[The restrictions of] neta reva'i applies to all [plants to which] the prohibition of orlah applies.1 And all [plants] that are exempt from orlah are not obligated for neta reva'i, as [Leviticus 19:23-24] states: "For three years [your plants] will be orlah.... In the fourth year..."2


כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה יֵשׁ לוֹ רְבָעִי. וְכָל שֶׁפָּטוּר מִן הָעָרְלָה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בִּרְבָעִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט כג) "שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים" וְגוֹ' וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת:


When a person plants a fruit tree with the intent that it serve as a hedge for a garden or he planted it to use it as lumber and not for its fruit, it is exempt from the prohibition of orlah.3 If he planted it to serve as a hedge and then changed his mind and thought to use its fruit or he planted it for the sake of its fruit and then thought to use it as a hedge, since an intent that obligates it was involved, he is liable.4 If he planted it for three years as a hedge and afterwards, intended to use it for food, the laws of neta reva'i do not apply,5 because whenever the laws of orlah do not apply, the laws of neta reva'i do not apply.


הַנּוֹטֵעַ אִילַן מַאֲכָל וְדַעְתּוֹ עָלָיו שֶׁיִּהְיֶה סְיָג לַגִּנָּה. אוֹ שֶׁנְּטָעוֹ לְקוֹרוֹת לֹא לְפֵרוֹת. הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הָעָרְלָה. נְטָעוֹ לִסְיָג וְחָזַר וְחָשַׁב עָלָיו לְמַאֲכָל אוֹ שֶׁנְּטָעוֹ לְמַאֲכָל וְחָזַר וְחָשַׁב עָלָיו לִסְיָג. כֵּיוָן שֶׁעֵרֵב בּוֹ מַחְשֶׁבֶת חִיּוּב חַיָּב. נְטָעוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים לִסְיָג וּמִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ לְמַאֲכָל אֵין לוֹ רְבָעִי. שֶׁכָּל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ עָרְלָה אֵין לוֹ רְבָעִי:


When one planted a tree with the intent that the inner side will produce food and the outer side will serve as a hedge or the lower portion will produce food and the upper portion will serve as a hedge,6 the portion that was intended for food is liable in the prohibitions of orlah and the portion intended as a hedge or for lumber is exempt. For the matter is dependent on the intent of the one who plants it.

The prohibition of orlah applies to only the caper berries of the caper tree, but its leaves are permitted.7


נָטַע אִילָן וְחָשַׁב שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַצַּד הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁלּוֹ לְמַאֲכָל וְהַחִיצוֹן לִסְיָג. אוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַצַּד הַתַּחְתּוֹן לְמַאֲכָל וְהָעֶלְיוֹן לִסְיָג. זֶה שֶׁחָשַׁב עָלָיו לְמַאֲכָל חַיָּב בָּעָרְלָה. וְזֶה שֶׁחָשַׁב עָלָיו לִסְיָג אוֹ לְעֵצִים פָּטוּר. שֶׁהַדָּבָר תָּלוּי בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁל נוֹטֵעַ. וְהַצָּלָף חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה הָאֶבְיוֹנוֹת בִּלְבַד אֲבָל הַקַּפְרִיסִין מֻתָּרוֹת:


When a person plants trees for the sake of people at large8 in his own field, the prohibition of orlah applies. For the term "And you shall plant..."9[used in the prooftext cited above] implies even for the sake of people at large.

When does the above apply? In Eretz Yisrael. In the Diaspora, by contrast, [such trees] are exempt.10


הַנּוֹטֵעַ לָרַבִּים בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט כג) "וּנְטַעְתֶּם" אֲפִלּוּ לָרַבִּים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ פָּטוּר:


When a person plants trees in the public domain11 or on a ship,12 when trees grow on their own accord13 in a private domain,14 when a gentile plants a tree whether for himself15 or for a Jew,16 or when a thief plants a tree,17 the laws of orlah and neta reva'i apply.


הַנּוֹטֵעַ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ בִּסְפִינָה. וְהָעוֹלֶה מֵאֵלָיו בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד. וְעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנָּטַע בֵּין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּין לְעַצְמוֹ. וְהַגַּזְלָן שֶׁנָּטַע. חַיָּבִין בָּעָרְלָה וּבִרְבָעִי:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


[Trees] that grow on their own accord in rocky terrain18 are exempt.19 Even one who plants trees in an unsettled place is exempt, provided the tree does not produce enough fruit so that it would be worthwhile for a person to care for its produce until he brings it to a settled land.20 If, however, the tree produces enough that it is worthwhile to maintain it, the prohibition of orlah applies to it.


הָעוֹלֶה מֵאֵלָיו בִּמְקוֹם טְרָשִׁים פָּטוּר. אֲפִלּוּ הַנּוֹטֵעַ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ יִשּׁוּב פָּטוּר. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה עוֹשֶׂה כְּדֵי טִפּוּל שֶׁמְּטַפֵּל בְּפֵרוֹתָיו עַד שֶׁמְּבִיאָן לַיִּשּׁוּב. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה כְּדֵי טִפּוּלוֹ חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה:


When a person plants a tree for the sake of a mitzvah, e.g., he plants an esrog21 tree [to fulfill] the mitzvah of lulav [and esrog] or an olive tree [to produce oil] for the Menorah,22 the prohibition of orlah applies.23 If he consecrated [a tree] and then planted it, it is exempt.24 If he planted it and then consecrated it, the prohibition of orlah applies.25


הַנּוֹטֵעַ לְמִצְוָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּטַע אֶתְרוֹג לְלוּלָב אוֹ זַיִת לַמְּנוֹרָה חַיָּב בָּעָרְלָה. הִקְדִּישׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָטַע פָּטוּר מִן הָעָרְלָה. נָטַע וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִקְדִּישׁ חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה:


When a person plants [a tree] in a flowerpot26 without a hole, the prohibition of orlah applies. [Although planting in such a pot] is not considered as [planting] in the earth with regard to smaller plants, it is considered as planting in the earth with regard to trees.27


הַנּוֹטֵעַ בְּעָצִיץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּאֶרֶץ לִזְרָעִים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֶרֶץ לְאִילָנוֹת:


When a tree is planted in a house, the prohibition of orlah applies. Trees planted by gentiles before our ancestors entered the [Holy] Land28 were exempt.29 After our ancestors entered the land, the prohibition applies even to [trees] planted by gentiles,30 as Leviticus 19:23] states: "When you enter the land and you plant...." [The prohibition begins from] the time of the entry into the land.


אִילָן שֶׁנְּטָעוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה. זֶה שֶׁנְּטָעוֹ עַכּוּ''ם עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָּאוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ לָאָרֶץ פָּטוּר. אֲבָל מִשֶּׁבָּאוּ לָאָרֶץ אַף מַה שֶּׁנָּטְעוּ עַכּוּ''ם חַיָּב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט כג) "כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם". מִשְּׁעַת בִּיאָה:


When a gentile grafts31 a fruit tree on a non-fruitbearing tree, the prohibition of orlah applies.32 If a gentile desires to observe the mitzvah of neta reva'i,33 its laws apply to him and it is consecrated like neta reva'i belonging to a Jew.


עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהִרְכִּיב אִילַן מַאֲכָל עַל גַּבֵּי אִילַן סְרָק חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה. וְיֵשׁ לָעַכּוּ''ם נֶטַע רְבָעִי. שֶׁאִם בָּא לִנְהֹג בְּמִצְוָה זוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא קֹדֶשׁ כְּנֶטַע רְבָעִי שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל:


[With regard to] the prohibition of orlah, [planting a tree refers to] planting a seed,34 a bough from a tree, or uprooting the entire tree from one place and planting it in another.35 We begin counting [the three years] from the time of the planting.36

[The following laws apply if] a tree was shaken from its place, but not uprooted and then one filled the surrounding area with earth.37 If it could live without the surroundings having been filled with earth,38 it is exempt. If not, it is considered as if it was uprooted and replanted, and the prohibition does apply.


אֶחָד הַנּוֹטֵעַ גַּרְעִינָה אוֹ יִחוּר מִן הָאִילָן אוֹ שֶׁעָקַר אֶת כָּל הָאִילָן מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וּנְטָעוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה. וּמוֹנֶה מִשְּׁעַת נְטִיעָתוֹ. זִעְזְעוֹ וְלֹא עֲקָרוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מִלֵּא סְבִיבוֹתָיו בֶּעָפָר. אִם יָכוֹל לִחְיוֹת אִלּוּ לֹא מִלֵּא סְבִיבוֹתָיו הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁעָקַר וְנָטַע וְחַיָּב:


Similarly, when a tree was uprooted and there remained a root, even one as thin as a needle over which embroiderers wind thread,39 if one returned it to its original place and replanted it, it is exempt [from the prohibitions of orlah], because it could live.40

[The following rules apply if] the tree was uprooted entirely together with the clod of earth41 to which its roots were attached and he replanted it as it is, together with that earth. If it could live from that clod of earth even if it was not replanted, it is as if it was not uprooted. If not, [the laws of orlah] apply.


וְכֵן אִילָן שֶׁנֶּעֱקַר וְנִשְׁאַר מִמֶּנּוּ שֹׁרֶשׁ אֶחָד. אֲפִלּוּ כְּמַחַט שֶׁמְּלַפְּפִין עָלָיו הָרוֹקְמִין אֶת הַשָּׁנִי וְהֶחְזִירוֹ לִמְקוֹמוֹ וְנָטַע פָּטוּר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לִחְיוֹת. נֶעֱקַר כֻּלּוֹ וְנֶעֶקְרָה הַסֶּלַע שֶׁשָּׁרָשָׁיו בָּהּ עִמּוֹ וְחָזַר וּנְטָעוֹ כְּמַה שֶּׁהוּא בְּכָל הָאֲדָמָה שֶׁסְּבִיבוֹת שָׁרָשָׁיו. אִם הָיָה יָכוֹל לִחְיוֹת מֵאוֹתָהּ אֲדָמָה אִלּוּ לֹא נָטַע הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁלֹּא נֶעֱקַר. וְאִם לָאו חַיָּב:


When a tree was cut down from above the earth42 and [a new tree grew from its roots], the prohibition of orlah applies.43 [The three years] are counted from the time [the first tree] was cut down.


אִילָן שֶׁקִּצְּצוֹ מֵעִם הָאָרֶץ וְהֶחְלִיף חַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה וּמוֹנִין לוֹ מִשְּׁעַת קְצִיצָה:


Whether one plants a tree, one extends one,44 or grafts it, [the laws of orlah] apply. When does the above apply? When one cut off a bough from the tree and planted it in the earth or grafted it to another plant. If, however, one extended a branch of an elder plant and then implanted it in the earth or grafted it onto another tree,45 [leaving] the bough connected to the elder tree, [the new growth] is exempt [from the prohibition of orlah].


אֶחָד הַנּוֹטֵעַ וְאֶחָד הַמַּבְרִיךְ וְאֶחָד הַמַּרְכִּיב חַיָּב. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁחָתַךְ בַּד אֶחָד מִן הָאִילָן וְהִבְרִיכוֹ בָּאָרֶץ אוֹ הִרְכִּיבוֹ בְּאִילָן אַחֵר. אֲבָל אִם מָתַח בַּד אֶחָד מִן הָאִילָן הַזָּקֵן וְהִבְרִיךְ בָּאָרֶץ אוֹ הִרְכִּיבוֹ בְּאִילָן אַחֵר וְעִקַּר הַבַּד מְעֹרֶה בָּאִילָן הַזָּקֵן הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר:


If the new growth which was originally extended grew and produced fruit and, afterwards, the source from which it was connected to the elder tree was separated, we count [the years of orlah] from the time that it was separated.46 The fruit [that was growing on the tree before it was separated] is, however, permitted, because it grew while permitted. If he left [the fruit on the new tree] after the connection to the original tree was severed until their growth increased by a two-hundredth,47 the fruit is forbidden.48


גָּדַל זֶה הַיֶּלֶד שֶׁהִבְרִיךְ וְעָשָׂה פֵּרוֹת. וְאַחַר כָּךְ פָּסַק עִקָּרוֹ שֶׁהוּא מְעֹרֶה בָּאִילָן הַזָּקֵן. מוֹנֶה מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּפְסַק. וְאוֹתָן הַפֵּרוֹת מֻתָּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגָּדְלוּ בְּהֶתֵּר. וְאִם הִנִּיחָן אַחַר שֶׁנִּפְסַק הָעִקָּר עַד שֶׁהוֹסִיפוּ בְּמָאתַיִם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין:


When a young tree49 was grafted on to an elder tree and there were fruit on the younger tree, the fruit on the younger tree50 are forbidden even if the fruit increases 200 times its size.51 For the basic fruit that comes from a forbidden entity52 cannot be elevated by the new permitted substances that grow.


יַלְדָּה שֶׁסִּבְּכָה בִּזְקֵנָה וְהָיוּ פֵּרוֹת בַּיַּלְדָּה אֲפִלּוּ הוֹסִיפוּ מָאתַיִם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁל יַלְדָּה אֲסוּרִין. שֶׁאֵין גִּדּוּלֵי הֶתֵּר מַעֲלִין אֶת הָעִקָּר הָאָסוּר:


[The following rule applies when] a branch was extended from a tree and implanted in the earth and afterwards, the tree itself was entirely uprooted and it derives its nurture only from the branch implanted in the earth. The tree is considered as if it was planted at this time and the prohibition of orlah applies to it.53 [The three years] are counted for the tree and for whatever grew from the implanted branch from the time it was uprooted.54


אִילָן שֶׁהִבְרִיךְ מִמֶּנּוּ בַּד בָּאָרֶץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נֶעֱקַר הָאִילָן כֻּלּוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא חַי מִן הַבַּד שֶׁהִבְרִיךְ בָּאָרֶץ נַעֲשָׂה אוֹתוֹ אִילָן כְּאִלּוּ עַתָּה נִטַּע וְחַיָּב בְּעָרְלָה. וּמוֹנֶה לָאִילָן וּלְמַה שֶּׁצָּמַח מִן הַהַבְרָכָה מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנֶּעֱקַר:


When a person extended a branch and implanted it in the earth and it grew, he then extended and implanted a branch from the new growth and it grew, and then he extended and implanted a branch from the third growth - and continued doing so even for 100 implants each connected with each other - since the connection with the primary plant has not been severed, all [of the fruit]55 is permitted.56 If [the connection to] the original plant is severed,57 [the orlah years] are counted from the time of the severance.


הֲרֵי שֶׁהִבְרִיךְ בַּד בָּאָרֶץ וְצָמַח. וְהִבְרִיךְ בַּד אֶחָד מִמַּה שֶּׁצָּמַח בָּאָרֶץ וְצָמַח. וְחָזַר וְהִבְרִיךְ מִן הַשְּׁלִישִׁי אֲפִלּוּ הֵן [מֵאָה] מְעֹרִין זֶה בָּזֶה הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נִפְסְקוּ מִן הָעִקָּר הָרִאשׁוֹן הַכּל מֻתָּר. וְאִם נִפְסַק עִקָּר הָרִאשׁוֹן מוֹנֶה לַכּל מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּפְסַק:


A tree which grows from a stump is exempt from the prohibitions of orlah.58 [If it grows] from the roots,59 the prohibition of orlah applies.60

The prohibition of orlah applies to a dwarf vine which is less than a handbreadth high throughout its entire life,61 because it looks like a tree that is one year old. When does the above apply? To one tree or to [a group of five, planted in a pattern where] two are planted opposite another pair and a fifth is planted behind them.62 If, however, an entire vineyard is less than a handbreadth high, it would be a matter of common knowledge and its age is calculated in the same way as other trees.


אִילָן הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַגֶּזַע פָּטוּר מִן הָעָרְלָה. מִן הַשָּׁרָשִׁים חַיָּב. יַלְדָּה פְּחוּתָה מִטֶּפַח חַיֶּבֶת בְּעָרְלָה כָּל שְׁנוֹתֶיהָ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֵית כִּנְטִיעָה בַּת שְׁנָתָהּ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּנְטִיעָה אַחַת אוֹ שְׁתַּיִם כְּנֶגֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְאַחַת יוֹצְאָה זָנָב. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה הַכֶּרֶם כֻּלּוֹ פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח הֲרֵי זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ קוֹל וּמוֹנִין כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמּוֹנִין לִשְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת:


We may plant a branch from a tree that is orlah,63 but we may not plant a nut that is orlah, because it is produce and it is forbidden to benefit from it, as we explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot.64 If one transgressed and planted a nut that is orlah, [the tree] that grows from it is permitted like other trees.65


נוֹטְעִין יִחוּר שֶׁל עָרְלָה וְאֵין נוֹטְעִין אֱגוֹז שֶׁל עָרְלָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא פְּרִי. וּפֵרוֹת עָרְלָה אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת אִסּוּרֵי מַאֲכָלוֹת. וְאִם עָבַר וְנָטַע אֱגוֹז שֶׁל עָרְלָה הֲרֵי הַצּוֹמֵחַ מֻתָּר כִּשְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת:


Similarly, one may not graft underdeveloped clusters of dates,66 that are orlah, because they are considered as food. If one transgressed and grafted them, the fruits are permitted. [The rationale is that] whenever an entity has two causes, one forbidden67 and one which is permitted,68 since it comes as a result of both of them, it is permitted. Therefore [a plant] that grows from fruit that is orlah is permitted, because its growth was caused by the forbidden fruit and the earth which is permitted.


וְכֵן אֵין מַרְכִּיבִין כִּפְנִיּוֹת שֶׁל עָרְלָה בִּדְקָלִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כִּפְרִי. עָבַר וְהִרְכִּיב מֻתָּר שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי גּוֹרְמִין אֶחָד אָסוּר וְאֶחָד מֻתָּר הֲרֵי זֶה הַנִּגְרָם מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם מֻתָּר. לְפִיכָךְ הַצּוֹמֵחַ מִפֵּרוֹת עָרְלָה מֻתָּר שֶׁהֲרֵי גּוֹרֵם לִצְמֹחַ הַפְּרִי הָאָסוּר וְהָאָרֶץ הַמֻּתֶּרֶת: