1

When a person tells a colleague: "Benefit that leads to your food is forbidden to me," or "Benefit that leads to my food is forbidden to you," the person who is forbidden should not borrow from the other person: a sifter, a strainer, a hand mill, an oven, or any other utensil used to prepare food. He may, however, borrow from him bracelets, rings, and other articles that are not used to produce food. He is forbidden to borrow from him a sack or a donkey to carry produce.1

א

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ הֲנָאָה הַמְּבִיאָה לִידֵי מַאֲכָלְךָ אֲסוּרָה עָלַי. אוֹ הֲנָאָה הַמְּבִיאָה לִידֵי מַאֲכָלִי אֲסוּרָה עָלֶיךָ. הֲרֵי זֶה הַנֶּאֱסָר לֹא יִשְׁאַל מִן הָאָסוּר לוֹ נָפָה וּכְבָרָה וְרֵחַיִם וְתַנּוּר וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ. אֲבָל מַשְׁאִילוֹ נְזָמִים וְטַבָּעוֹת וְכֵלִים שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ. וְאָסוּר לִשְׁאל מִמֶּנּוּ שַׂק לְהָבִיא בּוֹ פֵּרוֹת וַחֲמוֹר לְהָבִיא עָלָיו פֵּרוֹת:

2

[In the above situation,] in a place where utensils are given out only for a fee, it is forbidden to borrow [without charge] even utensils that are not used to produce food.2If they were in a place where a fee is not charged and he borrowed from him utensils that are not used to produce food to look impressive to others because of them so that he will receive benefit from them3 or he sought to pass through his property so that he could reach a place where he would derive benefit,4 there is an unresolved question whether it is prohibited.5 Therefore, if he transgresses, he is not liable for lashes.

ב

מָקוֹם שֶׁדַּרְכָּן שֶׁאֵין מַשְׁאִילִין כֵּלִים אֶלָּא בְּשָׂכָר. אָסוּר לִשְׁאל מִמֶּנּוּ אַף כֵּלִים שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ. הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין נוֹטְלִין שָׂכָר וְשָׁאַל מִמֶּנּוּ כֵּלִים שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ כְּדֵי לְהֵרָאוֹת בָּהֶן בִּפְנֵי אֲחֵרִים עַד שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה מֵהֶם. אוֹ שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לַעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר מִסָּפֵק. לְפִיכָךְ אִם עָבַר אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה:

3

There is no difference between one who takes a vow not to benefit from a colleague and one who takes a vow not to derive benefit that leads to food except [permission to] pass through [property]6 and borrowing utensils that are not used to produce food in a place where they are borrowed without charge.7

ג

אֵין בֵּין מֻדָּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לְמֻדָּר מִמֶּנּוּ הֲנָיַת מַאֲכָל אֶלָּא דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל וְכֵלִים שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמַּשְׁאִילִין אוֹתָם שָׁם בְּחִנָּם:

4

When Reuven was forbidden to benefit from Shimon, either through a vow or through an oath, Shimon may give the half-shekel which Reuven is obligated to give.8 Similarly, he may pay a debt that he owes. [The rationale is that] Reuven does not receive anything, all [Shimon does] is prevent a claim from being lodged against him. And preventing a claim from being lodged is not included in the prohibition against [giving] benefit.9

Therefore [Shimon] may provide food for [Reuven's] wife,10 his sons, and his servants, even his Canaanite servants,11 even though [Reuven] is obligated to provide for their sustenance. He may not, however, provide food for [Reuven's] animal, whether a kosher animal or a non-kosher one,12 for any increase in the animal's weight is benefit given to Reuven.

ד

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרָה עָלָיו הֲנָיַת שִׁמְעוֹן בֵּין בְּנֵדֶר בֵּין בִּשְׁבוּעָה מֻתָּר לוֹ שֶׁיִּתֵּן שִׁמְעוֹן עַל יָדוֹ מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל שֶׁרְאוּבֵן חַיָּב בָּהּ. וְכֵן פּוֹרֵעַ חוֹב שֶׁעָלָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הִגִּיעַ לְיַד רְאוּבֵן כְּלוּם אֶלָּא מָנַע מִמֶּנּוּ הַתְּבִיעָה. וּמְנִיעַת הַתְּבִיעָה אֵינָהּ בִּכְלַל אִסּוּר הֲנָיָה. לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לוֹ לָזוּן אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת בָּנָיו וַעֲבָדָיו אֲפִלּוּ הַכְּנַעֲנִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹתָם. אֲבָל לֹא יָזוּן אֶת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ בֵּין טְמֵאָה בֵּין טְהוֹרָה שֶׁכָּל שֶׁמּוֹסִיף בִּבְשָׂרָהּ הִיא הֲנָיָה שֶׁהִגִּיעָה לְיַד רְאוּבֵן:

5

If Shimon was a priest, he is permitted to offer sacrifices brought by Reuven. [The rationale is that] the priests are agents of God and not the agents of the person bringing the sacrifice.13

Shimon may marry off his daughter who is past maturity to Reuven with her consent.14 If, however, she is a na'arah,15 she is under his domain. [Hence,] it is forbidden [to marry her to him],16 because this is like giving him a maid-servant to serve him.

ה

הָיָה שִׁמְעוֹן כֹּהֵן הֲרֵי הוּא מֻתָּר לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבְּנוֹת רְאוּבֵן. שֶׁהַכֹּהֲנִים שְׁלוּחֵי שָׁמַיִם הֵם וְאֵינָם שְׁלוּחֵי בַּעַל הַקָּרְבָּן. וּמַשִּׂיא שִׁמְעוֹן בִּתּוֹ הַבּוֹגֶרֶת לִרְאוּבֵן מִדַּעְתָּהּ. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה נַעֲרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי עֲדַיִן הִיא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ אָסוּר. שֶׁזֶּה כְּמוֹסֵר לוֹ שִׁפְחָה לְשַׁמְּשׁוֹ:

6

Shimon may separate terumah on behalf of Reuven and separate his tithes with his consent.17 What is meant by "with his consent"? For example, Reuven said: "Whoever desires to separate terumah [from my produce] may do so." He may not, however, tell Shimon to separate terumah on his behalf, for then he is making him his agent and this is [deriving] benefit from him.

ו

וְתוֹרֵם שִׁמְעוֹן תְּרוּמַת רְאוּבֵן וּמַפְרִישׁ לוֹ מַעַשְׂרוֹתָיו מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כֵּיצַד מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר רְאוּבֵן כָּל הָרוֹצֶה לִתְרֹם יָבוֹא וְיִתְרֹם. אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר לְשִׁמְעוֹן לִתְרֹם לוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ שָׁלִיחַ וְזֶה הֲנָיָה לוֹ:

7

[Shimon] may instruct [Reuven] in the Oral Law,18 for it is forbidden to charge a wage for teaching it.19 The Written Law, by contrast, may not be taught by him, because a wage can be charged for teaching it.20 If it is not customary [in that community] to charge for instruction in the Written Law, this is permitted. Regardless of [the local custom with regard to payment], [Shimon] may teach [Reuven's] son.21

ז

וּמְלַמְּדוֹ תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסוּר לִטּל עָלֶיהָ שָׂכָר. אֲבָל לֹא תּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין עָלֶיהָ שָׂכָר. וְאִם אֵין דַּרְכָּן שָׁם לִטּל שָׂכָר עַל תּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וּבֵין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ מֻתָּר לְלַמֵּד אֶת בְּנוֹ:

8

If Reuven becomes ill, Shimon may come and visit him.22 In a place where one who sits with a person who is ill to keep him company receives a wage, Shimon should not sit with him. Instead, he should visit him and stand.23 He may personally give him medical treatment, for this fulfills a mitzvah.24

ח

חָלָה רְאוּבֵן נִכְנַס שִׁמְעוֹן לְבַקְּרוֹ. וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹטֵל שָׂכָר מִי שֶׁיָּשַׁב עִם הַחוֹלֶה לְצֶוֶת לוֹ לֹא יֵשֵׁב שִׁמְעוֹן אֶלָּא מְבַקְּרוֹ וְעוֹמֵד. וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לְרַפְּאוֹתוֹ בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁזּוֹ מִצְוָה הִיא:

9

When an animal belonging to Reuven becomes ill,25 Shimon should not give it veterinary attention. He may, however, tell him: "Do such and such for it."26

[Shimon] may wash with Reuven in a large bath,27 but not in a small bath, because he gives him pleasure by raising the water over him.28 He may sleep in the same bed as him in the summer,29 but not in the winter, because he warms him.30 He may sit on the same couch as him and eat at the same table,31but may not eat from the same plate or from the same food trough that is placed before workers. [The rationale is that we fear that] Shimon will leave a nice piece of meat and refrain from eating it so that Shimon will eat it or move it closer to him and in this way, bring him benefit.32 Similar concepts apply with regard to produce in a food trough. It is, however, permitted for Shimon to eat from a plate even though he knows that when he returns it to the host, the host will place it before Reuven. We do not fear that [Shimon] will leave a choice cut of meat for [Reuven].33

ט

חָלְתָה בֶּהֱמַת רְאוּבֵן לֹא יְרַפֵּא אוֹתָהּ שִׁמְעוֹן. אֲבָל אוֹמֵר לוֹ עֲשֵׂה לָהּ כָּךְ וְכָךְ. וְרוֹחֵץ עִמּוֹ בְּאַמְבְּטִי גְּדוֹלָה אֲבָל לֹא בִּקְטַנָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּהַנֵּהוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּגְבִּיהַּ עָלָיו הַמַּיִם. וְיָשֵׁן עִמּוֹ בַּמִּטָּה בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה. אֲבָל לֹא בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּחַמְּמוֹ. וּמֵסֵב עִמּוֹ עַל הַמִּטָּה. וְאוֹכְלִין עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד. אֲבָל לֹא מִקְּעָרָה אַחַת וְלֹא מֵאֵבוּס שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַפּוֹעֲלִים. שֶׁמָּא יַנִּיחַ שִׁמְעוֹן חֲתִיכָה אַחַת טוֹבָה וְלֹא יֹאכַל אוֹתָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁיֹּאכַל אוֹתָהּ רְאוּבֵן אוֹ יְקָרֵב אוֹתָהּ לְפָנָיו וְנִמְצָא מְהַנֵּהוּ. וְכֵן בְּפֵרוֹת שֶׁבָּאֵבוּס. אֲבָל אִם אָכַל שִׁמְעוֹן מִקְּעָרָה שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁכְּשֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנָּה לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת יַחְזֹר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְיַנִּיחֶנָּה לִפְנֵי רְאוּבֵן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא הִנִּיחַ נֵתַח טוֹב בִּשְׁבִילוֹ:

10

It is permitted for Reuven to drink a cup of comfort34 of his own [wine] from Shimon's hand. Similarly, he may give him the cup of the bathhouse,35 for this does not involve satisfaction.36

י

וּמֻתָּר רְאוּבֵן לִשְׁתּוֹת כּוֹס שֶׁל תַּנְחוּמִין מִיָּדוֹ שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן מִשֶּׁל רְאוּבֵן וְכֵן כּוֹס שֶׁל בֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ. שֶׁאֵין בָּזֶה הֲנָיָה:

11

Reuven is forbidden to use Shimon's coal, but he is permitted to use his flame.37

יא

וְאָסוּר רְאוּבֵן בְּגַחַלְתּוֹ שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן וּמֻתָּר בְּשַׁלְהֶבֶת שֶׁלּוֹ:

12

[The following laws apply if] Shimon owned a bathhouse or an olive press that were hired out [to others] in the city. If Shimon retains a hold on them, e.g., he left a portion for himself and did not hire it out, it is forbidden for Reuven to enter that bathhouse or tread in that olive press.38 [This applies] even if he retains merely one tub in the bathhouse or one press39 in the olive press. If he did not retain anything for himself, but rather hired it out in its entirety, it is permitted [for Reuven to enter].40

יב

הָיָה לְשִׁמְעוֹן מֶרְחָץ אוֹ בֵּית הַבַּד מֻשְׂכָּרִים בָּעִיר. אִם הָיָה לְשִׁמְעוֹן בָּהֶן תְּפִיסַת יָד כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִנִּיחַ מֵהֶן כָּל שֶׁהוּא לְעַצְמוֹ וְלֹא שְׂכָרוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ הִנִּיחַ בַּמֶּרְחָץ אַמְבְּטִי אַחַת וּבְבֵית הַבַּד עַקָּל אֶחָד. אָסוּר לִרְאוּבֵן לְהִכָּנֵס לְאוֹתָהּ מֶרְחָץ וְלִדְרֹךְ בַּגַּת. וְאִם לֹא הִנִּיחַ לְעַצְמוֹ כְּלוּם אֶלָּא שָׂכַר הַכּל הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

13

It is forbidden for Reuven to partake of the produce of Shimon's field, even during the Sabbatical year when everything is ownerless, for he took the vow before the beginning of the Sabbatical year.41 If he took the vow in the Sabbatical year itself, [Reuven] may partake of the produce that hangs outside the field.42 He may not, however, enter the field even though the land is ownerless. [This is] a decree lest he remain there after he partook of [the produce],43 for the Torah declared [the land] ownerless only during the time the produce is found within it.

יג

וְאָסוּר לִרְאוּבֵן לֶאֱכל מִפֵּרוֹת שְׂדֵה שִׁמְעוֹן וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית שֶׁהַכּל הֶפְקֵר. שֶׁהֲרֵי לִפְנֵי שְׁבִיעִית נָדַר. אֲבָל אִם נָדַר בַּשְּׁבִיעִית אוֹכֵל מִן הַפֵּרוֹת הַנּוֹטוֹת חוּץ לַשָּׂדֶה. אֲבָל לֹא יִכָּנֵס לַשָּׂדֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקַּרְקַע הֶפְקֵר. גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁהֶה שָׁם אַחַר שֶׁיֹּאכַל. וְלֹא הִפְקִירָה אוֹתָהּ תּוֹרָה אֶלָּא כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַפֵּרוֹת בְּתוֹכָהּ:

14

When does the above apply? When he told him: "Benefit from this property is forbidden to you."44 If, however, [Shimon] told [Reuven]: "It is forbidden for you to benefit from my property,"45 or Reuven took an oath or a vow [prohibiting him from benefiting] from Shimon's property, when the Sabbatical year begins, he may partake of the produce of his field, for they have left Shimon's domain.46 He may not, however, enter his field for the reasons we explained [in the previous halachah].

