1

When Reuven tells Shimon: "I [am forbidden] to you like a dedication offering"1 or "You are forbidden to benefit from me," it is forbidden for Shimon to benefit from Reuven.2 If he transgresses and benefits from him, he is not liable for lashes, because Shimon did not say anything.3 Reuven is permitted to derive benefit from Shimon, because he did not forbid this to himself.

א

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁאָמַר לְשִׁמְעוֹן הֲרֵינִי עָלֶיךָ חֵרֶם אוֹ הֲרֵי אַתָּה אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָתִי נֶאֱסַר עַל שִׁמְעוֹן שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה בִּרְאוּבֵן. וְאִם עָבַר וְנֶהֱנָה אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא אָמַר שִׁמְעוֹן כְּלוּם. וּמֻתָּר לִרְאוּבֵן לֵהָנוֹת בְּשִׁמְעוֹן שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא אָסַר עַצְמוֹ בַּהֲנָיָתוֹ:

2

If he tells Shimon: "You [are forbidden] to me like a dedication offering" or "I am forbidden to benefit from you," Reuven is forbidden to benefit from Shimon. If he derives benefit, he is liable for lashes, because he desecrated his word. Shimon is permitted to benefit from Reuven.

If he tells him: "I [am forbidden] to you like a dedication offering and you are [forbidden] to me" or "I am forbidden to benefit from you and you are forbidden to benefit from me," they are both forbidden to benefit from each other. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ב

אָמַר לְשִׁמְעוֹן הֲרֵי אַתָּה עָלַי חֵרֶם אוֹ הֲרֵינִי אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָתְךָ הֲרֵי נֶאֱסַר רְאוּבֵן מִלֵּהָנוֹת בְּשִׁמְעוֹן וְאִם נֶהֱנָה לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי חִלֵּל דְּבָרוֹ וְשִׁמְעוֹן מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיַת רְאוּבֵן. אָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵינִי עָלֶיךָ חֵרֶם וְאַתָּה עָלַי אוֹ הֲרֵינִי אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָתְךָ וְאַתָּה אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָתִי שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִין זֶה בָּזֶה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

3

If Reuven tells Shimon: "So-and-so's produce is forbidden to you" or "You are forbidden to benefit from so-and-so," his words are of no consequence. For a person cannot cause his colleague to be prohibited with regard to a matter that is not his unless [that person] responds Amen, as we explained.4

ג

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁאָמַר לְשִׁמְעוֹן הֲרֵי פֵּרוֹת פְּלוֹנִי אֲסוּרִין עָלֶיךָ. אוֹ הֲרֵי אַתָּה אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיַת פְּלוֹנִי אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם. שֶׁאֵין אָדָם אוֹסֵר חֲבֵרוֹ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָנָה שִׁמְעוֹן אָמֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

When a person tells a colleague: "This loaf [of bread] of mine is forbidden to you," it [remains] forbidden to him even if he gives it to him as a present.5 If he dies, and [the other person] inherits it or [it is acquired by a third party] who gives it to him as a present, he is permitted. For [the one taking the vow said] "My loaf," and now it is not his.6

ד

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ כִּכָּרִי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה עָלֶיךָ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנְּתָנָהּ לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה עָלָיו. מֵת וְנָפְלָה לוֹ בִּירֻשָּׁה אוֹ שֶׁנְּתָנָהּ לוֹ אַחֵר בְּמַתָּנָה הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר לוֹ אֶלָּא כִּכָּרִי וַהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ עַתָּה שֶׁלּוֹ:

5

If he tells him: "This produce is forbidden to you," but does not say: "My produce," even if he sold it or died and it became the property of another person,7 it [remains] forbidden to him. For when a person causes his property to be forbidden to a colleague, it remains forbidden unless he says: "my property," "my house," "my produce," or uses another similar term. For in those instances, he only forbade [using] the articles while they were in his possession.8

ה

אָמַר לוֹ פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין עָלֶיךָ וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹ פֵּרוֹתַי. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּכָרָן אוֹ שֶׁמֵּת וְנָפְלוּ לְאַחֵר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין עָלָיו. שֶׁהָאוֹסֵר דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלּוֹ עַל חֲבֵרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצָא מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא בְּאִסּוּרוֹ עוֹמֵד. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אָמַר נְכָסַי אוֹ בֵּיתִי אוֹ פֵּרוֹתַי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּלְשׁוֹנוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא אֲסָרָן אֶלָּא כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ:

6

When a person tells his son: "You are forbidden to benefit from me" or he takes and oath that his son is forbidden to benefit from him, when he dies, the son may inherit his property. For this is as if he says: "My property is forbidden to you." If he forbade [the son] from benefiting from him and specified: "During my lifetime and after my death," if he dies, [the son] should not inherit his [estate].9 For this is as if he said: "This property is forbidden to you."

ו

הָאוֹמֵר לִבְנוֹ הֲרֵי אַתְּ אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָתִי. אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֵהָנֶה בּוֹ. אִם מֵת יִירָשֶׁנּוּ. שֶׁזֶּה כְּאוֹמֵר נְכָסַי עָלֶיךָ אֲסוּרִין. אָסַר עָלָיו הֲנָיָתוֹ וּפֵרֵשׁ בֵּין בְּחַיַּי בֵּין בְּמוֹתִי אִם מֵת לֹא יִירָשֶׁנּוּ. שֶׁזֶּה כְּמִי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ נְכָסִים אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין עָלֶיךָ:

7

When a person forbids his son from benefiting from him10 and says: "If this son's son will be a Torah scholar,11 this son will acquire this property to transfer it to his son,"12 this is permissible. The son is forbidden [to benefit] from his father's estate and the grandson is permitted to derive such benefit13 if he is a Torah scholar as was stipulated.

ז

אָסַר בְּנוֹ בַּהֲנָיָתוֹ וְאָמַר אִם יִהְיֶה בֶּן בְּנִי זֶה תַּלְמִיד חָכָם יִקְנֶה בְּנִי זֶה נְכָסַי כְּדֵי לְהַקְנוֹתָן לִבְנוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְיִהְיֶה הַבֵּן אָסוּר בְּנִכְסֵי הָאָב וּבֶן הַבֵּן מֻתָּר בָּהֶן אִם יִהְיֶה תַּלְמִיד חָכָם כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִתְנָה:

8

If this son who is forbidden to benefit from his father's estate gives14 [the property] he inherits from his father to his brother or his sons, they are permitted to benefit from them.15 This also applies if he paid a debt with them or paid [the money due] his wife [by virtue of] her ketubah.16 He must tell [the recipients] that [the payment they receive] is from the estate of his father which was forbidden to him. [The rationale for this leniency is that] when a person takes an oath that a colleague will not benefit from his property, he may pay that colleague's debt, as will be explained.17

ח

זֶה הַבֵּן הָאָסוּר בִּירֻשַּׁת אָבִיו אִם נָתַן יְרֻשַּׁת אָבִיו לְאֶחָיו אוֹ לְבָנָיו הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְכֵן אִם פְּרָעָם בְּחוֹבוֹ אוֹ בִּכְתֻבַּת אִשְׁתּוֹ. וְצָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעָן שֶׁאֵלּוּ נִכְסֵי אָבִי שֶׁאֲסָרָן עָלַי. שֶׁהַנִּשְׁבָּע שֶׁלֹּא יֵהָנֶה בּוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ מֻתָּר לוֹ לִפְרֹעַ אֶת חוֹבוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

9

When a person was forbidden - either through a vow or an oath - to partake of a type of food, he is permitted to partake of other types of food that were cooked or mixed together with [the forbidden] food, even though it has [acquired] the flavor of the forbidden food.18 If he was forbidden to partake of specific produce19 and that produce became mixed with others, if they have the flavor of the forbidden food, [the other food] is forbidden. If not,20 it is permitted.

ט

מִי שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר עָלָיו מִין מִמִּינֵי מַאֲכָל בֵּין בְּנֵדֶר בֵּין בִּשְׁבוּעָה וְנִתְבַּשֵּׁל עִם מִינִים אֲחֵרִים אוֹ נִתְעָרֵב עִמָּהֶן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בַּמִּינִים הַמֻּתָּרִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן טַעַם הַמִּין הָאָסוּר. וְאִם נֶאֱסַר בְּפֵרוֹת אֵלּוּ וְנִתְעָרְבוּ בַּאֲחֵרִים אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן טַעַם דָּבָר הָאָסוּר אֲסוּרִין וְאִם לָאו מֻתָּרִין:

10

What is implied? A person who is forbidden to partake of meat or wine may partake of soup or vegetables that were cooked with meat or wine. [This applies] even if they have the flavor of meat or wine. He is forbidden only to eat meat alone or drink wine alone.

י

כֵּיצַד. נֶאֱסַר בְּבָשָׂר אוֹ בְּיַיִן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לֶאֱכל מָרָק וִירָקוֹת שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ עִם הַבָּשָׂר וְעִם הַיַּיִן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן טַעַם הַבָּשָׂר אוֹ טַעַם הַיַּיִן. וְאֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא בַּאֲכִילַת בָּשָׂר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ:

11

If, however, he forbade himself [to partake of] "this meat" or "this wine,"21 if the vegetables have the flavor of meat or wine, they are forbidden. If not, they are permitted. For this meat or this wine become considered like the meat of nevelot, teeming animals, or the like. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. Therefore if one says: "This meat is forbidden for me," he is forbidden to partake of it, its sauce, and the spices [cooked] with it.22

יא

נֶאֱסַר בְּבָשָׂר זֶה אוֹ בְּיַיִן זֶה וְנִתְבַּשֵּׁל עִם הַיָּרָק. אִם יֵשׁ בַּיְרָקוֹת טַעַם בָּשָׂר אוֹ טַעַם הַיַּיִן אֲסוּרִין וְאִם לָאו מֻתָּרִין. שֶׁזֶּה הַבָּשָׂר וְזֶה הַיַּיִן נַעֲשָׂה כְּמוֹ בְּשַׂר נְבֵלוֹת וּשְׁקָצִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. לְפִיכָךְ הָאוֹמֵר בָּשָׂר זֶה אָסוּר עָלַי הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בּוֹ וּבַמָּרָק שֶׁבּוֹ וּבַתַּבְלִין שֶׁבּוֹ:

12

If the wine which he forbade himself23 became mixed with other wine,24 even one drop in an entire barrel, the entire quantity becomes forbidden. [The rationale is that] since he has the possibility to ask for the release of his vow, [the forbidden substance] is considered as an entity that can be permitted and hence, never becomes nullified in [a majority of permitted] substances of its own kind, as explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot.25

יב

נִתְעָרֵב יַיִן זֶה שֶׁאֲסָרוֹ עַל עַצְמוֹ בְּיַיִן אַחֵר אֲפִלּוּ טִפָּה בְּחָבִית נֶאֱסַר הַכּל. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לְהִשָּׁאֵל עַל נִדְרוֹ נַעֲשָׂה כְּדָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל בְּמִינוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת:

13

When a person says: "This produce is like a sacrifice for me," "...a sacrifice to my mouth,"26 or "...a sacrifice because of my mouth," he is forbidden to partake of anything exchanged for them or produce that grows from them.27 Needless to say, this applies to juices produced by them.

יג

הָאוֹמֵר פֵּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ קָרְבָּן עָלַי אוֹ קָרְבָּן הֵן לְפִי. אוֹ קָרְבָּן הֵן עַל פִּי. הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בְּחִלּוּפֵיהֶן וּבְגִדּוּלֵיהֶם. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בַּמַּשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מֵהֶן:

14

[The following rules apply] if a person took a vow or an oath not to eat [produce] or not to taste it. If it is an entity whose seed decomposes when it is sown like wheat or barley, he is permitted [to partake of] the articles exchanged for it28 and the produce that grows from it.29 If it was an entity whose seed does not decompose in the earth when it is sown, like onions or garlic,30 even the produce that grows from the produce that grows from it is forbidden.31 In all situations, there is a doubt [whether he is forbidden to drink] the juices they produce.32 Therefore, if he drinks them, he is not liable for lashes.

יד

נָדַר אוֹ נִשְׁבַּע שֶׁאֵינִי אוֹכֵל אוֹתָם אוֹ שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם אוֹתָם. אִם הָיָה דָּבָר שֶׁזַּרְעוֹ כָּלֶה כְּשֶׁיִּזָּרַע כְּגוֹן חִטָּה וּשְׂעוֹרָה הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בְּחִלּוּפֵיהֶן וּבְגִדּוּלֵיהֶן. וְאִם הָיָה הַדָּבָר שֶׁאֵין זַרְעוֹ כָּלֶה בָּאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁיִּזָּרַע כְּגוֹן בְּצָלִים וְשׁוּמִין אֲפִלּוּ גִּדּוּלֵי גִּדּוּלִין אֲסוּרִין. וּבֵין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ מַשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מֵהֶן סָפֵק. לְפִיכָךְ אִם שָׁתָה מֵהֶן אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה:

15

Similarly, if a person tells his wife: "The work produced by your hands33 is like a sacrifice to me," "...a sacrifice to my mouth," or "...a sacrifice because of my mouth," he is forbidden to partake of anything exchanged for [her earnings] or produce that grows from her work.34 If he says that he will not to eat [from the work of her hands], nor taste it, if the produce [that grew from] the work of her hands is an entity whose seed decomposes, he is permitted [to partake of] articles exchanged for it and the produce that grows from it. If it was an entity whose seed does not decompose, even the produce that grows from the produce that grows from them is forbidden.

Why do we not consider the original produce that is forbidden insignificant because of the [new] growth that is larger than it? Because the original produce is an entity whose prohibition can be released, which is not nullified [when mixed] with a majority [of permitted substances], as explained.35

טו

וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר לְאִשְׁתּוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַיִךְ עָלַי קָרְבָּן אוֹ קָרְבָּן הֵן לְפִי אוֹ קָרְבָּן הֵן עַל פִּי. אָסוּר בְּחִלּוּפֵיהֶן וּבְגִדּוּלֵיהֶן. שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם שֶׁאֵינִי אוֹכֵל אִם הָיוּ פֵּרוֹת מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ דָּבָר שֶׁזַּרְעוֹ כָּלֶה מֻתָּר בְּחִלּוּפֵיהֶן וּבְגִדּוּלֵיהֶן. וְאִם הָיָה דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין זַרְעוֹ כָּלֶה אֲפִלּוּ גִּדּוּלֵי גִּדּוּלִין אֲסוּרִין. וְלָמָּה לֹא יִבָּטֵל הָעִקָּר הָאָסוּר בַּגִּדּוּלִין שֶׁרַבּוּ עָלָיו. שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל בְּרֹב כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

16

When a person forbids his produce to a colleague, whether by vow or by an oath, there is an unresolved question if the produce that grows from it36 and articles exchanged for it [are permitted to the colleague].37 Therefore the produce that grows from it and articles exchanged for it are forbidden to his colleague. If he transgresses and benefits, he has benefited.38

טז

הָאוֹסֵר פֵּרוֹתָיו עַל חֲבֵרוֹ בֵּין בְּנֵדֶר בֵּין בִּשְׁבוּעָה הֲרֵי גִּדּוּלֵיהֶן וְחִלּוּפֵיהֶן סָפֵק. לְפִיכָךְ חֲבֵרוֹ אָסוּר בְּגִדּוּלֵי פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ וּבְחִלּוּפֵיהֶן. וְאִם עָבַר וְנֶהֱנָה נֶהֱנָה: