Chapter 27

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: When a man expresses a vow, [pledging the] value of lives to the Lord,   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יַפְלִ֖א נֶ֑דֶר בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ נְפָשֹׁ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
When a man expresses: Expresses verbally.   כי יפלא: יפריש בפיו:
[pledging the] value of lives: to give the valuation of his life, i.e., saying: “I take it upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value (בְּעֶרְכְּךָ) of a vital (נְפָשֹׁת) organ, [such as the head or the liver]” - [Torath Kohanim 26:57, Arachin 20a]   בערכך נפשת: ליתן ערך נפשו לומר ערך דבר שנפשו תלויה בו עלי:
3the [fixed] value of a male shall be as follows: From twenty years old until sixty years old, the value is fifty silver shekels, according to the holy shekel;   גוְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר מִבֶּן֙ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְעַ֖ד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֗ חֲמִשִּׁ֛ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כֶּ֖סֶף בְּשֶׁ֥קֶל הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
the [fixed] value… shall be: The value stated here is not an expression of monetary value [the usual market value of a person sold as a slave], but, whether he has a high market value or a low one, the value fixed for him in this passage is according to his age.   והיה ערכך וגו': אין ערך זה לשון דמים, אלא בין שהוא יקר בין שהוא זול, כפי שניו הוא הערך הקצוב עליו בפרשה זו:
the value: Heb. הָעֶרְכְּ [The last letter of this word, ךָ, is not the second person pronominal suffix, “your,” but rather, a double of the preceding letter כ, and therefore, this word is] the same as עֵרֶךְ, “value.” And I do not know what the double כ denotes here.   ערכך: כמו ערך. וכפל הכפי"ן לא ידעתי מאיזה לשון הוא:
4And if she is a female, the value is thirty shekels;   דוְאִם־נְקֵבָ֖ה הִ֑וא וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ שְׁלשִׁ֥ים שָֽׁקֶל:
5And if [the person is] from five years old until twenty years old, the value of a male shall be twenty shekels, while that of a female shall be ten shekels;   הוְאִ֨ם מִבֶּן־חָמֵ֜שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים וְעַד֙ בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְהָיָ֧ה עֶרְכְּךָ֛ הַזָּכָ֖ר עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שְׁקָלִ֑ים וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת שְׁקָלִֽים:
And if… five years old: Not that the one who is vowing is a minor, because a minor’s words have no validity. Rather, [our verse is speaking of] an adult who says: “I take upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value of this five-year-old” [i.e., the subject of our verse is the person who is to be evaluated].   ואם מבן חמש שנים: לא שיהא הנודר קטן, שאין בדברי קטן כלום, אלא גדול שאמר ערך קטן זה, שהוא בן חמש שנים, עלי:
6And if [the person is] from one month old until five years old, the value of a male shall be five silver shekels, while the value of a female shall be three silver shekels;   ווְאִ֣ם מִבֶּן־חֹ֗דֶשׁ וְעַד֙ בֶּן־חָמֵ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֔ים וְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּ֑סֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ שְׁל֥שֶׁת שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּֽסֶף:
7And if [the person is] sixty years old or over, if it is a male, the value shall be fifteen shekels, while for a female, it shall be ten shekels.   זוְ֠אִ֠ם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֨ים שָׁנָ֤ה וָמַ֨עְלָה֙ אִם־זָכָ֔ר וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר שָׁ֑קֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשָׂרָ֥ה שְׁקָלִֽים:
And if [the person is] sixty years old [or over]: When people reach a venerable age, a woman’s value becomes closer to that of a man. This is why a man decreases [in value] in his old age [to] beyond a third of his value [as an adult, namely, from 50 shekels to 15], while a woman [in her old age] decreases [to] only one third of her value [namely, from 30 shekels to 10]. As people say: “An old man in the house is a breach in the house (Rashi) [or] a snare in the house (Rabbenu Gershom), while an old woman in the house is a hidden treasure in the house and a good sign for the house.”- [Arachin 19a]   ואם מבן ששים שנה וגו': כשמגיע לימי הזקנה האשה קרובה להחשב כאיש, לפיכך האיש פוחת בהזדקנו יותר משליש בערכו, והאשה אינה פוחתת אלא שליש בערכה, דאמרי אינשי סבא בביתא פחא בביתא, סבתא בביתא סימא בביתא וסימנא טבא בביתא:
8But if he is [too] poor to [pay] the valuation [amount], he shall stand him up before the kohen, and the kohen shall evaluate him according to how much the one who is vowing his value can afford.   חוְאִם־מָ֥ךְ הוּא֙ מֵֽעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְהֶֽעֱמִידוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהֶֽעֱרִ֥יךְ אֹת֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן עַל־פִּ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר תַּשִּׂיג֙ יַ֣ד הַנֹּדֵ֔ר יַֽעֲרִיכֶ֖נּוּ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
But if he is [too] poor: that he cannot afford to pay this [fixed] valuation amount,   ואם מך הוא: שאין ידו משגת ליתן הערך הזה:
he shall stand him up: [i.e., the one making the vow should stand up] the one whose value he pledged, before the kohen , [who] will then evaluate him in view of how much the one pledging the valuation, can afford. — [see next Rashi ; Torath Kohanim 27:62]   והעמידו: לנערך לפני הכהן ויעריכנו לפי השגת ידו של מעריך:
according to how much [the one who is vowing his value] can afford: [The kohen] shall estimate the valuation, with reference to how much [the one who is vowing] owns, leaving him his basic life necessities, namely, a bed, a bolster, a pillow, and tools of trade-e.g., if he is a donkey-driver, the kohen must [make the valuation such that he] leaves him his donkey. — [Arachin 23b]   על פי אשר תשיג: לפי מה שיש לו יסדרנו וישאיר לו כדי חייו מטה כר וכסת וכלי אומנות, אם היה חמר, משאיר לו חמורו:
9Now, if an animal of whose type is [fit] to be brought as an offering to the Lord, whatever part of it the person donates to the Lord, shall become holy.   טוְאִ֨ם־בְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כֹּל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֥ן מִמֶּ֛נּוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ:
[If… an animal…] whatever part of it the person donates [… shall become holy]: If a person says, “The leg of this animal shall be a burnt-offering,” his words have validity. [And how is his vow expedited?] The [entire] animal [except for its leg] should be sold to one who needs a burnt-offering, and the money [received from this sale] which excludes the value of that limb [as stated above], becomes non-consecrated, [and then the entire animal can be brought by both parties as a burnt-offering]. — [Arachin 5a, Temurah 11b, Raavad on Torath Kohanim]   כל אשר יתן ממנו: אמר רגלה של זו עולה, דבריו קיימין, ותמכר לצרכי עולה ודמיה חולין, חוץ מדמי אותו האבר:
10He shall not exchange it or offer a substitute for it, whether it be a good one for a bad one, or a bad one for a good one. But if he does substitute one animal for another animal, [both] that one and its replacement shall be holy.   ילֹ֣א יַֽחֲלִיפֶ֔נּוּ וְלֹֽא־יָמִ֥יר אֹת֛וֹ ט֥וֹב בְּרָ֖ע אוֹ־רַ֣ע בְּט֑וֹב וְאִם־הָמֵ֨ר יָמִ֤יר בְּהֵמָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה וְהָֽיָה־ה֥וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֖וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ:
whether it be a good one for a bad one: i.e., an unblemished animal in place of a blemished one,   טוב ברע: תם בבעל מום:
or a bad one in place of a good one: And how much more so [should he receive lashes if he replaced] a good [unblemished animal] for another good one, or if he replaced a bad [blemished animal] with another bad one [in which cases he did not raise the standard of the consecrated animal]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:71; Temurah 9a]   או רע בטוב: וכל שכן טוב בטוב ורע ברע:
11And if it is any unclean animal, of whose type shall not be brought as an offering to the Lord, then he shall stand up the animal before the kohen.   יאוְאִם֙ כָּל־בְּהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֔ה אֲ֠שֶׁ֠ר לֹֽא־יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהֶֽעֱמִ֥יד אֶת־הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַכֹּהֵֽן:
And if it is any unclean animal: [But the case of an unclean animal is stated later (verse 27); so what “unclean animal” is meant?] The text is speaking about a blemished animal, which is “unclean” [i.e., unfit] for sacrifice. And Scripture is teaching us that unblemished consecrated animals cannot leave [their holy status and enter] into a mundane status through redemption, unless they become blemished. — [Men. 101a, Temurah 32b, 33a]   ואם כל בהמה טמאה: בבעלת מום הכתוב מדבר, שהיא טמאה להקרבה, ולמדך הכתוב שאין קדשים תמימים יוצאין לחולין בפדיון אלא אם כן הוממו:
12The kohen shall then evaluate it whether it is good or bad; like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be.   יבוְהֶֽעֱרִ֤יךְ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹתָ֔הּ בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֣ין רָ֑ע כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יִֽהְיֶֽה:
like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be: for anyone else [but the owner], who wishes to purchase it from the possession of the Temple treasury,   כערכך הכהן כן יהיה: לשאר כל אדם הבא לקנותה מיד הקדש:
13But if he redeems it, he shall add its fifth to its value.   יגוְאִם־גָּאֹ֖ל יִגְאָלֶ֑נָּה וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִֽישִׁת֖וֹ עַל־עֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
But if he redeems it: [i.e., if the owner himself redeems the animal]. Scripture is more stringent with the owner, [obligating him] to add a fifth [to its value (see B.M . 54a, regarding the meaning of fifth)]. Likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his house, and likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his field, and likewise, in the case of the redemption of the Second Tithe- [in all these cases,] the owners must add a fifth [to the value], but no one else [who redeems these items must add a fifth]. [Torath Kohanim 27:83]   ואם גאל יגאלנה: בבעלים החמיר הכתוב להוסיף חומש, וכן במקדיש בית וכן במקדיש את השדה וכן בפדיון מעשר שני הבעלים מוסיפין חומש, ולא שאר כל אדם:
14And if a man consecrates his house [to be] holy to the Lord, the kohen shall evaluate it whether good or bad; as the kohen evaluates it, so shall it remain.   ידוְאִ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־יַקְדִּ֨שׁ אֶת־בֵּית֥וֹ קֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהֶֽעֱרִיכוֹ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֥ין רָ֑ע כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יַֽעֲרִ֥יךְ אֹת֛וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יָקֽוּם:
15But if the one who consecrated it redeems his house, he shall add to it a fifth of its valuation money, and it shall be his.   טווְאִם־הַ֙מַּקְדִּ֔ישׁ יִגְאַ֖ל אֶת־בֵּית֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִישִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְהָ֥יָה לֽוֹ:
16And if a man consecrates some of the field of his inherited property to the Lord, the valuation shall be according to its sowing: an area which requires a chomer of barley seeds at fifty silver shekels.   טז וְאִ֣ם | מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֗וֹ יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ לְפִ֣י זַרְע֑וֹ זֶ֚רַע חֹ֣מֶר שְׂעֹרִ֔ים בַּֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כָּֽסֶף:
the valuation shall be according to its sowing: And not according to its value, whether it is a field of good quality or a field of bad quality, their redemption from consecration is equal, [namely]: The area requiring a kor (a chomer in Scripture) of barley seeds [must be redeemed] for fifty [silver] shekels. This is Scripture’s decree. — [Torath Kohanim 27:90] Now, this applies to one who comes to redeem it at the beginning of the Jubilee cycle [namely, in its first year]. However, if he comes to redeem it in the middle [of the Jubilee cycle, i.e., after the first year has elapsed], he must pay according to the calculation of one sela (i.e., a shekel) and a pundyon (one forty-eighth of a shekel) per year [depending on how many years until the next Jubilee (see Rashi on verse 18 below)]. — [Arachin 25a] [And why so?] Because property is consecrated only according to the years of the Jubilee cycle-if it is redeemed [within the Jubilee cycle], very good, [i.e., it reverts to its original owners and is no longer Temple property]; but if not, the [Temple] treasurer sells it to someone else at the aforementioned rate, and it remains in the purchaser’s possession until the next Jubilee, just like any other fields which are sold. Then, when it leaves the possession of this purchaser [in the Jubilee], it reverts to the kohanim of that watch, namely, [namely, the shift officiating] when [Yom Kippur of that] Jubilee occurs, and is apportioned among them. — [Arachin 28b] [The kohanim are divided into 24 family watches, or shifts, each in rotation for two or three one-week periods every year.] This is the law stated regarding one who consecrates a field. I will now explain it according to the order of the verses.   והיה ערכך לפי זרעו: ולא כפי שוויה. אחת שדה טובה ואחת שדה רעה, פדיון הקדשן שוה, בית כור שעורים בחמשים שקלים, כך גזירת הכתוב. והוא שבא לגאלה בתחלת היובל, ואם בא לגאלה באמצעו, נותן לפי החשבון סלע ופונדיון לשנה, לפי שאינה הקדש אלא למנין שני היובל, שאם נגאלה הרי טוב, ואם לאו הגזבר מוכרה בדמים הללו לאחר ועומדת ביד הלוקח עד היובל כשאר כל השדות המכורות, וכשהיא יוצאה מידו חוזרת לכהנים של אותו משמר שהיובל פוגע בו ומתחלקת ביניהם, זהו המשפט האמור במקדיש שדה. ועכשיו אפרשנו על סדר המקראות:
17Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended], it shall remain at [its full] valuation.   יזאִם־מִשְּׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֑הוּ כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֖ יָקֽוּם:
Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended]: If, as soon as the Jubilee year has ended, he immediately consecrates [his property i.e., within that first year of the next Shemittah and Jubilee cycle], and then he comes to redeem it immediately [i.e., before that first year has ended].   אם משנת היבל יקדיש וגו': אם משעברה שנת היובל מיד הקדישה ובא לגאלה מיד:
it shall remain at [its full] valuation: i.e., like this aforementioned (in verse 16) valuation, it shall be, [namely,] he must give fifty silver shekels [for the size of field stated]. — [see Arachin 24b]   כערכך יקום: כערך הזה האמור יהיה, חמשים כסף יתן:
18But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years until the [next] Jubilee year, and it shall be deducted from the valuation.   יחוְאִם־אַחַ֣ר הַיֹּבֵל֘ יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֒הוּ֒ וְחִשַּׁב־ל֨וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־הַכֶּ֗סֶף עַל־פִּ֤י הַשָּׁנִים֙ הַנּ֣וֹתָרֹ֔ת עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנִגְרַ֖ע מֵֽעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, [the kohen should calculate the money for him….: [And not only in this case, but] likewise, if [the original owner] had consecrated the property immediately after the Jubilee ended, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer, and this one comes to redeem it after [this first year following] the Jubilee -   ואם אחר היבל יקדיש: וכן אם הקדישה משנת היובל ונשתהה ביד גזבר ובא זה לגאלה אחר היובל:
the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years [until the (next) Jubilee year]: according to the rate. How? [Scripture] has stated the fixed value [of redemption for a field whose size is that stated in our verse,] for forty-nine years as fifty [silver] shekels, i.e., one shekel for each of the [49] years and an extra shekel [paid over] all the [49] years. Now, a shekel is equivalent to 48 pundyons . Thus, one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for each year, except that one pundyon is missing for all of them [i.e., if we figure fifty shekels, we have only 49 shekels and 48 pundyons , which is less than a sela and a pundyon per year, but the redeemer is required to pay one extra pundyon per a 49-year period, for] our Rabbis taught (Bech. 50a) that, the [extra] pundyon is a surcharge for [currency exchange of] small coins [i.e., if someone comes to purchase a silver shekel with pundyons , he will be charged 49 of them, the extra pundyon being a surcharge for attaining the more significant single shekel coin rather than many small coins. This surcharge, then, is passed on to the one who wishes to redeem the field. Hence, at an annual rate of one shekel and one pundyon, the redeemer is actually paying one forty-ninth of a pundyon currency exchange surcharge every year]. And therefore, someone who comes to redeem [a field], must pay one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for every year left until the next Jubilee year.   וחשב לו הכהן את הכסף על פי השנים הנותרת: כפי חשבון. כיצד, הרי קצב דמיה של ארבעים ותשע שנים חמשים שקל, הרי שקל לכל שנה, ושקל יתר בין כולן, והשקל ארבעים ושמנה פודיונין, הרי סלע ופונדיון לשנה אלא שחסר פונדיון אחד לכולן, ואמרו רבותינו שאותו פונדיון קלבון לפרוטרוט, והבא לגאול יתן סלע ופונדיון לכל שנה לשנים הנותרות עד שנת היובל:
thereby deducting from the [full] valuation [amount]: the number of years from the [preceding] Jubilee year until the redemption year.   ונגרע מערכך: מנין השנים שמשנת היובל עד שנת הפדיון:
19If the one who consecrated it redeems the field, he shall add to it a fifth of the valuation money, and it shall be his.   יטוְאִם־גָּאֹ֤ל יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה הַמַּקְדִּ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִשִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְקָ֥ם לֽוֹ:
If the [one who consecrated it] redeems the field: The person who consecrated it must add a fifth to this set amount. — [see Rashi on preceding verse; Mizrachi]   ואם גאל יגאל: המקדיש אותו, יוסיף חומש על הקצבה הזאת:
20But if he does not redeem the field, and if he has sold the field to someone else it may no longer be redeemed.   כוְאִם־לֹ֤א יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְאִם־מָכַ֥ר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְאִ֣ישׁ אַחֵ֑ר לֹֽא־יִגָּאֵ֖ל עֽוֹד:
But if he does not redeem the field: [i.e., if] the one who consecrated [the field does not redeem it].   ואם לא יגאל את השדה: המקדיש:
and if… has sold: [i.e., if] the treasurer (Arachin 25b) has sold   ואם מכר: הגזבר:
the field to someone else-it may no longer be redeemed: to revert to the possession of the one who consecrated it [i.e., the original owner, come Jubilee]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   את השדה לאיש אחר לא יגאל עוד: לשוב ליד המקדיש:
21But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee, it shall be holy to the Lord like a field devoted; his inherited property shall belong to the kohen.   כאוְהָיָ֨ה הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה בְּצֵאת֣וֹ בַיֹּבֵ֗ל קֹ֛דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה כִּשְׂדֵ֣ה הַחֵ֑רֶם לַכֹּהֵ֖ן תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee: the possession of the one who had purchased it from the treasurer, just like all fields that leave the possession of their purchasers, come Jubilee.   והיה השדה בצאתו ביבל: מיד הלוקחו מן הגזבר, כדרך שאר שדות היוצאות מיד לוקחיהם ביובל:
holy to the Lord: This does not mean that it reverts to the treasurer as sacred property designated for maintenance of the Holy Temple. Rather, it is “like a field devoted” which is given to the kohanim, as it is said, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you” (Num. 18:14). This too shall be divided in Jubilee among the kohanim of the watch at that time, namely, when Yom Kippur of that Jubilee occurs. — [Arachin 28b]   קדש לה': לא שישוב להקדש בדק הבית ליד הגזבר אלא כשדה החרם הנתון לכהנים, שנאמר (במדבר יח יד) כל חרם בישראל לך יהיה, אף זו תתחלק ביובל לכהנים של אותו משמר, שיום הכפורים של יובל פוגע בו:
22And if he consecrates to the Lord a field that he had acquired, that is not part of his inherited property,   כבוְאִם֙ אֶת־שְׂדֵ֣ה מִקְנָת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֕ר לֹ֖א מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֑וֹ יַקְדִּ֖ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And if [he consecrates…] a field that he had acquired…: There is a difference between an acquired field (שְׂדֵה מִקְנֶה) and a field that is part of inherited property (שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה), namely, that the acquired field is not apportioned among the kohanim in the Jubilee because [the acquirer] can consecrate the field only until Jubilee, for in the Jubilee, the field is destined to leave his possession and revert to the original owner [from whom he acquired it]. Therefore, if he [the original owner (Panim Yafoth; Malbim)] comes to redeem [his property,] he must redeem it with that same fixed rate of valuation for a field that was part of an inherited property. [Should the one who consecrated it redeem it, according to the Sages, he redeems it according to its market value.] But if he does not redeem it, and the treasurer sells it to someone else, or if he does redeem it [according to Tos., Arachin 26b, the reading in Rashi is: If no one redeemed it, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer] in the Jubilee year the field reverts to the one from whom the one who consecrated it bought it, [i.e., the original owner of the field]. Now, lest you say that [the expression] לַאֲשֶׁר קָנֵהוּ מֵאִתּוֹ (in verse 24 below) [refers to] the one from whom this acquirer most recently acquired the field, namely, the treasurer [and that our verse is thus stating here that come Jubilee, the field “reverts” to the treasurer]. Therefore, it was necessary to state (verse 24),“namely, the one whose inherited land it was,” i.e., inherited from his ancestors-referring, therefore, to the original owner who had sold [the field] to the one who consecrated it. — [Arachin 26b]   ואם את שדה מקנתו וגו': חלוק יש בין שדה מקנה לשדה אחוזה, ששדה מקנה לא תתחלק לכהנים ביובל, לפי שאינו יכול להקדישה אלא עד היובל, שהרי ביובל היתה עתידה לצאת מידו ולשוב לבעלים, לפיכך אם בא לגאלה, יגאל בדמים הללו הקצובים לשדה אחוזה. ואם לא יגאל וימכרנה גזבר לאחר, או אם לא יגאל הוא, בשנת היובל ישוב השדה לאשר קנהו מאתו, אותו שהקדישה. ופן תאמר לאשר קנהו הלוקח הזה האחרון מאתו, וזהו הגזבר, לכך הוצרך לומר לאשר לו אחוזת הארץ (פסוק כד), מירושת אבות, וזהו בעלים הראשונים שמכרוה למקדיש:
23the kohen shall calculate for him the amount of the valuation until the Jubilee year, and he shall give the valuation on that day, holy to the Lord.   כגוְחִשַּׁב־ל֣וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן אֵ֚ת מִכְסַ֣ת הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֔ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנָתַ֤ן אֶת־הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
24In the Jubilee year, the field shall return to the one from whom he bought it namely, the one whose inherited land it was.   כדבִּשְׁנַ֤ת הַיּוֹבֵל֙ יָשׁ֣וּב הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר קָנָ֖הוּ מֵֽאִתּ֑וֹ לַֽאֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ אֲחֻזַּ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
25Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel, whereby one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs.   כהוְכָ֨ל־עֶרְכְּךָ֔ יִֽהְיֶ֖ה בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֥ים גֵּרָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֥ה הַשָּֽׁקֶל:
Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel: i.e., every valuation regarding which shekels are written, will be made according to the holy shekel.   וכל ערכך יהיה בשקל הקדש: כל ערכך שכתוב בו שקלים יהיה בשקל הקדש:
one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs: Twenty ma’ahs. This was how it was originally. However, in later times, they “added a sixth” [i.e., instead of a dinar being worth five ma’ahs (or gerahs), it became worth six ma’ahs (or gerahs)]. And indeed, our Rabbis taught: “A dinar is comprised of six ma’ahs of silver, and [since a shekel is worth four dinars,] there are twenty-four ma’ahs to one sela (i.e., shekel)” [as opposed to twenty ma’ahs in the shekel of the Torah]. — [Bech. 50a]   עשרים גרה: עשרים מעות כך היו מתחילה ולאחר מכאן הוסיפו שתות. ואמרו רבותינו שש מעה כסף דינר, עשרים וארבע מעות לסלע:
26However, a firstborn animal that must be [sacrificed as] a firstborn to the Lord no man may consecrate it; whether it be an ox or sheep, it belongs to the Lord.   כואַךְ־בְּכ֞וֹר אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְבֻכַּ֤ר לַֽיהֹוָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה לֹֽא־יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ אִם־שׁ֣וֹר אִם־שֶׂ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הֽוּא:
no man may consecrate it: for the purpose of any other sacrifice, because it does not belong to him [but from its birth, a firstborn animal is designated as holy, to be given to the kohanim]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:107]   לא יקדיש איש אתו: לשם קרבן אחר, לפי שאינו שלו:
27Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal, he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation, and he shall add its fifth to it, and if it is not redeemed, it shall be sold for the valuation [price].   כזוְאִ֨ם בַּבְּהֵמָ֤ה הַטְּמֵאָה֙ וּפָדָ֣ה בְעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִֽשִׁת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו וְאִם־לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל וְנִמְכַּ֥ר בְּעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal: [lit., “And if it is with an unclean animal….”] This verse does not refer back to firstborn animals [discussed in the preceding verse], for it cannot state of a firstborn unclean animal that “he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation” [for the only unclean animal to which the law of the firstborn applies is a donkey (see Exod. 13: 12-13)]; and this [verse] cannot refer to a donkey, because the firstborn of a donkey can be redeemed only with a lamb (see Exod. 13:13), which becomes a gift to the kohen and is not given to the Sanctuary [as does the valuation money in our verse]. Rather, our verse here is referring back to consecration [of one’s possessions to the Temple], for Scripture above (verses 11-13) was speaking about the redemption of a clean animal that had been [consecrated and subsequently] blemished (see Rashi there), and here, our verse is speaking about one who consecrates an unclean animal for maintenance of the Temple. — [Men. 101a]   ואם בבהמה הטמאה וגו': אין המקרא הזה מוסב על הבכור, שאין לומר בבכור בהמה טמאה ופדה בערכך. וחמור אין זה, שהרי אין פדיון פטר חמור אלא טלה, והוא מתנה לכהן ואינו להקדש, אלא הכתוב מוסב על ההקדש. שהכתוב שלמעלה (פסוק יא) דבר בפדיון בהמה טהורה שהוממה, וכאן דבר במקדיש בהמה טמאה לבדק הבית:
he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation: According to how much the kohen will assess its value.   ופדה בערכך: כפי מה שיעריכנה הכהן:
and if it is not redeemed: By the owner,   ואם לא יגאל: ע"י בעלים:
it shall be sold for the valuation [price]: to others. — [Torath Kohanim 27: 108]   ונמכר בערכך: לאחרים:
28However, anything that a man devotes to the Lord from any of his property whether a person, an animal, or part of his inherited field shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed, [for] all devoted things are holy of holies to the Lord.   כחאַ֣ךְ כָּל־חֵ֡רֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַֽחֲרִם֩ אִ֨ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֜ה מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֗וֹ מֵֽאָדָ֤ם וּבְהֵמָה֙ וּמִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֔וֹ לֹ֥א יִמָּכֵ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִגָּאֵ֑ל כָּל־חֵ֕רֶם קֹֽדֶשׁ־קָֽדָשִׁ֥ים ה֖וּא לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
However, anything that a man devotes…: Our Rabbis are in dispute regarding this matter [of devoted property]: Some say that unqualified vows of devoted property [i.e., he says, “This is hereby devoted (חֵרֶם),” and does not specify,] go [automatically] to Sanctuary moneys [designated for maintenance of the Temple. Now, according to this ruling,] what then is the meaning of, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you”? (Num. 18:14). This refers to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim, whereby someone says explicitly: “This is (חֵרֶם) devoted for the kohen .” But some [Rabbis] say that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim . — [Arachin 28b]   אך כל חרם וגו': נחלקו רבותינו בדבר יש אומרים סתם חרמים להקדש, ומה אני מקיים (במדבר יח יד) כל חרם בישראל לך יהיה, בחרמי כהנים שפירש ואמר הרי זה חרם לכהן, ויש שאמרו סתם חרמים לכהנים:
shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed: But, it must be given to the kohen . [For] according to those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim (see preceding Rashi), they explain this verse as referring to unqualified vows of devoted property, while those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to [Sanctuary moneys designated for] maintenance of the Temple, explain this verse as referring to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim. For all agree that devoted property specifically designated to kohanim does not have any redemption, until it falls into the possession of the kohen [and the property then becomes completely non-consecrated and can even be sold by the kohen (Sifthei Chachamim)]. Devoted property to the One on High [i.e., specifically designated to the maintenance of the Holy Temple, on the other hand], may be redeemed [at its market value even before it reaches the Temple treasury, and its redemption moneys go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, and the property itself then becomes non-consecrated]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Arachin 29a]   לא ימכר ולא יגאל: אלא ינתן לכהן. לדברי האומר סתם חרמים לכהנים, מפרש מקרא זה בסתם חרמים. והאומר סתם חרמים לבדק הבית, מפרש מקרא זה בחרמי כהנים, שהכל מודים שחרמי כהנים אין להם פדיון עד שיבואו ליד כהן, וחרמי גבוה נפדים:
all devoted things are holy of holies: Those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, bring this verse as proof [to their position]. However, those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go to the kohanim, explain the phrase here, “all devoted things are holy of holies (קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים),” to mean that the act of devoting items to the kohanim can take effect upon [animal sacrifices with the degree of] “holy of holies” [indicated by the use of the double expression here, קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים] and [moreover, even the single expression itself here, קֹדֶשׁ, indicates that this act can take effect upon sacrifices with a degree] of lesser holiness. Thus, [if someone undertakes to bring a sacrifice, allocates which animal he is to sacrifice and then subsequently devotes that animal to the kohanim,] he must give [the relevant money (see below)] to the kohen [and then sacrifices the animal for the offering he had undertaken], just as we have learnt in Tractate Arachin (28b): If [he made] a vow (נֶדֶר) [to bring a sacrifice, i.e., he said, “I take upon myself (to bring an animal as such-and-such a sacrifice)” (see Rashi on Lev. 22: 18)-in this case, if an animal he had then allocated becomes lost or blemished, he must fulfill his vow with a replacement animal, for his vow was to bring a sacrifice and was not limited to that particular animal. Therefore, in the case of a devoted vow (נֶדֶר),] he must give [to the kohen, money worth] the full value [of the animal, for it is still considered fully his when he devoted it to the kohen]. And if [he committed himself in the form of] a donation (נְדָבָה) [saying, “This particular animal is to be brought as such-and-such a sacrifice” (see Rashi on Lev. 22:18)-in this case, if the animal he had allocated becomes lost or blemished, he need not replace it, for his undertaking was limited only to that particular animal, and therefore the animal is no longer considered his. Therefore, in the case of a devoted donation (נְדָבָה) ,] he need give only [the monetary value of] the “benefit” for the [animal which means: Since in case the animal is lost or dies, he would not be required to bring another one in replacement, then once he has set the animal aside for the purpose of that particular sacrifice, he is considered to have already fulfilled his duty, and so, his actual sacrificing it becomes simply a gift to God, as it were. Enjoying this gesture of presenting a gift to God is the “benefit” he has from that animal and which is also the extent of his monetary ownership. This “benefit” is valued as follows: Someone else, who was not obligated to bring this sacrifice, is asked how much he would pay to have this animal sacrificed in his name as a gift to God. The amount that this person states is the amount that the one devoting must give to the kohen , and then he must bring the animal as a sacrifice, as per his undertaking to bring a donation]. — [Mishnah Arachin 8:6-7 and see Rashi on Talmud Arachin 28b]   כל חרם קדש קדשים הוא: האומר סתם חרמים לבדק הבית מביא ראיה מכאן, והאומר סתם חרמים לכהנים מפרש כל חרם קדש קדשים הוא לה', ללמד שחרמי כהנים חלים על קדשי קדשים ועל קדשים קלים, ונותן לכהן, כמו ששנינו במסכת ערכין (כח ב) אם נדר נותן דמיהם, ואם נדבה נותן את טובתה:
[Anything that a man devotes… from any of his property -] whether it be a person: For example, if he devotes his non-Jewish male or female servants [for they are considered his property]. — [Arachin 28a]   מאדם: כגון שהחרים עבדיו ושפחותיו הכנענים:
29Any devoting of a person who has been devoted, need not be redeemed [for] he is to be put to death.   כטכָּל־חֵ֗רֶם אֲשֶׁ֧ר יָֽחֳרַ֛ם מִן־הָֽאָדָ֖ם לֹ֣א יִפָּדֶ֑ה מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת:
Any devoting… who has been devoted: [This verse refers to] someone who [has been sentenced to death, and, as he] is going out to be executed, another person declares, “I hereby make a personal commitment [to pay] his valuation!” his words have no validity. — [Arachin 6b]   כל חרם אשר יחרם וגו': היוצא ליהרג ואמר אחד ערכו עלי, לא אמר כלום:
[And why not? Because] he is to be put to death: i.e., he is on his way to be executed, and therefore, he “cannot be redeemed”-he has no market value [as a slave] or any valuation.   מות יומת: הרי הולך למות, לפיכך לא יפדה אין לו לא דמים ולא ערך:
30Any tithe of the Land, whether it be from the seed of the land or the fruit of the tree it is the Lord's. It is holy to the Lord.   לוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֨ר הָאָ֜רֶץ מִזֶּ֤רַע הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ מִפְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה ה֑וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
Any tithe of the Land: Scripture is speaking about the Second Tithe. — [Torath Kohanim 27:112]   וכל מעשר הארץ: במעשר שני הכתוב מדבר:
the seed of the land: [Regarding the Second Tithe, Scripture says, “the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil” (Deut. 14:23 and see Rashi there). Thus, here, “the seed of the land” refers to] grain [and]   מזרע הארץ: דגן:
the fruit of the tree: [refers to] wine and oil.   מפרי העץ: תירוש ויצהר:
It is the Lord’s: [The Second Tithe does not belong to God in the sense that one is forbidden to have benefit from it, for indeed it is eaten in Jerusalem by the one who brings it (Sifthei Chachamim) Rather,] God has acquired this [Second Tithe], and it is from His very Table, as it were, that He invites you to come up and eat it in Jerusalem, as it is said, “And you shall eat before the Lord, your God, [in the place which He will choose to establish His Name therein;] the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil…” (Deut. 14: 23). - [Kid. 53a]   לה' הוא: קנאו השם ומשולחנו צוה לך לעלות ולאכלו בירושלים, כמו שנאמר (דברים יד כג) ואכלת לפני ה' אלהיך מעשר דגנך תירושך וגו':
31And if a man redeems some of his tithe, he shall add its fifth to it.   לאוְאִם־גָּאֹ֥ל יִגְאַ֛ל אִ֖ישׁ מִמַּֽעַשְׂר֑וֹ חֲמִֽשִׁית֖וֹ יֹסֵ֥ף עָלָֽיו:
[redeem] some of his tithe [… he shall add its fifth]: ] [“of his tithe,”] but not, of someone else’s tithe. Thus, one who redeems his friend’s tithe, does not add a fifth [to its value]. — [Kid. 24a] And what is [the purpose of] its redemption? In order to permit its being eaten anywhere [outside Jerusalem]. And [instead] he must bring the money [of its redemption] up to Jerusalem and eat [food there, bought with that money], as it is stated, “[And if… the place is too distant from you…] Then you will turn it into money [… and… go to the place which… God will choose. And you will turn that money into whatever your soul desires… and you will eat there before… God]” (Deut. 14:24-26).   ממעשרו: ולא ממעשר חברו, הפודה מעשר של חברו אין מוסיף חומש. ומה היא גאולתו, כדי להתירו באכילה בכל מקום. והמעות יעלה ויאכל בירושלים, כמו שנאמר (דברים יד כד) ונתת בכסף וגו':
32Any tithe of cattle or flock of all that pass under the rod, the tenth shall be holy to the Lord.   לבוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֤ר בָּקָר֙ וָצֹ֔אן כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑בֶט הָֽעֲשִׂירִ֕י יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
of all that pass under the rod: When one comes to tithe them, he lets them out [of the pen] through the gate, one by one, and he strikes [every] tenth animal with a rod that has been painted with vermillion (red dye), so that it is identifiable as the tithe. So he must do with every year’s lambs and calves, [but with no other animals, as Scripture states, “Any tithe of cattle or flock”]. — [Bech. 58b]   תחת השבט: כשבא לעשרן מוציאן בפתח זה אחר זה, והעשירי מכה בשבט צבוע בסיקרא להיות ניכר שהוא מעשר, כן עושה [לגדיים] לטלאים ולעגלים של כל שנה ושנה:
[the tenth] shall be holy: that its blood and sacrificial portions be offered upon the altar, while its meat is eaten by the owner [with nothing given to the kohanim], because it is not enumerated with other [items categorized as] “gifts to the kehunah,” nor do we find that its meat must be given to kohanim.   יהיה קדש: ליקרב למזבח דמו ואמוריו, והבשר נאכל לבעלים, שהרי לא נמנה עם שאר מתנות כהונה, ולא מצינו שיהא ניתן לכהנים:
33He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one, nor shall he offer a substitute for it. And if he does replace it, then [both] that one and its replacement are holy; it cannot be redeemed.   לגלֹ֧א יְבַקֵּ֛ר בֵּֽין־ט֥וֹב לָרַ֖ע וְלֹ֣א יְמִירֶ֑נּוּ וְאִם־הָמֵ֣ר יְמִירֶ֔נּוּ וְהָֽיָה־ה֧וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֛וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵֽל:
He shall not inspect [a tithed animal]…: Since [Scripture] says, “[there will you bring…] the choice of your vows [which you will vow to the Lord]” (Deut. 12:11), one might think that he should select and take out the best [animal for the tithe]. Scripture, therefore, says, “He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one”-i.e., whether [the tenth animal] is unblemished or blemished, [since it is the tenth,] holiness has come upon it [exclusively]. This does not mean that a blemished animal can be sacrificed, but that he should eat it according to the law of tithes and that it must not be shorn or used for labor. — [Bech. 14b, 31b]   לא יבקר וגו': לפי שנאמר (שם יב יא) וכל מבחר נדריכם, יכול יהא בורר ומוציא את היפה, תלמוד לומר לא יבקר בין טוב לרע, בין תם בין בעל מום חלה עליו קדושה, ולא שיקרב בעל מום, אלא יאכל בתורת מעשר ואסור ליגזז וליעבד:
34These are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses to [tell] the children of Israel on Mount Sinai.   לדאֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְו‍ֹ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֖ר סִינָֽי: