1

[The following rules apply when] ordinary money and money from the second tithe become scattered [in the same place]. If he gathered from both sides, what he gathers belongs to the second tithe until he reaches the original amount and then the remainder is ordinary produce.1 If he mixed the coins together2 and grabbed a handful or gathered only from one side, he should calculate the percentage proportionately.3

What is implied? There were 200 coins of the second tithe and 100 ordinary coins. They became scattered. He mixed them and picked them all up, but found only 270, 180 are the second tithe and 90 are ordinary coins. This is the general principle. Those that are gathered are considered as the second tithe. Those that are mixed together are divided according to the percentage.

He should4 make a stipulation and say: "If those in my hand are from the second tithe, the remainder are ordinary money and if they are ordinary money, the holiness from the coins from the second tithe wherever they are is transferred to them."

א

מְעוֹת חֻלִּין וּמְעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁנִּתְפַּזְּרוּ וְלִקֵּט מִיכַּן וּמִיכַּן. מַה שֶּׁלִּקֵּט לִקֵּט לְמַעֲשֵׂר עַד שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים. וְהַשְּׁאָר חֻלִּין. וְאִם בָּלַל וְחָפַן אוֹ שֶׁלִּקֵּט מִצַּד אֶחָד וּמָצָא חָסֵר הֲרֵי זֶה לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן. כֵּיצַד. הָיוּ מָאתַיִם מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וּמֵאָה חֻלִּין. נִתְפַּזְּרוּ וּבְלָלָן וְחָפַן הַכּל נִמְצְאוּ מָאתַיִם וְשִׁבְעִים. הֲרֵי מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים מֵהֶן מַעֲשֵׂר וְתִשְׁעִים חֻלִּין. זֶה הַכְּלָל הַמִּתְלַקְּטִין לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהַנִּבְלָלִין לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן. מַתְנֶה וְאוֹמֵר אִם אֵלּוּ שֶׁבְּיָדִי הֵן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר הַשְּׁאָר חֻלִּין. וְאִם הֵן חֻלִּין הֲרֵי מְעוֹת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהֵן מְחֻלָּלִין עֲלֵיהֶם:

2

When a sela of the second tithe becomes mixed with a sela of ordinary money, one should bring coins - even brass coins5 - worth a sela and say: "Wherever the sela of the second tithe is, its holiness is transferred to these coins." Afterwards, he should chose the better6 of the two [selaim] and transfer the holiness of the brass coins to it. Thus the better sela has been become the money of the second tithe.

ב

סֶלַע שֶׁל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְשֶׁל חֻלִּיִן שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ מֵבִיא בַּסֶּלַע מָעוֹת וַאֲפִלּוּ מְעוֹת נְחשֶׁת וְאוֹמֵר סֶלַע שֶׁל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהִיא מְחֻלֶּלֶת עַל הַמָּעוֹת הָאֵלּוּ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ בּוֹרֵר אֶת הַיָּפֶה שֶׁבִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן וּמְחַלֵּל הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁל נְחשֶׁת עָלֶיהָ וְתַחֲזֹר הַסֶּלַע הַיָּפָה לְמַעֲשֵׂר:

3

When [a father] tells his son: "Produce from the second tithe is found in this corner," and is found in another corner, it is ordinary produce.7 If he told him: "A maneh there,"8 and 200 were discovered, the remainder is ordinary money.9 "There are 200," and only a maneh was discovered, it is ordinary money.10 If he left a maneh and discovered 200 or 200 and discovered a maneh, the entire amount is ordinary money.11 [This applies] even if the money is found in two wallets.12

ג

הָאוֹמֵר לִבְנוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בְּזָוִית זוֹ וְנִמְצָא בְּזָוִית אַחֶרֶת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חֻלִּין. אָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵי שָׁם מָנֶה וְנִמְצָא מָאתַיִם הַשְּׁאָר חֻלִּין. הֲרֵי שָׁם מָאתַיִם וְנִמְצָא מָנֶה הֲרֵי הוּא חֻלִּין. הִנִּיחַ מָנֶה מַעֲשֵׂר וְנִמְצָא מָאתַיִם. מָאתַיִם וְנִמְצָא מָנֶה. אֲפִלּוּ הֵן בִּשְׁנֵי כִּיסִין הַכּל חֻלִּין:

4

If his father told him: "I have a pouch [with produce] from the second tithe at home," and [the son] found three pouches, the greater one is [considered as containing produce from] the second tithe13 and the remainder are [considered as containing produce containing] ordinary produce. Nevertheless, he should not make use of [the produce from] the smaller pouches until he transfers their holiness to the greater one.14

ד

אָמַר לוֹ אָבִיו כִּיס מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי לִי בַּבַּיִת. הָלַךְ וּמָצָא שָׁם שְׁלֹשָׁה כִּיסִים. הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבְּכֻלָּן מַעֲשֵׂר וְהַשְּׁאָר חֻלִּין. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא יֹאכַל מִן הַקְּטַנִּים עַד שֶׁיְּחַלְּלֵם עַל הַגָּדוֹל:

5

[The following laws apply when] a person loses his power of speech. If he was asked: "Is your produce from the second tithe in this-and-this place?" and he nodded his head, he should be tested three times like he is tested with regard to a bill of divorce.15 [If it is proven that he understands what he is being told,] his message has consequences.