יד

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הֲנָיַת הַנְּכָסִים הָאֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין עָלֶיךָ. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ הֲנָיַת נְכָסַי אֲסוּרִין עָלֶיךָ. אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע רְאוּבֵן אוֹ שֶׁנָּדַר מִנִּכְסֵי שִׁמְעוֹן. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעָה שְׁבִיעִית אוֹכֵל מִפֵּרוֹת שָׂדֵהוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי יָצְאוּ מֵרְשׁוּת שִׁמְעוֹן. אֲבָל לֹא יִכָּנֵס לְשָׂדֵהוּ מִן הַטַּעַם שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

15

[Different laws apply if] only benefiting from Shimon's food was forbidden to Reuven,47 If, either because of a vow or an oath, the prohibition took effect before the Sabbatical year, he may enter his field,48 but may not eat his produce.49If the prohibition took effect in the Sabbatical year, he may enter his field and partake of his produce, for this produce does not belong to Shimon. Instead, it is ownerless.50

טו

נֶאֶסְרָה עַל רְאוּבֵן הֲנָיַת מַאֲכַל שִׁמְעוֹן בִּלְבַד. אִם לִפְנֵי שְׁבִיעִית נֶאֶסְרָה בֵּין בְּנֵדֶר בֵּין בִּשְׁבוּעָה הֲרֵי זֶה יוֹרֵד לְתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ אֲבָל אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל מִפֵּרוֹתָיו. וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיעִית נֶאֶסְרָה יוֹרֵד וְאוֹכֵל מִפֵּרוֹתָיו. שֶׁאֵין פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן אֶלָּא שֶׁל הֶפְקֵר הֵן:

16

It is forbidden for Reuven to lend [articles] to Shimon. [This is] a decree, lest he borrow from him although it is forbidden for him to benefit from him. Similarly, it is forbidden for [Reuven] to give [Shimon] a loan. [This is] a decree, lest he borrow from him.51 Similarly, he may not sell something to him. [This is] a decree, lest he buy from him.52

טז

וְאָסוּר לִרְאוּבֵן לְהַשְׁאִיל לְשִׁמְעוֹן גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁאַל מִמֶּנּוּ וַהֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָתוֹ. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהַלְווֹתוֹ גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִלְוֶה מִמֶּנּוּ. וְלֹא יִמְכֹּר לוֹ גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ:

17

If it happened that [Shimon] was working with [Reuven], e.g., they were harvesting together, he should work far from him. [This is] a decree, lest he help him.

When [a father] takes a vow, forbidding his son to benefit from him because the son does not occupy himself in Torah study, the father is permitted to fill up a jug of water [for his son], light a lamp [for him], or roast a small fish. For [the father's] intent was only to forbid [his son] from deriving significant pleasure and these matters are not considered important by the son.53

יז

נִזְדַּמְּנָה לוֹ מְלָאכָה עִמּוֹ כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ קוֹצְרִים כְּאֶחָד. עוֹשֶׂה בְּרָחוֹק מִמֶּנּוּ גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְסַיְּעֶנּוּ. הַמַּדִּיר אֶת בְּנוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה וְנֶאֱסַר בַּהֲנָיַת אָבִיו. הֲרֵי הָאָב מֻתָּר לְמַלְּאוֹת לוֹ חָבִית שֶׁל מַיִם וּלְהַדְלִיק לוֹ אֶת הַנֵּר וְלִצְלוֹת לוֹ דָּג קָטָן. שֶׁאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ אֶלָּא לַהֲנָאָה גְּדוֹלָה וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ לְגַבֵּי הַבֵּן אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין:

18

When a person took an oath or a vow not to speak to a colleague,54 he may write to him55 or speak to another person even though [the person whom he forbade] hears the idea he wants to communicate to him.56 The Geonim ruled in this manner.

יח

מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע אוֹ נָדַר שֶׁלֹּא יְדַבֵּר עִם חֲבֵרוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לוֹ לִכְתֹּב בִּכְתָב וּלְדַבֵּר עִם אַחֵר וְהוּא שׁוֹמֵעַ הָעִנְיָן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לְהַשְׁמִיעוֹ. וְכָזֶה הוֹרוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים: