebrew letters indicating the year are a prayerful acronyrn for "Hashana T'hei Sh'nat Melech Hamoshiach" (may this year be the year of the King Moshiach). Instructs that public Siyum (completion) celebrations be held wherever Maimonides' code has been completed (following the three-chapter daily cycle), and to immediately start the second cycle. Names his synagogue Beit Agudat Chassidei Chabad Ohel Yosef Yitzchak - Lubavitch, and orders that the building of the Kolel affiliated with his secretariat be called by the same name. Calls for a special institution to be built in the Holy Land to be named Beit Ohel Yosef Yitzchak - Lubavitch. Calls for Jewish children to be enrolled in Torah-observant summer camps and then in Torah observant Jewish schools (repeating this annually). Proposes that whenever Tehilim are recited, donations should also be made to charity.

5746 (1985-6): Urges publicizing quotations from Torah-texts that specify the obligation to hope for and demand the coming of our righteous Mashiach, by everyone sending letters excerpting these texts to ten Jewish friends and asking each recipient to send copies of the letter to ten others etc. Urges intensified efforts in three general areas of Torah-activity: a) Jewish seniors, b) Jewish children, c) Jews of other ages between children and seniors. Calls for establishing Chabad Houses everywhere and expansion of existing ones. Calls for intensified efforts in disseminating Chassidut by publishing the Tanya wherever it has not yet been published and also any hitherto unpublished chassidic manuscripts. Calls for publication of all reports about accomplishments in the three aforementioned areas. Urges that the public Siyum celebrations marking completion of the second annual cycle of study of Maimonides Mishneh Torah be doubled in scope in relation to last year's, and suggests publication of the Torah-speeches delivered.

On 11 Nissan starts distributing dollar-bilIs to every individual, continuing this regularly every Sunday. Urges all Tzivot Hashem branches to utilize the days of preparation before Shavuot, when the Torah is given, for intensifying all matters of Torah and Mitzvot, especially Ahavat Yisrael and Jewish unity. Calls on all Jews to hold separate gatherings of friendship for men, for women, and for children, in order to unite all Jews in Ahavat Yisrael and Jewish unity. Calls for an extra increase in Torah study ("Zion shall be redeemed by Law...") during the Three Weeks and especially in the week of Tisha BAv, particularly study of practical Torah laws (Halacha) and especially those relating to the Beit Hamikdash, and also for an extraordinary increase in charity (" ... and her returnees through Charity"). Proposes that Yeshiva students be tested periodically to examine their standard of Torah learning and erudition and that everyone else — men, women and children — fulfill the directive of the Mishna (Avot 1:6,16): "Appoint for yourself a Rav" (Rabbi, teacher or spiritual guide), occasionally meeting with the "Rav" for "examination" of their level of Torah study, service of G‑d etc. In connection with the coming year being a Sh'mita (Sabbatical) year, calls attention to the obligation to publicize everywhere our Sages' institution of making a "Pruzbol" (enabling one to collect debts during Sh'mita) before the start of the new year, suggesting that the best time is immediately after Hatarat N'darim (Nullification of Vows). Calls for participating in farbrengens during the auspicious days of Elul 15-18, with special emphasis on strengthening the belief in the imminent coming of Moshiach; in places where such farbrengens cannot be arranged before 18 Elul, they should be held as soon as possible afterward and in a "redoubled manner."

5747 (1986-7): Proclaims at start of year that the Hebrew letters indicating it are an acronym for "T'hei Zo Sh'nat Mashiach" (this should be the year of Moshiach).

Urges establishment everywhere of "Chabad Houses" - houses of Torah study, prayer and good deeds. Explains that this may be accomplished (and in a simple manner) by first establishing a "Chabad House" and expanding these three areas of activity in one's own home, (thereby transforming the home of every man, woman and child into a Chabad House), with a further "emphatic proposal and request" to all Jewish children to make their room their bed, table etc. into a "House" of Torah study, prayer and good deeds by studying Torah daily there, reciting prayers to G‑d, and putting charity into a charity-box (pushkeh) except on Shabbat and YomTov. Also proposes that every child should have his or her own prayerbook (Siddur), Chumash or other Torah-book, and charity-box, and to inscribe on the flyleaf of these books and also, if possible, on the charity-box the Hebrew words LaHashem Ha'aretz Umlo'ah (or their acronym: the letters Lamed, Hei, Vav) - "To G‑d belongs the world and all it contains" (Tehilim 24:1) and the child's name, as is the Jewish custom.

Calls for extending Jewish education to those young in age and "young" in Jewish knowledge, by establishing and expanding educational institutions in a manner of "L'chatchila Ariber." Calls for efforts to publicize everywhere the custom of displaying "Shir Hama'alot" (Psalm 121) as soon as an expectant mother arrives at hospital, then during labor, delivery and later in her room and in the baby's room or bed. On 5 Tevet court ruling establishes that the Chabad-Lubavitch books and manuscripts belong in the Lubavitch Library and cannot be considered private property (as some had stated).

Announces plans for establishment of new Chabad absorption project in Jerusalem for Soviet immigrants. Announces that the coming year 5748 is a Hakhel year, the purpose of which is that "they may hear... learn... and practice all the words of this Torah... for all the days" (Devarim 31:12). The Hebrew letters for 5748 can also be read as TiSMaCh ("you shall rejoice"), therefore one should increase in joyous service of G‑d. Reminds about reading text of the Prozbul again at the conclusion of the year (as some authorities hold).

5748 (1987-8): Proclaims at start of year that the Hebrew letters indicating it are an acronym for "T'hei Shnat Cheirut [al y'dei] Mashiach" (this should be the year of redemption through Moshiach). Calls upon every man, woman and child to participate in Hakhel activities during the course of this year by gathering Jews (men and women) in their area and inspiring them to study Torah and become more aware of G‑d. Once a month, everyone should report to a central location details of these activities.

Urges that during general meetings of the United Nations, a religious Jew should speak, in the name of the Torah of G‑d, the words of the Creator which are in His Torah. On each night of Sukot calls for rejoicing at Simchat Beit Hasho'eiva every night and, especially this year, emphasizing the Mitzva of Hakhel. Calls also for emphasizing the Mitzva of Hakhel and joy (TiSMaCh - "rejoice") throughout the year. Since 20 Marcheshvan this year is 127th anniversary of the Rebbe Rashab's birth, calls for holding farbrengens and studying his Torah works some time during the 24 hours of the day; on the evening following Cheshvan 20, distributes to everyone, including boys aged over twelve and girIs over eleven, the Rebbe RaShaB's Ma'amar "Hechaltzu, 5659." On 25 Marcheshvan (after an appeal), "Didan Notzach" our victory is confirmed in the case of our Rebbes' books and manuscripts in the Lubavitch library, apparent before of all the nations (in the Federal Court); on 27 Marcheshvan, it is announced that the removed hooks should be returned, and on 2 Kislev they are actually returned to the library; the Rebbe immediately orders that one of them, Derech Emuna, be republished, explaining a passage in it at the farbrengen, the following Shabbat. On Rosh Chodesh Kislev distributes his Ma'amar "V'shavti Beshalom El Beit Avi, 5738" to every one of his male and female emissaries present in New York, together with a dollar bill for charity.

Calls on all children to light Chanuka lights at the doorway of their room — their individual "Beit Hamikdash" and that everyone should observe the custom of giving Chanuka Gelt every day of Chanuka, on the fourth or fifth night giving double or triple the regular amount; as part of "publicizing the miracle," speaks publicly on every night of Chanuka about the Torah-reading of that day — specificly about the leader of the tribe who offered sacrifices (in the Torah) that day. Calls upon every place where a communal house of Torah study, prayer and charity, etc., has been established to try to have, besides basic Jewish texts, also many other books on all Torah subjects — a "house full of Torah books." Issues a call inviting Rabbinical authors and publishers to kindly send in a copy of their books as a donation to the great library of Agudat Chasidei Chabad, and also collectors who have special books etc. not required for their own study, to donate them to the library, even books of Jewish interest but not necessarily in accordance with the Torah.

Proposes that whenever Jews gather anywhere, they try do bring about good results for yet another Jew, starting with the Mitzva of charity by making each other representatives to give money for charity. Calls for utilizing 15 Shvat for gatherings of men, of women, and of children in order to further enhance all matters of Torah and its Mitzvot, including in particular extra and improved adherence to the teachings of the previous Rebbe, the anniversary of whose passing is on 10 Shvat.

On 22 Shvat, Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka passes away; establishes "Keren ChaMeSh" fund named for the Rebbetzin, and urges speedy establishment of institutions to be named for her. Calls for chassidic farbrengens to be held wherever possible on 7 Adar. Urges Jewish women and girIs to unite in a true unity in order to strengthen Torah and Mitzvot. Calls for holding a large well-attended farbrengen on Purim. After the 30-day mourning period for the Rebbetzin, begins to hold farbrengens every Shabbat, later editing the talks of each farbrengen every week.

Issues call to publicize that on one's birthday one should increase his or her Torah study, prayer and charity, and, in addition, that each and every person (including men, women, children and, even infants) should on their birthday hold a festive gathering together with family members or friends.

In connection with 13 Nissan, anniversary of the Tzemach Tzedek's passing, calls for everyone to set a special time for study of his Torah works and to give extra charity. CalIs for utilizing 14 Nissan, anniversary of Maimonides' birth, for a vigorous campaign everywhere to further increase all matters of Judaism, Torah and its Mitzvot, particularly concerning study of his Torah works, by holding Hakhel gatherings whenever possible. Speaks publicly every night of Pesach on subjects relevant to the occasion and in language understandable even to children. Urges those who speak on themes of Chassidut at various synagogues to include in their speeches some saying of the Alter Rebbe.

Begins at every Shabbat Farbrengen to explain Rashi's first comment on the weekly Torah-portion (and the first Mishna of the weekly chapter of Avot in the weeks between Pesach and Rosh Hashana), and all regular Torah studies, in the spirit of the Torah instruction 'The living shall put this to heart Urges everyone to a) study Torah with such diligence as if it is one's profession, and b) to "know G‑d in all your ways." Proposes studying the discourse in Torah Or (Yitro) "Bachodesh Hash'lishi" during the days of preparation for Shavuot, "Time of the Giving of Our Torah," and calls on women to hold a farbrengen in preparation for it. Issues call for everyone to work to the fullest extent to ensure that a Torah education be given to every Jewish child. Urges that suitable preparations be made during the days leading up to the anniversary of the previous Rebbe's liberation on 12-13 Tammuz.

5749 (1988-9): Proclaims this year as the "Year of Building" and the "Year of the Boy and Girl," and also that the Hebrew letters indicating it are an acronym. for "Hashana T'hei Shnat Maasim Tovim" (this year will be a year of good deeds) and "Hashana T'hei Sh'nat Mashiach Tova" (this year will be a good year for [the coming of] Mashiach). As a one-time-only basis, gives instructions to vote, in elections in the Holy Land, for Agudat Yisrael party. Proposes that on 20 Marcheshvan, anniversary of the birth of the Rebbe RaShaB, everyone should enter for a while into the Yeshiva of Tomchei Tmimirn — established by the Rebbe Rashab — and study his Torah works, pray and give charity there for his institutions. Calls for extra study, starting Rosh Chodesh Kislev and continuing every day through the month, of the Torah works of each of our Rebbes, and for their dissemination. Calls for holding farbrengens on the special chassidic occasions of the month of Kislev, starting 10 Kislev. On 19 Kislev, calls for daily study of Hayom Yom. Calls for holding Siyum celebrations for the completion of Mishneh Torah on the anniversary of Maimonides' passing (20 Tevet). Announces that this year is the 40th year since the previous Rebbe's passing, and that, on the day of his yarzeit the "heart to know, eyes to perceive and ears to hear" become revealed then "One attains the understanding of his Rebbe." In connection with the first anniversary of the Rebbetzin's passing on 22 Shvat, explains that "her children to be alive" that causes that "she, too, is alive" could include naming girls for her and educating them in her spirit. Proposes that study of the weekly Torah-portions "T'ruma" through "Tissa" be accompanied by study of our Sages' commentaries on them in the Oral Torah (Talmud and Midrash etc.). Calls for holding well-attended Siyum celebrations after concluding each book of Maimonides' Mishneh Torah code. On Pesach and Shavuot, speaks publicly on subjects relevant to the occasion before the "marches" of Chassidim to other Jewish neighborhoods to enhance the local residences holiday joy. Calls for gatherings for advanced Torah lectures on the day following each holiday (Pesach, Shavuot, Sukot). Gives instructions for Chassidic works to be published in square Hebrew characters (even works previously published in other characters, Le. "Rashi script"), and proposes that publishers of other Torah works do the same.

Proclaims that the Hebrew letters indicating the coming year 5750 are an acronym for "Hashana T'hei Shnat Nissim" (this year will be a year of miracles). In connection with the 200th anniversary of the Tzemach Tzedek's birth, issues instructions that a special edition of his Kitzurim V'ha'arot L'Tanya" be published and, on the eve of the birthday (the day before Rosh Hashana), distributes it to men, women and children, together with a dollar bill for charity.

5750 (1989-90): Holds farbrengen on Shabbat, first day of Rosh Hashana. Issues instructions to publish a special edition of the Tzemach Tzedek's Ma'amar "Ush'avtem Mayim," and distributing it, together with Lekach (honey cake), his public letter dated 6 Tishrei, and a dollar bill for charity. Calls for regular gatherings every Shabbat, to include study of the weekly Torah-portion, and also the Tzemach Tzedek's Torah-works ("Or HaTorah") on the Torah-portion.

Calls for introducing a custom, that at least every Friday, the director of every educational institution distribute "Shlichut Mitzva" money for charity to all its students and workers, thereby alerting students to the importance of giving charity. Announces that the revolutionary but peaceful upheavals in many countries of the world point to the fact that we are in the final moments of the exile.

Issues instructions to publish a special booklet for the International ShIuchim (Chabad Emissaries) Convention. Calls for utilizing public schools' mid-year vacation for extra Torah study and Mitzvot observance. On fifth day of Chanuka holds worldwide rally (via satellite) for children of five lands: the Holy Land, Russia, London, Paris and the United States.

On 19 Tevet is completed "our decisive triumph" (didan notzach) of the books and writings of our Rebbe'im in the Lubavitch library blatantly revealed in the eyes of all the nations (in Federal Court); starts expansion of the building housing the Agudat Chasidei Chabad Library.

In honor of the 40 years since 5710, calls for establishment of forty new institutions, announcing that he will participate from the Kupat Rabbeinu fund towards these institutions and also existing ones, in multiples of 40.

In connection with the 40th anniversary on 10 Sh'vat, issues directive that the number of Chabad institutions worldwide be brought to a round thousand.

Issues instructions to publish a special largerformat edition of Tanya in honor of the 40th anniversary and distributes it to men, women and children on 10 Sh'vat, together with a dollar bill for charity. In connection with 22 Sh'vat, anniversary of the Rebbetzin's passing, calls for establishing new educational institutions for girIs and for giving charity in multiples of 470 (the numerical equivalent of the letters of her Hebrew name).

In connection with the 50th anniversary of the transfer of the center of Chassidus to the Lower (Western) Hemisphere, calls for "more intense dissemination of Torah in general and of Chassidus in particular in every location throughout the world." Calls for holding three farbrengens in connection with Purim. Issues instructions to publish "Kuntres 11 Nissan," consisting of his Ma'amar "Ki YishIalcha Bin'cha, 5738," in a special edition with a colorful binding and distributes it to men, women, and children on the gIorious day of 11 Nissan, together with a dollar bill for charity. In order to increase the blessing, tranquility and security of all Jews everywhere, calls for men, women and children to study extra Torah, to pray more by reciting three extra Tehilim including the last (chapter 150), and to give extra charity by donating the value of two or preferably three meals to support Torah students or institutions of Torah study.

Calls for everyone to do everything dependent on him, through suitable preparations in every location where there are Jews, to see that Lag Ba'Omer be celebrated with great joy, organizing a well-attended gathering or children's parade. Calls attention to woman's obligation to study Torah and to educate their children; regarding women's own Torah study, to increase their Torah lessons, starting with easier subjects such as Ein Yaakov (the Aggadic part of the Torah). Proclaims that the Hebrew letters indicating next year, 5751, are an acronyrn for "T'hei Shnat Arenu Nifla'ot" (this will be a year when "I shall show wonders").

Announces that by observing the Mitzva of charity and justice in the world, the earthquakes around the world will cease. Issues instructions to mint special silver medallions as a souvenir of the Lag Ba'omer Parades of 5750, and gives them to the Parade counselors and to the staff who man the "mitzva tanks" to distribute to men, women, and children.

Calls for everyone, in addition to regular Torah studies until now, to endeavor to establish a Torah lesson for others, preferably for at least ten individuals or, even better, many students, emphasizing that this call applies to everyone, including women and children, each according to his or her capabilities; calls for every individual to become a "Torah teacher" at such lesson groups, whether for ten students or just two or three.

Proposes that Jews everywhere assemble every Rosh Chodesh to hold a farbrengen, which should preferably be connected with donations to charity.

To mark the 110th anniversary of the previous Rebbe's birth (12 Tamuz, 5640-5750) and 63rd anniversary of his liberation (13 Tamuz, 5687-5750), calls for giving additional charity in multiples of 110 and 3. Calls for publicizing our Sages' instruction that, from 15 Av onwards, "whoever adds time for Torah study at night, besides by day, adds life to his life." CalIs for extra Torah study during the month of Elul, especially by adding extra lesson groups, and by giving extra charity, and also to add extra Torah study time for students of Jewish schools. Tuesday (when "it was good" was repeated), third day of Selichot (24 Elul), comes good tidings of the completion of our triumph (didan notzach) concerning the hooks and writings of our Rebbe'im and manuscripts in the Lubavitch library. That same day the last books arrived and are returned to the previous Rebbe's holy room; in this connection, the Rebbe gives instructions to have the previous Rebbe's room open for prayers on Rosh Hashana.

5751 (1990-1): On evening following 20 Marcheshvan (anniversary of Rebbe Rashab's birth) distributes to everyone individually "Kuntres Etz HaChayim," together with a dollar bill for charity. On eve of 25 Marcheshvan distributes to everyone individually the Rebbe Rashab's Ma'amar 'Anochi Magen Lach, 5678, " together with a dollar bill for charity. Calls for accustoming Jewish men and women to recite daily the hundred Brachot (blessings on food, in prayer etc. specified by our Sages). In connection with the International Shluchim Convention, suggests that a "Book of ShIuchim" be published to include details and pietures of them and their families. On 19 Kislev distributes to everyone individually a new large-format edition of Tanya together with a dollar bill for charity. On the third night of Chanuka distributes to everyone individually a dollar coin as "Chanuka Gelt" (in a special pouch imprinted with Hebrew words "Chanuka 5751"). Calls for continuing the concept of "Chanuka Gelt" by giving additional donations to charitable institutions or assistance to needy individuals, and that charity be given every day of the year including Shabbat (when, instead of money, we can give food and drink or speak good (i.e. encouraging) words). In connection with 20 Tevet, anniversary of Maimonides' passing, calls for holding chassidic farbrengens everywhere. On 10 Shvat distributes to everyone the Rebbe Rashab's Ma'amar "Baruch She'asa Nissim, 5664" together with a dollar bill for charity. Calls for organizing communal Sedarim for the first two nights of Pesach.

On eve of 28 Nissan announces that every Jewish man, woman and child has the responsibility to increase service of G‑d in order to actually accomplish the bringing of our righteous Mashiach; in order to bring about the immediate revelation and arrival of the Mashiach, everyone should increase Torah study on subjects of Mashiach and the Redemption, preferably in groups of ten or more, and obviously also increase careful observance of Mitzvot, in particular taking special care in the Mitzva of charity "which brings the Redemption closer," all this to be accompanied by great expectation and yearning for the Redemption; all these endeavors are not only a "segula" (auspicious act) to speed Moshiach's arrival and bring it closer but also, and more essentially, in embodiment of beginning to "live with the times" in subjects of Moshiach and the Redemption.

On 15 Iyar (fast of "BaHaB"), after Maariv, distributes to everyone individually a special edition of "Dvar Mal'chut" containing four of his addresses explaining the Laws of Kings ("Laws of the King Mashiach") in Maimonides' code, on themes of the Redemption, together with a dollar for charity. On Lag Ba'omer distributes a special coin — in connection with 2 Iyar — engraved on one side with the Hebrew "Tiferet Shebi'Tiferet, 5751" and a picture of Beit Agudat Chassidei Chabad, 770, and on obverse the Hebrew for "Anniversary of birth of the Rebbe Maharash — 2 Iyar 5594-13 Tishrei 5643" and around it his renowned saying "...and I say Lechatchila Ariber," and also the Hebrew words for "The year of Tzaddik [the Rebbe's 90th year] - the year of Ar'enu Niflaot."

Calls for reinforcing custom of reading Pirkei Avot every Shabbat in the summer and for studying at least one Mishna in detail. Calls for everyone capable of producing original Torah insights to write and publish them "to make the Torah great and gIorious." On the gIorious day of 28 Sivan, 50th anniversary of his arrival with the Rebbetzin in the United States - the 'lower" (Western) hemisphere - distributes to everyone individually "Kovetz 28 Sivan - Yóvel Shanim," together with a dollar bill for charity. As we approach the Redemption, and in accordance with the Tzemach Tzedek's saying "Make this place [as] the Land of Israel," calls for everyone to make their environment (within its limitations of time and space) into the "Land of Israel." CalIs for publicizing within oneself and to everyone else that we should accept the instructions and counsel of "Your judges" and "Your Counselors" in our generation - "Who are the kings? Our Sages" in general, and especially the leader, judge, counselor and prophet of our generation. Announces that the Hebrew letters indicating the coming year are "Haya T'hei Sh'nat Nifla'ot Bina" (it will surely be a year of wondrous understanding), "Tihei Sh'nat Nifla'ot Ba (Bo, Bahem)" (it will be a year of wonders in it, him and them), "Tihei Sh'nat Nifla'ot Bakol (mikol kol)" (it will be a year of wonders in everything) and that "bakol mikol kol" has the same numerical value (192) as the word "kabetz" (gather in [the exiles]). CalIs for publicizing everywhere that besides every home being a house of Torah study, prayer and kind deeds, it should also be similar to the Yeshiva Tomchei T'mimim in that Chassidut is studied there.

5752 (1991-2): In light of new scientific discoveries - draws attention to the current obligation to clarify and interprot these discoveries in relation to the Halacha (Torah law). As part of our preparation for Mashiach's arrival, calls for extra diligence concerning Kiddush Levana - sanctification of the moon - "like whom they [the Jewish people] are likewise destined to be renewed," and that this will improve actual physical health, "and they will demand... David, their king." As preparation for the future physical conquest of the lands of the Keini, K'nizi and Kadmoni (Gen. 15:19), calls for study of their spiritual theme - serving G‑d through the three faculties of the intellect (Chachma, Bina, Da'at) - as explained in Chassidut. Announces that not only Mashiach's existence is here but even the revelation of Mashiach, and now we need only receive him in person. On 20 Marcheshvan distributes to everyone his discourse "Kuntres 20 Marcheshvan, 5752" together with a dollar bill for charity. On 27 Marcheshvan distributes to everyone "Kuntres Siyum V'hachnasat Sefer Torah" together with two dollars for charity and a piece of Lekach (honey cake) — in connection with completion of a Torah scroll in memory of the Rebbetzin. Announces that we are now in a situation where we need only open our eyes properly to perceive how everything is ready for the Redemption, and therefore our present service of G‑d is to accomplish Mashiach's actual revelation in the world. On 17 Kislev distributes to everyone "Kuntres Drushei Chatuna, 5689" (in connectionn with his wedding-anniversary, 14 Kislev), together with two dollars for charity. Calls for realizing and publicizing the miracles that G‑d does for us, in the realization that they are connected with the true, ultimate Redemption. On last day of Chanuka and following evening distributes to everyone a dollar coin together with a dollar bill for "Chanuka Gelt" (in a special pouch imprinted with the words "Chanukah 5752"). Calls for holding special Farbrengens, starting from the Shabbat when the month of Sh'vat is blessed, to inspire and encourage each other in everything, especially in speeding and bringing the true, ultimate Redemption.

In connection with the Rebbe Rayatz's difficult health situation regarding his speech impediment (in his last years), calls for verbal study of his teachings, and states that through such study the deficiency and hindrance suffered by the leader of our generation will be reversed — actually articulating the words. On 10 Sh'vat distributes to everyone "Kovetz Maamarim, 5682" together with a dollar bill for charity. Calls for prayer to be accompanied by song. Urges annulling any idea and discussion of transferring to other nations even the smallest part of territories in Eretz Yisrael. On 22 Sh'vat distributes to everyone "Kovetz 22 Sh'vat, 5752" together with a five-dollar bill (Chamesh [Hebrew for five, acronym of the Rebetzin's namel) for charity and a piece of Lekach (honey cake). Announces that in our time, the prophecy that "they shall beat their swords into plow-shares" is being fulfilled. Calls for everyone to increase in all joyous matters, both for oneself and for others, primarily by studying more Torah and improving observance of Mitzvot, but also extending into one's material concerns. On Purim Katan (14 Adar I) distributes his discourse "Kuntres Purim Katan, 5752" together with a dollar for charity and a piece of Lekach (honey cake). Calls for Jewish unity and giving charity in a manner of "Whatever a person has he should give for his life."

After Shabbat ends, eve of Sunday, parshat Chukat, 3 Tammuz, 5754 (1994), at 1:50 a.m., he passes away, and his honored place of rest is in New York.

The Rebbe's Father: The Holy Gaon, Chassid And Kabbalist, Rabbi Levi Yitzchak

Born 18 Nissan, 5638 (1878) in Podobranka, White Russia, he married Rebbetzin Chanah on 13 Sivan, 5660 (1900). He served as Rabbi of Yekatrinoslav, Ukraine, for 30 years, courageously devoting himself to upholding the Torah (both its TalmudicHalachic aspect and Chassidut) and Mitzvot - both his own and the wider Jewish community's - until his arrest in 5699 (1939) and exile to Kazakhstan for his activities in strengthening and disseminating Judaism. With actual self-sacrifice (mesirat nefesh) he gave up his life, his soul descending to heaven on 20 Menachem Av, 5704 (1944), and was interred in Alma Ata.

His father Rabbi Baruch Shneur was the son of Rabbi Levi Yitzchak, Rabbi of Podobranka and later of Beshenkovitz, son of the holy and saintly Rabbi Baruch Shalom, firstborn son of the Tzemach Tzedek.

His mother, Rebbetzin Zelda Rochel, was the daughter of Harav Hachassid Reb Zalman Chaikin - one of the devoted followers of the Rebbe Tzemach Tzedek and the Rebbe Maharash.

Rabbi Levi Yitzchak's Torah works:

Ha'arot LeSefer HaTanya. "Likutei Levi Yitzchak": - Ha'arot LeSefer HaZohar, Bereishit, vol. l. Shemot-Devorim, vol. 2. Likutim al Thnach U'Maamarei Chazal -Igrot Kodesh, vol. 3. Torat Levi Yazchak Chidushim Ubi'urim Leshas, Mishna U'gemara, vol. 4. Chidushim Ubi'urim. Al Mesechta Gitin Im Hosafot.

The Rebbe's mother:

Rebbetzin Chanah was born on 28 Tevet, 5640 (1880) in Romanovka, Kherson province. Her special talents and refinement of character were apparent from her early youth, and her perspicacity was outstanding. She was a tower of support for her husband's courageous communal work of preserving and disseminating Torah and Mitzvot. After his exile in 5699 (1939), she bravely traveled to join him and, by making ink out of local herbs which she herself gathered, enabled him to write his amazing Torah insights published years later. In 5707 (1947), she left the Soviet Union (bringing out some of her husband's manuscripts) and arrived in Paris, where her son, the Rebbe o. b. m., came to meet her and bring her to New York. During her seventeen years of life in New York, many would visit her to benefit from her counsel and guidance, and to be encouraged and blessed by her. She was very active in the three Mitzvot especially applicable to

women, indicated in the Hebrew acronym of her name Chanah - Chala (indicating Kashrut of food and drink in general), Nidda (Taharat Hamishpacha), and Hadlakat Haneir (lighting Shabbat candles). She passed away on Shabbat afternoon, 6 Tishrei, 5725 (1964) and was interred in New York.

Her father, the Gaon and Chassid Rabbi Meir Shlomo HaLevi Yanovsky, a senior student in Lubavitch at the time of the Rebbe Maharash, and later Rabbi of Nikolayev, was the son of the Gaon and Chassid Rabbi Yisrael Leib Yanovsky, and of Rebbetzin Beila Rivka, daughter of Rabbi Avraham David Lavut, Rabbi of Nikolayev, author of "Shaar Hakolel," "Kav Naki," "Beit Aharon with Additions" etc. Rebbetzin Chanah's mother was Rebbetzin Rachel, daughter of Rabbi Yitzchak Pusnitz, Rabbi of Dobriyanka.

The Rebbe's brothers:

a) The pious G‑d fearing chasid, intelligent and understanding, pleasant with good characteristics Dov Ber, may G‑d avenge his blood, was born in Nikolayev and lived in Yekatrinoslav. He was murdered during the Holocaust by the Nazi rulers of the town of Igren near Yekatrinoslav.

b) The pious G‑d fearing chasid, intelligent and understanding pleasant with good characteristics Yisrael Aryeh Leib was born in Nikolayev on 16 (?) Sivan, 5609. Stayed for a period of time in Leningrad, where the previous Rebbe showed him great fondness. The Chassidim, too, liked him and enjoyed barraging him with a variety of questions on Halacha, Chassidut etc. In 5690 (1930) he left the Soviet Union and settled in Berlin, later leaving for the Holy Land where he married. He spent his last years in Liverpool, England, passing away at an early age on 13 Iyar, 5712 (1952). By request of his brother the Rebbe, he was brought to the Holy Land and he was interred in the Holy city of Tzfàt.