ה

מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתֵּק וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁלְּךָ בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי. וְהִרְכִּין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ. בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁבּוֹדְקִין לְגִטִּין וַהֲרֵי דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין:

6

If one was told in a dream: "The produce from the second tithe of your father that you are seeking is in this-and-this place," [the statements are of no consequence.16 This applies even] if he found the produce there like he was told. For words communicated in a dream are of no significance at all.17

ו

אָמְרוּ לוֹ בַּחֲלוֹם מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁל אָבִיךָ שֶׁאַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ הֲרֵי הוּא בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּצָא שָׁם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר לוֹ אֵינוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר. דִּבְרֵי חֲלוֹמוֹת לֹא מַעֲלִין וְלֹא מוֹרִידִין:

7

Although a person tells his sons: "Even if you are dying, do not touch [what is in] that corner,"18 if money is found there, it is considered as ordinary money.19 [Different laws apply if] he buried money in their presence and told them: "It belongs to so-and-so" or "It is from the second tithe." If it appears that he is speaking with guile,20 we do not pay attention to his words. If it appears that he is serious, his words are given weight.21

ז

הָאוֹמֵר לְבָנָיו אֲפִלּוּ אַתֶּם מֵתִים אַל תִּגְּעוּ בְּזָוִית זוֹ. וְנִמְצְאוּ שָׁם מָעוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חֻלִּין. טָמַן מָעוֹת מִפְּנֵיהֶם וְאָמַר לָהֶם שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי הֵן אוֹ שֶׁל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי הֵן. אִם כְּמַעֲרִים אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לִדְבָרָיו. וְאִם כְּמִתְכַּוֵּן דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין:

8

When a person finds a container22 with the letter mem written on it, its contents23 [are considered as] the second tithe.24 When there is a dalet written on it, its contents are considered demai; a tet, tevel; kuf, for a sacrifice. If the container was metal,25 the container and its contents were consecrated for a sacrifice. For in dangerous times,26 they would write one letter from the name [as a sign].

ח

הַמּוֹצֵא כְּלִי וְכָתוּב עָלָיו מ' הֲרֵי מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. ד' דְּמַאי. ט' טֶבֶל. ת' תְּרוּמָה. ק' קָרְבָּן. וְאִם הָיָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת הוּא וּמַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ קָרְבָּן. שֶׁכֵּן הָיוּ כּוֹתְבִין אוֹת אַחַת מִן הַשֵּׁם בִּשְׁעַת הַסַּכָּנָה:

9

When coins - even golden dinarim, together with silver, and [brass] coins27 - are found in Jerusalem, they are considered as ordinary money. [The rationale is that] the streets of Jerusalem are swept every day.28 If a shard upon which was written ma'aser,29 it is considered as the second tithe.30

When does the above apply? During the majority of the days of the year. On the pilgrimage festivals, by contrast, all [the money found] is considered as from the second tithe.31

ט

מָעוֹת הַנִּמְצָאוֹת בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם אֲפִלּוּ דִּינְרֵי זָהָב עִם הַכֶּסֶף וְעִם הַמָּעוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חֻלִּין. הוֹאִיל וְשׁוּקֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם מִתְכַּבְּדִין בְּכָל יוֹם. מָצָא בְּתוֹכָן חֶרֶס וְכָתוּב בּוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. אֲבָל בָּרֶגֶל הַכּל מַעֲשֵׂר:

10

Money which is found in front of a seller of livestock in Jerusalem is always32 considered as from the second tithe. We operate under the assumption that the majority of the clients are bringing money from the second tithe and using it to purchase animals.33 [Money] which is found on the Temple Mount is always considered as ordinary funds. We operate under the assumption that it came from the Temple treasury and the treasurers had already transferred its holiness to an animal.34

י

מָעוֹת הַנִּמְצָאוֹת לִפְנֵי סוֹחֲרֵי בְּהֵמָה בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם לְעוֹלָם מַעֲשֵׂר. שֶׁחֶזְקַת רֹב הָעָם מְבִיאִין מְעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר וְקוֹנִין בּוֹ בְּהֵמוֹת. וְהַנִּמְצָאוֹת בְּהַר הַבַּיִת לְעוֹלָם חֻלִּין. שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן מִתְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה שֶׁחִלְּלוּם הַגִּזְבָּרִין עַל בְּהֵמָה:

11

[The following rules apply when] money is found in a chest that had been used for both ordinary produce and the second tithe. If the majority of the people who placed money [in the chest placed money] from the second tithe, the money is considered as from the second tithe. If the majority placed ordinary money, the money is considered as ordinary money.35 If the ratio is half and half, the money is considered as ordinary money.36

יא

תֵּבָה שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ חֻלִּין וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. וְנִמְצָא בְּתוֹכָהּ מָעוֹת. אִם רֹב מַנִּיחִין מַעֲשֵׂר הֲרֵי הַמָּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר. וְאִם רֹב מַנִּיחִין חֻלִּין חֻלִּין. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה חֻלִּין:

12

When one find produce between produce of the second tithe and produce that is terumah, it should be included among the type to which it is closest.37 If it is equidistant [from both], it should be eaten according to the stringencies that apply to both. Thus it is forbidden to non-priests; one must wash his hands [before partaking of it],38 and must wait until sunset [on the day of one's purification before partaking of it]39 like terumah. [Similarly,] it is forbidden to one in an acute state of mourning40 and must be brought [to Jerusalem] as required of the second tithe.

Similar principles apply with regard to coins that are found between ordinary coins and coins from the second tithe.

יב

מָצָא פֵּרוֹת בֵּין פֵּרוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר לְפֵרוֹת תְּרוּמָה יִפְּלוּ לַקָּרוֹב. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יֵאָכְלוּ כְּחֻמְרֵי שְׁנֵיהֶן. אֲסוּרִין לְזָרִים וּטְעוּנִין רְחִיצַת יָדַיִם וְהַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ כִּתְרוּמָה. וַאֲסוּרִים לְאוֹנֵן וּטְעוּנִים הֲבָאַת מָקוֹם כְּמַעֲשֵׂר. וְכֵן הַמָּעוֹת הַנִּמְצָאוֹת בֵּין חֻלִּין לְמַעֲשֵׂר:

13

When produce that is from the second tithe of demai and produce that is definitely from the second tithe are mixed together, [the mixture] must be eaten according to the more stringent requirements.41

יג

מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁל דְּמַאי וְשֶׁל וַדַּאי שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ יֵאָכְלוּ כְּחָמוּר שֶׁבָּהֶן:

14

When produce from the second tithe becomes mixed with ordinary produce, [the mixture] should be eaten in a state of ritual purity in Jerusalem or the second tithe should be redeemed. Therefore if such a mixture takes place in Jerusalem,42 even the smallest amount of the same species43 becomes forbidden [to be eaten as ordinary produce]. Since the produce is in Jerusalem, it is considered as an entity that can be permitted44 and should be eaten in a state of ritual purity.

יד

פֵּרוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בְּפֵרוֹת חֻלִּין יֹאכַל הַכּל בְּטָהֳרָה בַּמָּקוֹם אוֹ יִפְדֶּה אֶת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִתְעָרְבוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם אֲסוּרִין בְּכָל שֶׁהֵן כְּמִנְיָן. הוֹאִיל וְהוּא בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם הֲרֵי הוּא כְּדָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין. וְיֵאָכֵל הַכּל בְּטָהֳרָה:

15

When a person sows produce from the second tithe after it had entered Jerusalem,45 the produce which grows is considered as produce from the second tithe.46 If he sows it before it enters Jerusalem,47 the produce which grows is considered as ordinary produce even if its seed does not decompose. [Preferably, however,] it should be redeemed at the time it was sown.48

טו

הַזּוֹרֵעַ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנַס לִירוּשָׁלַיִם הַגִּדּוּלִים מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. זְרָעוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס הַגִּדּוּלִין חֻלִּין. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין זַרְעוֹ כָּלֶה. וּפוֹדִין אוֹתוֹ בִּשְׁעַת זְרִיעָתוֹ:

16

When produce from the second tithe is mixed with other substances, it is considered as nullified when mixed with a simple majority.49

To which produce from the second tithe does this apply? To produce that entered Jerusalem and then departed from there and afterwards, the walls of the city fell. Thus it is impossible to return it to [the holy city] and it is impossible to redeem since it has already entered that place. [This applies] even though [its fifth] is not worth a p'rutah.50 It is a substance that has no way to be permitted and is therefore nullified by a simple majority, as stated in Hilchot Issurei Ma'achalot.51

טז

מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בָּטֵל בְּרֹב. בְּאֵיזֶה מַעֲשֵׂר אָמְרוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁנִּכְנַס לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְיָצָא וְנָפְלוּ מְחִצּוֹת. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שָׁם מְחִצּוֹת לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לְשָׁם וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנַס וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה וְנִמְצָא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַתִּירִין וּבָטֵל בְּרֹב כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת אִסּוּרֵי מַאֲכָלוֹת: