1

[The same laws apply] whether one took the vow on his own [volition] or another person states a vow for him and he answers Amen or says something which like Amen implies that he accepts the matter.1

א

אֶחָד הַנּוֹדֵר מִפִּי עַצְמוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהִדִּירוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ וְאָמַר אָמֵן אוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁעִנְיָנוֹ כְּעִנְיַן אָמֵן שֶׁהוּא קַבָּלַת דְּבָרִים:

2

A person who takes an oath is not forbidden [to partake of] the entity which he forbade to himself until he makes a verbal statement to that effect2 and his statements must match his intent, as we explained with regard to oaths.3

If, by contrast, one intended to take a nazirite vow and instead, vowed to bring a sacrifice, [intended to vow to bring] a sacrifice and instead, took a nazirite [vow], [intended to take] an oath and instead, [took] a vow, [intended to take] a vow and instead, [took] an oath, intended to say "figs" and instead, said "grapes," both are permitted to him.4 There is no vow.

ב

וְאֵין הַנּוֹדֵר נֶאֱסָר בְּדָבָר שֶׁאָסַר עַל עַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא בִּשְׂפָתָיו וְיִהְיֶה פִּיו וְלִבּוֹ שָׁוִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּשְׁבוּעוֹת. אֲבָל הַמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִנְדֹּר בְּנָזִיר וְנָדַר בְּקָרְבָּן. בְּקָרְבָּן וְנָדַר בְּנָזִיר. בִּשְׁבוּעָה וְנָדַר. אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לִנְדֹּר וְנִשְׁבַּע. אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לוֹמַר תְּאֵנִים וְאָמַר עֲנָבִים. הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם וְאֵין כָּאן נֵדֶר:

3

When a person takes a vow dependent on the intent of others, it is like he took an oath dependent on the intent of others.5 Similarly, if one takes a vow and retracts6 immediately thereafter or someone rebuked him immediately thereafter and he accepted their statement, he is permitted [to use the article mentioned].7 The laws applying to all these matters with regard to vows are the same as those applying to oaths.8

ג

הַנּוֹדֵר עַל דַּעַת אֲחֵרִים הֲרֵי זֶה כְּנִשְׁבָּע עַל דַּעַת אֲחֵרִים. וְכֵן הַנּוֹדֵר וְחָזַר בּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ כְּדֵי דִּבּוּר אוֹ שֶׁמִּחוּ בּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ כְּדֵי דִּבּוּר וְקִבֵּל הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְדִין כָּל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים בִּנְדָרִים כְּדִינָן בִּשְׁבוּעוֹת:

4

[The following laws apply when] a person issued a stipulation before he made a vow, saying: "I am retracting from any vow that I will take from now until ten years in the future," "They are nullified," or other similar statements, and then took a vow: If he remembered the stipulation at the time he made the vow, the vow is effective, for by taking the vow, he nullified the stipulation.9 If, however, he did not remember the stipulation until after he made the vow, the vow is nullified10 even if [immediately after taking the vow], he brought the stipulation to mind and maintained it. Although he did not verbalize his retraction at the time [he made the vow], the retraction preceded the vow and he verbalized it beforehand.11 There is an authority who rules stringently and says that he must remember the stipulation immediately thereafter taking the vow.12

ד

מִי שֶׁהִתְנָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּדֹּר וְאָמַר כָּל נֵדֶר שֶׁאֶדֹּר מִכָּאן וְעַד עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים הֲרֵינִי חוֹזֵר בָּהֶן אוֹ הֲרֵי הֵן בְּטֵלִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בַּדְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָדַר. אִם הָיָה זוֹכֵר הַתְּנַאי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנָּדַר הֲרֵי נִדְרוֹ קַיָּם שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּטֵּל הַתְּנַאי בְּנֵדֶר זֶה. וְאִם לֹא זָכַר הַתְּנַאי אֶלָּא אַחַר שֶׁנָּדַר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקִּבֵּל הַתְּנַאי בְּלִבּוֹ וְקִיְּמוֹ הֲרֵי הַנֵּדֶר בָּטֵל. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיא עַתָּה הַחֲזָרָה בְּפִיו כְּבָר הִקְדִּים הַחֲזָרָה לַנֵּדֶר וְהוֹצִיאָהּ בְּפִיו מִקֹּדֶם. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁמּוֹרֶה לְהַחְמִיר וְאוֹמֵר וְהוּא שֶׁיִּזְכֹּר הַתְּנַאי אַחַר שֶׁנָּדַר בְּתוֹךְ כְּדֵי דִּבּוּר:

5

[The following rules apply when] one made a stipulation [similar to that mentioned above]13 for a year or for ten years and afterwards took a vow, remembering at the time that he took the vow that he had made a stipulation, but forgetting the subject of that stipulation or what it involved. If [when taking the vow], he said:14 "I am acting according to my original intention,"15 his vow is not effective, for he has nullified it. If he does not make such a statement, he has nullified the stipulation and upheld the vow, for, at the time he took the vow, he remembered that there was a stipulation and, nevertheless, took the vow.16

ה

מִי שֶׁהִקְדִּים אֶת הַתְּנַאי לְשָׁנָה אוֹ לְעֶשֶׂר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָדַר וְנִזְכַּר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנָּדַר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תְּנַאי וְשָׁכַח עַל אֵי זֶה דָּבָר הִתְנָה וְכֵיצַד הָיָה הַתְּנַאי. אִם אָמַר עַל דַּעַת רִאשׁוֹנָה אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אֵין נִדְרוֹ נֵדֶר שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּטְּלוֹ. וְאִם לֹא אָמַר עַל דַּעַת רִאשׁוֹנָה אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה כְּבָר בִּטֵּל הַתְּנַאי וְקִיֵּם הַנֵּדֶר שֶׁהֲרֵי זָכַר בִּשְׁעַת הַנֵּדֶר שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם תְּנַאי וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן נָדַר:

6

There are some of the Geonim who maintain that all of these statements are applicable only with regard to vows and not to oaths,17 but there is an authority who maintains that the laws pertaining to vows and oaths are the same in this regard. Thus one may issue a stipulation nullifying an oath [beforehand] in the same manner as was stated with regard to vows.18

ו

יֵשׁ מֵהַגְּאוֹנִים שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֵין כָּל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים נוֹהֲגִין אֶלָּא בִּנְדָרִים בִּלְבַד לֹא בִּשְׁבוּעוֹת. וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמּוֹרֶה שֶׁדִּין הַנְּדָרִים וְהַשְּׁבוּעוֹת בְּעִנְיָנוֹת אֵלּוּ אֶחָד הֵם. וְכִי יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַקְדִּים תְּנַאי לִשְׁבוּעָתוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאָמְרוּ בִּנְדָרִים:

7

[When a person takes] a vow whose object is not clear,19 we rule stringently.20 If he interprets them, there is room for both leniency and stringency.

What does this imply? If one says: "Let this produce be considered as salted meat and as wine poured as a libation for me," we ask him what his intent was. If he explained himself, saying "My intent was that salted meat refers to sacrificial meat21 and wine poured as a libation refers to libations poured on the Temple altar," he is forbidden [to partake of the produce].22 If, however, he says: "My intent was a sacrifice offered to a false deity23 and wine poured as a libation to it," he is permitted.24 If he took the vow without a specific intent, he is forbidden.

ז

סְתָם נְדָרִים לְהַחְמִיר. וּפֵרוּשָׁן יֵשׁ בּוֹ לְהָקֵל וּלְהַחְמִיר. כֵּיצַד. הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הַפֵּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ עָלַי כְּבָשָׂר מָלִיחַ וּכְיֵין נֶסֶךְ. אוֹמְרִין לוֹ וּמֶה הָיָה בְּלִבְּךָ. אִם פֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר כְּבָשָׂר מָלִיחַ שֶׁל קָרְבָּן וּכְיַיִן שֶׁנִּתְנַסֵּךְ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הָיָה בְּלִבִּי הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. וְאִם אָמַר לֹא הָיָה בְּלִבִּי אֶלָּא תִּקְרֹבֶת עַכּוּ''ם וְיַיִן שֶׁנִּתְנַסֵּךְ לָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְאִם נָדַר סְתָם הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר:

8

Similar principles apply when one says: "This produce is considered as cherem (a dedication offering) for me." If [his intent was] a dedication offering for the upkeep of the Temple, he is forbidden [to partake of the produce].25 If [his intent] was a dedication offering for the priests, he is permitted, because [these offerings] become [the priests'] personal possessions and are not forbidden [to others].26 If [he took the vow] without a specific intent, he is forbidden.

ח

וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הַפֵּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ עָלַי חֵרֶם. אִם כְּחֵרֶם שֶׁל בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת אָסוּר. וְאִם כְּחֶרְמֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים מֻתָּר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מָמוֹן שֶׁלָּהֶם וְאֵין בָּהּ אִסּוּר. וְאִם סְתָם אָסוּר:

9

[If he states:] "May they be considered like the tithes for me," [we investigate his intent. If his intent was] the tithe taken from animals, [it becomes] forbidden, because these are sacrifices that he consecrates through his actions, as we explained.27 [If his intent was] the tithe taken from grain, it is permitted.28 If [he took the vow] without a specific intent, he is forbidden.

ט

הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי כְּמַעֲשֵׂר. אִם כְּמַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קָרְבָּן שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁוֹ בְּיָדוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאִם כְּמַעֲשַׂר דָּגָן מֻתָּר וְאִם סְתָם אָסוּר:

10

[If he states:] "May they be considered like terumah for me," [we investigate his intent. If his intent was] the money donated for the sacrificial offerings,29 it is forbidden. If his intent was terumah [separated from] the grain heap, it is permitted.30 If [he took the vow] without a specific intent, he is forbidden. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

י

הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי כִּתְרוּמָה. אִם לִתְרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה נִתְכַּוֵּן הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. וְאִם לִתְרוּמַת הַגֹּרֶן נִתְכַּוֵּן מֻתָּר. וְאִם סְתָם אָסוּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

11

When does the above31 apply? In a place where the terms used have these two possible meanings. In a place where the term cherem without any further definition is used only to refer to the dedication offerings for the upkeep of the Temple,32 if he says: "[This produce is considered] as cherem for me," he is forbidden [to partake of the produce].33 Similarly, if their custom was to use the term cherem without any further definition to refer only to dedication offerings given the priests, he is permitted. Similar concepts apply in all analogous situations, for with regard to vows, we follow the connotations understood by the people in that place in that era.34

יא

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמַּשְׁמָע כָּל אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ שָׁם שְׁנֵי עִנְיָנוֹת. אֲבָל מָקוֹם שֶׁדַּרְכָּן שֶׁאֵין קוֹרְאִים חֵרֶם סְתָם אֶלָּא לְחֶרְמֵי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת בִּלְבַד וְאָמַר שָׁם הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי חֵרֶם הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה דַּרְכָּן שֶׁאֵין קוֹרְאִים חֵרֶם סְתָם אֶלָּא לְחֶרְמֵי כֹּהֲנִים הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה שֶׁאֵין הוֹלְכִין בִּנְדָרִים אֶלָּא אַחַר לְשׁוֹן אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם בְּאוֹתוֹ זְמַן:

12

[The ensuing rules apply] in all situations analogous to those exemplified: i.e., situations when a person takes a vow which appears to everyone to involve a prohibition, but he says: "My intent was for this and this specific instance,"35 for example, he takes a vow based on a cherem,36but [afterwards] said: "My intent was a sea cherem, i.e., a fishing net,"37 he took a vow based on an offering, but said: "My intent was an offering brought to the king," He told a colleague: "Myself is like a sacrifice for you," and then explained: "My intent was only to forbid him from [benefiting from] a bone38that I set aside so that I could take a vow as a lark," he took a vow that his wife could not benefit from him and then explained that his intent was his first wife whom he had divorced.

[In all the above situations,] if the person who took the vow was a Torah scholar, he is permitted and he need not ask a sage [for the vow to be released].39 If the one who took the vow is a common person, we make it appear to him that it is a vow, yet we give him an opportunity to ask for its release from another vantage point and then release the vow.40 Whether he is a Torah scholar or a common person, we rebuke him and teach him not to conduct himself in this manner with regard to vows and not to take vows as a lark or a caper.

יב

הַנּוֹדֵר בְּחֵרֶם וְאָמַר לֹא הָיָה בְּלִבִּי אֶלָּא חֶרְמוֹ שֶׁל יָם שֶׁהִיא הַמִּכְמֹרֶת. נָדַר בְּקָרְבָּן וְאָמַר לֹא הָיָה בְּלִבִּי אֶלָּא בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת מְלָכִים. אָמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ הֲרֵי עַצְמִי עָלֶיךָ קָרְבָּן וְאָמַר לֹא הָיָה בְּלִבִּי אֶלָּא לְאָסְרוֹ בְּעֶצֶם שֶׁהִנַּחְתִּי לִי לִהְיוֹת נוֹדֵר בּוֹ דֶּרֶךְ שְׂחוֹק. נָדַר שֶׁלֹּא תֵּהָנֶה לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאָמַר לֹא הָיָה בְּלִבִּי אֶלָּא אִשְׁתִּי רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁגֵּרַשְׁתִּיהָ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁמַּשְׁמָעָן לְכָל הָעָם אִסּוּר וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא נִתְכַּוַּנְתִּי אֶלָּא לְכָךְ וּלְכָךְ. אִם הָיָה הַנּוֹדֵר תַּלְמִיד חָכָם הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר וְאֵין צָרִיךְ שְׁאֵלָה לְחָכָם. וְאִם הָיָה עַם הָאָרֶץ מַרְאִין בְּעֵינָיו שֶׁזֶּה נֵדֶר וְשֶׁהוּא אָסוּר וּפוֹתְחִים לוֹ פֶּתַח מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר וּמַתִּירִין לוֹ. וּבֵין שֶׁהָיָה תַּלְמִיד חָכָם אוֹ עַם הָאָרֶץ גּוֹעֲרִין בָּהֶן וּמְלַמְּדִין אוֹתָן שֶׁלֹּא יִנְהֲגוּ מִנְהָג זֶה בִּנְדָרִים וְלֹא יִהְיוּ נוֹדְרִין דֶּרֶךְ שְׂחוֹק וְהִתּוּל:

13

Similarly, when a person tells his wife: "You are considered as my mother to me," or he says: "Let this produce be considered as pig meat for me," the vow is not effective, as we explained.41 If the person who took the vow was a Torah scholar, he is permitted and he need not ask a sage [for the vow to be released].42 If the one who took the vow is a common person, he must ask a sage [for the vow to be released]. We make it appear to him that his wife is forbidden to him and that the produce is forbidden,43 but we give him an opportunity to ask for its release from another vantage point and then release the vow in order that people not act frivolously with regard to vows.44

יג

וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר לְאִשְׁתּוֹ הֲרֵי אַתְּ עָלַי כְּאִמִּי אוֹ הָאוֹמֵר פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ עָלַי כִּבְשַׂר חֲזִיר שֶׁאֵין כָּאן נֵדֶר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אִם הָיָה הָאוֹמֵר תַּלְמִיד חָכָם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שְׁאֵלָה לְחָכָם. וְאִם הָיָה עַם הָאָרֶץ צָרִיךְ שְׁאֵלָה לְחָכָם וּמַרְאִין בְּעֵינָיו שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ אֲסוּרָה וְשֶׁאוֹתָן הַפֵּרוֹת אֲסוּרִין וּפוֹתְחִין לוֹ פֶּתַח מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר וּמַתִּירִין לוֹ נִדְרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִנְהֲגוּ קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ בִּנְדָרִים:

14

Although declaring property ownerless is not a vow,45 it resembles a vow, for the person is forbidden to retract.

What is meant by declaring property ownerless? A person says: "This property is free for everyone"46 to acquire. It applies to both movable property and landed property.

What is the law [applying to property] declared ownerless? Whoever comes first and acquires it,47 becomes the owner. He acquires it as his own and it becomes his. Even the person who declared the property ownerless has the same rights as others with regard to it. If he comes first and acquires it, it becomes his.48

יד

הַהֶפְקֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֵדֶר הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ נֵדֶר שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. וּמַה הוּא הַהֶפְקֵר הוּא שֶׁיֹּאמַר אָדָם נְכָסִים אֵלּוּ הֶפְקֵר לַכּל. בֵּין בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין בֵּין בְּקַרְקָעוֹת. וְכֵיצַד דִּין הַהֶפְקֵר. כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם וְזָכָה בּוֹ קָנָהוּ לְעַצְמוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה שֶׁלּוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ זֶה שֶׁהִפְקִיר דִּינוֹ בּוֹ כְּדִין כָּל אָדָם אִם קָדַם וְזָכָה בּוֹ קָנָהוּ:

15

When a person declares his property ownerless [so that it can be acquired by] the poor, but not by the rich, it is not ownerless.49 He must declare it ownerless for everyone like the produce of the Sabbatical year.

When a person declares his servants ownerless, those past majority acquire themselves.50 With regard to those below majority, whoever comes first and takes hold of them acquires them as is the law with regard to other movable property.51

טו

הַמַּפְקִיר לַעֲנִיִּים אֲבָל לֹא לַעֲשִׁירִים אֵינוֹ הֶפְקֵר עַד שֶׁיַּפְקִיר לַכּל כִּשְׁמִטָּה. והַמַּפְקִיר עֲבָדָיו הַגְּדוֹלִים קָנוּ עַצְמָן. וְהַקְּטַנִּים כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם וְהֶחֱזִיק בָּהֶן זָכָה כִּשְׁאָר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין:

16

When a person declares landed property ownerless, whoever comes first and manifests his ownership52 over it acquires it.

According to Scriptural Law, even when a person declares his property ownerless in the presence of one person, it becomes ownerless and one is not required to tithe its produce,53 as will be explained in its place.54 According to Rabbinic decree, however, [property] is not ownerless until one declares as such in the presence of three people so that one can acquire it and two can act as witnesses.

Should one say: "This is ownerless and this," there is an unresolved doubt whether the second entity is ownerless.55 If he said: "...and this is like this" or "...and also this," he has associated the second entity [with the first], and it is definitely ownerless.

טז

הַמַּפְקִיר אֶת הַקַּרְקַע כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם וְהֶחֱזִיק בָּהּ זָכָה. דִּין תּוֹרָה אֲפִלּוּ הִפְקִיר בִּפְנֵי אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה הֶפְקֵר וְנִפְטָר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֵינוֹ הֶפְקֵר עַד שֶׁיַּפְקִיר בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֶחָד זוֹכֶה אִם רָצָה וְהַשְּׁנַיִם מְעִידִים. וְהָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי זֶה הֶפְקֵר וְזֶה. הֲרֵי הַשֵּׁנִי סְפֵק הֶפְקֵר וְאִם אָמַר וְזֶה כְּמוֹ זֶה אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר וְגַם זֶה הֲרֵי הִתְפִּיס הַשֵּׁנִי וְיִהְיֶה הֶפְקֵר וַדַּאי:

17

When a person declares his field ownerless and no one else acquires it,56 during the first three days, he may retract.57 After these three days, he may not retract unless he comes first and acquires it.58 He is like one acquiring ownerless property.59 [There is no difference] between him and another person.

יז

הַמַּפְקִיר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ וְלֹא זָכָה בָּהּ אָדָם כָּל שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. אַחַר שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קָדַם וְזָכָה בָּהּ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּזוֹכֶה מִן הַהֶפְקֵר בֵּין הוּא בֵּין אַחֵר:

18

When a person says: "This field is declared ownerless for one day," "...for one week," "...for one month," "...for one year," or "...for one seven-year cycle," he may retract before he or another person acquires it.60 Once it is acquired, whether by the person himself or by someone else, he may not retract.

Why does he have the right to retract before it was acquired? Because this is an uncommon matter. [Generally,] a person will not declare [property] ownerless for a limited time.

יח

הָאוֹמֵר שָׂדֶה זוֹ מֻפְקֶרֶת לְיוֹם אֶחָד לְשַׁבָּת אַחַת לְחֹדֶשׁ אֶחָד לְשָׁנָה אַחַת לְשָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד עַד שֶׁלֹּא זָכָה בָּהּ הוּא אוֹ אַחֵר יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. וּמִשֶּׁזָּכָה בָּהּ בֵּין הוּא בֵּין אַחֵר אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה יֵשׁ לוֹ לַחְזֹר כָּאן עַד שֶׁיִּזְכּוּ בָּהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּה דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי הוּא שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַפְקִיר לִזְמַן קָצוּב:

19

When a person comes and watches over ownerless property, looking at it so that another person will not take it, he does not acquire it by looking at it. Instead, he must lift it up if it were movable property61 or manifest ownership over it if it were landed property,62 as purchasers acquire property.63

יט

דָּבָר הַמֻּפְקָר שֶׁבָּא אֶחָד וּשְׁמָרוֹ וְהָיָה מַבִּיט בּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִטְּלֶנּוּ אָדָם לֹא קָנָהוּ בְּהַבָּטָה אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהוֹ אִם הָיָה מִטַּלְטְלִין אוֹ יַחֲזִיק בַּקַּרְקַע כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקּוֹנִין הַלָּקוֹחוֹת: