Produce that was purchased with money from the second tithe1 should not be redeemed outside Jerusalem unless they contracted ritual impurity from a primary source of ritual impurity. Instead, they should be brought to Jerusalem and eaten there.


פֵּרוֹת הַנִּלְקָחוֹת בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אֵינָן נִפְדִּין בְּרִחוּק מָקוֹם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִטְמְאוּ בְּאַב הַטֻּמְאָה אֶלָּא יַעֲלוּ הֵן עַצְמָן וְיֵאָכְלוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם:


This is the stringency of produce purchased with money from the second tithe over the produce of the second tithe itself. If, however, it contracted ritual impurity from a secondary source of ritual impurity,2 it should be redeemed and eaten in Jerusalem.3


זֶה חֹמֶר בְּלָקוּחַ בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר מִפֵּרוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר עַצְמָן. וְאִם נִטְמָא בִּוְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם יִפָּדוּ וְיֵאָכְלוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם:


Money from the second tithe should be used only to purchase food for humans4 that grows from the earth or grows from the products of the earth, e.g., those entities explicitly mentioned in the Torah [Deuteronomy 14:26]: "Cattle, sheep,5 wine, and strong drink."


אֵין נִלְקָח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר אֶלָּא מַאֲכַל אָדָם שֶׁגִּדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ. אוֹ גִּדּוּלֵי גִּדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ. כְּגוֹן הַפְּרָט הַמְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה (דברים יד כו) "בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן וּבַיַּיִן וּבַשֵּׁכָר":


For this reason, we do not purchase water, salt,6 truffles, and mushrooms7 with money from the second tithes, because they are not products of the earth. Similarly, one should not purchase produce that is attached to the earth or produce that cannot be brought to Jerusalem,8 because this does not resemble cattle and sheep.9


לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לוֹקְחִין בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר מַיִם וּמֶלַח כְּמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת לְפִי שֶׁאֵין גִּדּוּלֵיהֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ. וְלֹא פֵּרוֹת מְחֻבָּרִין לַקַּרְקַע. וְלֹא פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לְהַגִּיעַ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן דּוֹמִין לְבָקָר וָצֹאן:


Honey, eggs, and milk are considered like cattle and sheep. Even though they are not products of the earth, they are the products of its products.10


הַדְּבַשׁ וְהַבֵּיצִים וְהֶחָלָב הֲרֵי הֵן כְּבָקָר וָצֹאן שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן גִּדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע הֲרֵי הֵן גִּדּוּלֵי גִּדּוּלֶיהָ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


A mixture of water and grapes11 that has not turned to vinegar should not be purchased with money from the second tithe, because it is like water. Once it turns to vinegar, it can be purchased [with these funds] like wine or strong drink.12 If one purchased it before it fermented and then it fermented, it is acquired by the second tithe.13


הַתֶּמֶד עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶחְמִיץ אֵינוֹ נִלְקָח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמַיִם. וּמִשֶּׁהֶחְמִיץ נִלְקָח כַּיַּיִן וּכְשֵׁכָר. לְקָחוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶחְמִיץ וְהֶחֱמִיץ קָנָה מַעֲשֵׂר:


When does the above14 apply? When one mixed three units of water and received less than a fourth unit of the mixture. If, however, one mixed three units and received four,15 the mixture is considered as diluted wine and may be purchased with money from the second tithe.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּנָתַן שְׁלֹשָׁה מַיִם וּמָצָא פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבָּעָה. אֲבָל אִם נָתַן שְׁלֹשָׁה וְהוֹצִיא אַרְבָּעָה הֲרֵי זֶה כְּיַיִן מָזוּג וְנִלְקָח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר:


Buds from branches16 and carob trees17 before they become sweet may not be purchased [with money from the second tithe].18 After they become sweet, they may be purchased [with those funds]. But luf,19 mustard, vetch, and other produce that is pickled may be purchased [with these funds], whether they have already become sweet or not.20 Date hearts21 may be purchased with money from the second tithe.


לוּלְבֵי זְרָדִין וְהֶחָרוּבִין עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַמְתִּיקוּ אֵין נִלְקָחִין. אַחַר שֶׁיַּמְתִּיקוּ נִלְקָחִין. אֲבָל הַלּוּף וְהַחַרְדָּל וְהַתֻּרְמוּסִין וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַנִּכְבָּשִׁים בֵּין מִשֶּׁיַּמְתִּיקוּ בֵּין עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִמְתִּיקוּ נִלְקָחִין. וְהַקּוֹר נִלְקָח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר:


Safron may not be purchased [with these funds], for it serves only as a coloring. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations involving herbs that provide an aroma, color, or taste. Since these herbs are not [included] in foods to be eaten for their substance, only for their flavor, they should not be purchased with money from the second tithe. Therefore spices,22 pepper, costus, chiltit,23 safflower, and the like may not be purchased with money from the second tithes.


הַכַּרְכּוֹם אֵינוֹ נִלְקָח שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְמַרְאֶה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִנּוֹתְנֵי רֵיחַ וּמַרְאֶה וְטַעַם הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן לַאֲכִילַת גּוּפָן אֶלָּא לְטַעַם שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין אֵינָן נִלְקָחִין בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. לְפִיכָךְ רָאשֵׁי בְּשָׂמִים וְהַפִּלְפְּלִין וְהַקֹּשְׁטְ וְהַחִלְתִּית וְחַלּוֹת חֲרִיעַ וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּאֵלּוּ אֵינָן נִלְקָחִין בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר:


Anise, when used to flavor a cooked dish, should not be purchased with money from the second tithe. If it is used for a dip24 or the like, in which instance, it is part of the food itself, it can be purchased with money from the second tithe.25 If one mixed water and salt and put oil into it, it is considered as brine and may be purchased with money from the second tithe. The cost of the water and the salt should be included in the cost of the oil.26


הַשֶּׁבֶת אִם לִתֵּן טַעַם בִּקְדֵרָה אֵינָהּ נִלְקַחַת בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. וְאִם לִכְמַךְ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל גּוּפָהּ נִלְקַחַת בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. עֵרֵב מַיִם וּמֶלַח אִם נָתַן לְתוֹכוֹ שֶׁמֶן הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמֻרְיָס וְלוֹקֵחַ מֵהֶן בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. וּמַבְלִיעַ דְּמֵי הַמַּיִם וְהַמֶּלַח בִּדְמֵי הַשֶּׁמֶן:


One may not use money of Maaser Sheni to purchase produce that is terumah,27 because by doing so, one limits the consumption of both [the terumah] and [the second tithe]. For terumah may only be eaten by priests on the evening [after they immersed themselves].28 It is permitted to those in the acute state of onein mourning and can be eaten in any place.29 The second tithe, by contrast, is permitted to non-priests and those who immersed themselves that day.30 It is forbidden to one in the acute state of onein mourning and must be eaten in Jerusalem. Thus, [by purchasing terumah with such funds,] one restricts the consumption of the second tithe and the consumption of terumah.31


אֵין לוֹקְחִין תְּרוּמוֹת בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְמַעֵט אֲכִילָתוֹ וַאֲכִילָתָהּ. שֶׁאֵין אוֹכְלִין אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא כֹּהֲנִים מְעֹרְבֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְאוֹנֵן וְנֶאֱכֶלֶת בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר מֻתָּר לְזָרִים וְלִטְבוּל יוֹם וְאָסוּר לְאוֹנֵן וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. נִמְצָא מְמַעֵט אֲכִילַת מַעֲשֵׂר וַאֲכִילַת הַתְּרוּמָה:


A domesticated animal to be offered as a peace offering may be purchased32 from the money of the second tithes,33 since peace offerings may be eaten by non-priests. At the outset, [pilgrims] would purchase animals with the money of the second tithe to partake of them as ordinary meat so that they would not be offered on the altar.34 [Hence,] the court decreed that one could not use these funds to purchase a domesticated animal unless it was brought as a peace offering. One may, however, use these funds to purchase non-domesticated animals35 or fowl, for these are unfit for peace offerings.


לוֹקְחִין בְּהֵמָה לְזִבְחֵי הַשְּׁלָמִים מִכֶּסֶף הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. שֶׁהַשְּׁלָמִים נֶאֱכָלִים לְזָרִים. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ לוֹקְחִין בְּהֵמוֹת לְאָכְלָן חֻלִּין מִכֶּסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי כְּדֵי לְהַבְרִיחָם מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. גָּזְרוּ בֵּית דִּין שֶׁאֵין לוֹקְחִין בְּהֵמָה מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר אֶלָּא לִשְׁלָמִים. אֲבָל חַיָּה וְעוֹף לוֹקְחִין שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לִשְׁלָמִים:


The produce of the Sabbatical year may not be purchased with money from the second tithes, because there is an obligation to destroy it, as will be explained.36


אֵין לוֹקְחִין פֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. לְפִי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לְבַעֵר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:


When a person purchases salt, produce that is still attached [to the ground], or produce that cannot be brought to Jerusalem,37 they are not acquired by the second tithe38 even though the money is now considered as ordinary funds.39


הַלּוֹקֵחַ מַיִם וּמֶלַח אוֹ פֵּרוֹת מְחֻבָּרִין אוֹ פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לְהַגִּיעַ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם לֹא קָנָה הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצְאוּ הַמָּעוֹת לְחֻלִּין:


When a person inadvertently purchases produce outside of Jerusalem with money from the second tithe,40 the seller is compelled to return the money to the owner41 and it is considered as the second tithe as it was originally.42 If he makes the purchase intentionally,43 the produce he purchased must be taken to Jerusalem and eaten there.44 [In the age when] the Temple no longer exists,45 they should be put aside until they rot.46


הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. בְּשׁוֹגֵג כּוֹפִין אֶת הַמּוֹכֵר לְהַחֲזִיר הַדָּמִים לַבְּעָלִים וְהֵן מַעֲשֵׂר כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ. בְּמֵזִיד יַעֲלוּ הַפֵּרוֹת וְיֵאָכְלוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְאִם אֵין מִקְדָּשׁ יַנִּיחֵם עַד שֶׁיֵּרָקְבוּ:


Similarly, a domesticated animal47 should not be purchased with money from the second tithe outside of Jerusalem. If one purchased it unknowingly, the money should be returned to its [owner]. If it was done intentionally, it should be brought to Jerusalem and eaten there. [In the age when] the Temple no longer exists, [the animal] and its hide should be buried.48


וְכֵן אֵין לוֹקְחִין בְּהֵמָה בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְאִם לָקַח בְּשׁוֹגֵג יַחְזְרוּ הַדָּמִים לִמְקוֹמָן. בְּמֵזִיד תַּעֲלֶה וְתֵאָכֵל בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְאִם אֵין מִקְדָּשׁ תִּקָּבֵר הִיא וְעוֹרָהּ:


[The following laws apply when] one purchases servants, land, or an unkosher animal, whether intentionally or unintentionally,49 [with money from the second tithe]. If the seller fled,50 [the purchaser] should [purchase food] with the amount of money he spent and eat it in Jerusalem under the restrictions applying to the second tithe. This is the general principle: If the seller fled or died, whenever one spent the money of the second tithe on matters other than food, drink, and daubs, he must partake of an equivalent [value of food in Jerusalem]. If the seller was present, the money should be returned to [the original owner].51 Similarly, if a person brought burnt offerings, sin offerings, or guilt offerings from the money of the second tithe,52 he must partake of an equivalent [value of food in Jerusalem].53


לָקַח עֲבָדִים וְקַרְקָעוֹת וּבְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג אִם בָּרַח הַמּוֹכֵר הֲרֵי זֶה יֵאָכֵל כְּנֶגֶד אוֹתָן הַמָּעוֹת בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם בְּתוֹרַת מַעֲשֵׂר. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁהוֹצִיא חוּץ לַאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה וְסִיכָה מִדְּמֵי מַעֲשֵׂר וּבָרַח הַמּוֹכֵר אוֹ מֵת יֵאָכֵל כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה הַמּוֹכֵר קַיָּם יַחְזְרוּ הַדָּמִים לִמְקוֹמָן. וְכֵן אִם הֵבִיא עוֹלוֹת וְחַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת מִדְּמֵי מַעֲשֵׂר יֹאכַל כְּנֶגְדָּן:


When a person [used money from the second tithe to] purchase a non-domesticated animal for a peace offering54 or a domesticated animal to be eaten as ordinary meat,55 it is as if he [used it to] purchase an ox for plowing and the animal is not designated as a peace offering.56 If he purchased a domesticated animal to be offered as a peace offering and it became blemished, the holiness of the second tithe leaves it. It should be redeemed57 and the funds are not considered as money from the second tithe. Nevertheless, if he redeems it himself,58 he must add a fifth of its value.59


לָקַח חַיָּה לְזִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים. וּבְהֵמָה לִבְשַׂר תַּאֲוָה. הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁקָּנָה שׁוֹר לַחֲרִישָׁה וְלֹא קָנָה שְׁלָמִים. לָקַח בְּהֵמָה לִשְׁלָמִים וְנָפַל בָּהּ מוּם פָּקְעָה מִמֶּנָּה קְדֻשַּׁת מַעֲשֵׂר וּפוֹדֶה אוֹתָהּ. וְאֵין הַדָּמִים מַעֲשֵׂר. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אִם פְּדָאָהּ לְעַצְמוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ:


When one consecrates money from the second tithe for [the purpose of purchasing] a peace offering, the consecration is not effective,60 for the sanctity of the peace offering does not encompass [an entity already] sanctified to the second tithe. For the second tithe is the property of the Most High.61 Needless to say, this applies if he consecrates the produce of the second tithe itself for the purpose of purchasing] a peace offering, the consecration is not effective.


הַמַּתְפִּיס מְעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר לִשְׁלָמִים לֹא קָנוּ שְׁלָמִים. שֶׁקְּדֻשַּׁת שְׁלָמִים אֵינָהּ חָלָה עַל קְדֻשַּׁת מַעֲשֵׂר. שֶׁהַמַּעֲשֵׂר מָמוֹן גָּבוֹהַּ הוּא. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם הִתְפִּיס הַמַּעֲשֵׂר עַצְמָן לִשְׁלָמִים שֶׁלֹּא קָנוּ שְׁלָמִים:


[The following laws apply when a person] partakes of entities consecrated to the second tithe as ordinary produce [outside of Jerusalem], even intentionally. If he partook of the produce from the second tithe itself, he should cry out to heaven.62 If he [used] money from the second tithe [to purchase other food that] he ate, the money should be returned to its [owner]63 and he should bring them to Jerusalem and partake of them there. Alternatively, if the money cannot be returned, he should [purchase food] with the amount of money he spent and eat it in Jerusalem.


הָאוֹכֵל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בְּתוֹרַת חֻלִּין אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵזִיד אִם פֵּרוֹת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר עַצְמָן אָכַל יָצָא יְדֵי שָׁמַיִם. וְאִם כֶּסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר אָכַל יַחְזְרוּ דָּמִים לִמְקוֹמָם וְיַעֲלוּ וְיֵאָכְלוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. אוֹ יֹאכַל כְּנֶגְדָּן בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם אִם אֵין יָכוֹל לְהַחֲזִיר אֶת הַדָּמִים: