When a man redeems his produce for the second tithe for himself - whether it is from his own crops, he acquired it as an inheritance, or it was given to him while tevel as we explained,1 he must add a fifth [of the new total].2 [Thus] if it was worth four, he should give five,3 as [Leviticus 27:31] states: "If a man will redeem from his tithes, he shall add a fifth to it."


הַפּוֹדֶה מַעַשְׂרוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלּוֹ בֵּין שֶׁנָּפַל לוֹ בִּירֻשָּׁה בֵּין שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ בְּטִבְלוֹ מַתָּנָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֹמֶשׁ. אִם הָיָה שָׁוֶה אַרְבָּעָה נוֹתֵן חֲמִשָּׁה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז לא) "וְאִם גָּאל יִגְאַל אִישׁ מִמַּעַשְׂרוֹ חֲמִשִׁיתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו":


When a woman redeems produce for the second tithe that she separated, she is not required to add a fifth. According to the Oral Tradition,4 we have learned: "If a man [will redeem from] his tithes," excluding a woman. Similarly, if a man redeems [money used to] redeem produce from the second tithe for himself,5 he must add a fifth.


וְאִשָּׁה שֶׁפָּדָת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁלָּהּ לְעַצְמָהּ אֵינָהּ מוֹסִיפָה חֹמֶשׁ. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ (ויקרא כז לא) "אִישׁ מִמַּעַשְׂרוֹ" וְלֹא אִשָּׁה. וְכֵן אִם פָּדָה פִּדְיוֹן פֵּרוֹת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לְעַצְמוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ:


When a person redeems the produce of his second tithe and adds a fifth, and then redeems the money itself a second time, he must add a second fifth of the principal alone. He need not add a fifth for the original fifth.6


פָּדָה פֵּרוֹת מַעַשְׂרוֹ וְהוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ וְחָזַר וּפָדָה הַפִּדְיוֹן לְעַצְמוֹ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ שֵׁנִי עַל הַקֶּרֶן בִּלְבַד וְאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ עַל הַחֹמֶשׁ:


When the fifth of the produce of the second tithe is not worth a p'rutah, [the person redeeming it] need not add a fifth.7 Similarly, when the worth of the produce of the second tithe is unknown,8 it is sufficient for him to say: "The holiness of the produce and its fifth are transferred to this sela."9 Whenever a person does not redeem produce from the second tithe with his own money, he need not add a fifth.10 [When one redeems] produce from the second tithe that is demai, he need not add a fifth.11


מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁאֵין בְּחֻמְשׁוֹ שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֹמֶשׁ. וְכֵן מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁאֵין דָּמָיו יְדוּעִין דַּיּוֹ שֶׁיֹּאמַר הוּא וְחֻמְשׁוֹ מְחֻלָּל עַל הַסֶּלַע הַזֶּה. וְכָל מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ פּוֹדֵהוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁל דְּמַאי אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֹמֶשׁ:


When a person is redeeming produce of the second tithe and he has other produce from the second tithe that was not redeemed whose fifth is not worth a p'rutah, it is sufficient for him to say: "The holiness of it and its fifth are transferred to the money [set aside] originally."12 [This leniency is granted,] because it is impossible to require a person to be precise with his money.13


הַפּוֹדֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהָיָה לוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדָּה. אִם אֵין בְּחֻמְשׁוֹ שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה דַּיּוֹ שֶׁיֹּאמַר הוּא וְחֻמְשׁוֹ מְחֻלָּל עַל מָעוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְאָדָם לְצַמְצֵם אֶת מְעוֹתָיו:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When a person redeems produce from the second tithe for more than its worth, that additional value is not considered as money from the second tithe.14


הַפּוֹדֶה מַעֲשֵׂר בְּיוֹתֵר עַל דָּמָיו לֹא נִתְפְּסָה הַתּוֹסֶפֶת לַמַעֲשֵׂר:


When the owner of the produce bids a sela to redeem it and another person also bids a sela, the owner is given precedence, because he is required to add a fifth. If, however, the owner bids a sela and another person bids a sela and a p'rutah, that other person is given precedence, because he increases the principal.15


בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע וְאַחֵר אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת קֹדֶם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע וְאַחֵר אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע וּפְרוּטָה. הָאַחֵר קֹדֶם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמּוֹסִיף עַל הַקֶּרֶן:


It is permitted to act "guilefully" with regard to the redemption of produce of the second tithe.16 What is implied? A person may tell his son or daughter who are beyond majority or his Hebrew servant:17 "Here is this money. Use it to redeem this produce from the second tithe," so that they will not have to add a fifth. He should not say, however: "Use them to redeem it for me."18 Similarly, he is not required to add a fifth if he tells them: "Redeem it for me using your money."19


מֻתָּר לְהַעֲרִים עַל פִּדְיוֹן מַעַשְׂרוֹ. כֵּיצַד. אוֹמֵר לִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים וּלְעַבְדּוֹ הָעִבְרִי הֵא לְךָ אֶת הַמָּעוֹת הָאֵלּוּ וּפְדֵה לְךָ בָּהֶן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ פְּדֵה לִי בָּהֶן. וְכֵן אִם אָמַר לוֹ פְּדֵה לִי מִשֶּׁלְּךָ אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ:


He should not, however, give money to redeem [the produce] to one of his sons or daughters who are below majority20 or to his Canaanite servants or maid-servants, because they do not have an independent financial capacity.21 If he gave the money to his Hebrew maidservant,22 his words are effective if [the obligation to separate] the second tithe from this produce is Rabbinic in origin, e.g., produce grew in a flowerpot without a hole.23 [The rationale is that] a Hebrew maidservant is a minor and a minor can acquire property for others only with regard to matters of Rabbinic Law.24


אֲבָל לֹא יִתֵּן הַמָּעוֹת לִפְדּוֹת לִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים וּלְעַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַכְּנַעֲנִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּדָן כְּיָדוֹ. נָתַן לְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִיָּה אִם מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי זֶה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה מֵעָצִיץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין. שֶׁאָמָה הָעִבְרִיָּה קְטַנָּה הִיא וְאֵין הַקָּטָן זוֹכֶה לַאֲחֵרִים אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם:


Similarly, a person may act with guile and give produce from the second tithe as a present while it is still tevel25 and while giving it say: "The holiness from [the second tithe of] this produce is transferred to the money I have at home."26


וְכֵן מַעֲרִים וְנוֹתֵן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר מַתָּנָה כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּטִבְלוֹ. וְאוֹמֵר הַנּוֹתֵן הֲרֵי הַפֵּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ מְחֻלָּלִין עַל מָעוֹת שֶׁבַּבַּיִת:


Two brothers,27 two partners, a father and his son, may redeem produce from the second tithe for each other so that they will not have to add a fifth. When a woman brings produce from the second tithe to her husband's home,28 the husband does not acquire it as his own, since it belongs to the Most High, as we explained.29 Therefore, if he redeems it,30 he need not add a fifth.


שְׁנֵי אַחִין אוֹ שְׁנֵי שֻׁתָּפִין [אָב וּבְנוֹ] פּוֹדִין זֶה לָזֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. אִשָּׁה שֶׁהִכְנִיסָה לְבַעְלָהּ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מָמוֹן גָּבוֹהַּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ לֹא קָנָה בַּעַל. לְפִיכָךְ אִם פָּדָהוּ אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ:


A person who redeems produce from the second tithe for himself, who paid the principal, but did not pay the additional fifth, should not partake of [the produce] until he pays the fifth. [This applies] even on the Sabbath.31 [And it applies] even though the payment of the fifth does not hold back the transfer of holiness [from the produce to the coins]. Indeed, that transfer takes place. [This restriction is] a decree, lest the person be negligent and fail to pay.


הַפּוֹדֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי לְעַצְמוֹ וְנָתַן אֶת הַקֶּרֶן וְלֹא נָתַן אֶת הַחֹמֶשׁ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַחֹמֶשׁ מְעַכֵּב וַהֲרֵי נִתְחַלֵּל לֹא יֹאכַל עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן הַחֹמֶשׁ וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִפְשַׁע וְלֹא יִתֵּן:


If a person desires to exchange money from the redemption of the second tithe for golden dinarim,32 so that his burden will be lighter,33 he may. Even34 if he exchanged [the two] with his own money, he need not add a fifth, for this is not considered as redemption.


מָעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אִם רָצָה לְצָרְפָם בְּדִינְרֵי זָהָב כְּדֵי לְהָקֵל מַשָּׂאָן מְצָרְפָן. וְאִם צֵרְפָן לְעַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ שֶׁאֵין זֶה דֶּרֶךְ פְּדִיָּה:


When a person exchanges a sela of money35 from the second tithe - whether in Jerusalem or outside the city - he should not exchange it entirely for brass coins. Instead, it should be divided into a shekel's worth of silver coins and a shekel's worth of brass coins.


הַפּוֹרֵט סֶלַע מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בֵּין בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם בֵּין חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם לֹא יְצָרְפֶנָּה כֻּלָּהּ בְּמָעוֹת נְחשֶׁת אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁקֶל מָעוֹת כֶּסֶף וּבְשֶׁקֶל מָעוֹת נְחשֶׁת:


It is permissible to transfer the holiness of money of the second tithe together with produce from the second tithe to money,36 provided the produce is worth less than a dinar.37 If, however, [the produce] is worth a dinar, its holiness should not be transferred together with that of money. Instead, [it should be transferred] by itself. What is implied? A person possessed produce that was worth a dinar and three dinarim that were of the second tithe, he may not transfer the holiness of the entire amount to one sela.38 If, however, he has a half a dinar of produce and a half a dinar of money, he may transfer the holiness of both to one dinar.


מֻתָּר לְחַלֵּל כֶּסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר עִם פֵּרוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר עַל הַכֶּסֶף וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהוּ בַּפֵּרוֹת פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה דִּינָר. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בָּהֶן שְׁוֵה דִּינָר לֹא יְחַלְּלֵם עִם הַכֶּסֶף אֶלָּא בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן. כֵּיצַד. הָיוּ לוֹ פֵּרוֹת שְׁוֵה דִּינָר וּשְׁלֹשָׁה דִּינָרִין שֶׁל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אֵינוֹ מְחַלֵּל הַכּל עַל סֶלַע אַחַת. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה לוֹ חֲצִי דִּינָר פֵּרוֹת וַחֲצִי דִּינָר מָעוֹת מְחַלֵּל שְׁנֵיהֶם עַל דִּינָר אֶחָד: