1

With regard to vows, we follow the intent of the words people use at that place, in that language, and at that time when the vow or oath was taken.1

What is implied? A person took a vow or an oath not [to partake of] cooked food. If it was customary in that place in that language and at that time to call roasted meat and boiled meat2 also cooked food, he is forbidden to partake of all types of cooked food. If they were accustomed to use the term cooked food only to refer to meat cooked with water and spices, he is permitted [to partake of] roasted meat or boiled meat. Similarly, with regard to smoked food or food cooked in the hot springs of Tiberias. We follow the terminology used by the people of that city.

א

בִּנְּדָרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר לְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם וּבְאוֹתוֹ לָשׁוֹן וּבְאוֹתוֹ זְמַן שֶׁנָּדַר אוֹ נִשְׁבַּע בּוֹ. כֵּיצַד. נָדַר אוֹ נִשְׁבַּע מִן הַמְבֻשָּׁל. אִם דֶּרֶךְ אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם בְּאוֹתוֹ לָשׁוֹן בְּאוֹתוֹ זְמַן שֶׁקּוֹרְאִין מְבֻשָּׁל אֲפִלּוּ לְצָלִי וּלְשָׁלוּק הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בַּכּל. וְאִם אֵין דַּרְכָּם לִקְרוֹת מְבֻשָּׁל אֶלָּא לְבָשָׂר שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּמַיִם וּבְתַבְלִין הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בְּצָלִי וּבְשָׁלוּק. וְכֵן הַמְעֻשָּׁן וְהַמְבֻשָּׁל בְּחַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הוֹלְכִין בּוֹ אַחַר הַלָּשׁוֹן שֶׁל בְּנֵי הָעִיר:

2

[The following rules apply if a person] took a vow or an oath not to partake of salted foods. If it is customary to call all salted foods "salted food," he is forbidden to partake of all of them.3 If it is customary to use the term "salted food" to refer only to salted fish, he is only forbidden to partake of salted fish.

ב

נָדַר אוֹ נִשְׁבַּע מִן הַמָּלִיחַ. אִם דַּרְכָּם לִקְרוֹת מָלִיחַ לְכָל הַמְּלוּחִין הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בְּכָל הַמְּלוּחִין. וְאִם אֵין דַּרְכָּם לִקְרוֹת מָלִיחַ אֶלָּא לְדָג מָלִיחַ בִּלְבַד אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא בְּדָג מָלִיחַ:

3

[The following rules apply if a person] took a vow or an oath not to partake of pickled foods. If it is customary to call all pickled foods "pickled food," he is forbidden to partake of all of them.4 If it is customary to use the term "pickled food" to refer only to pickled vegetables, he is only forbidden to partake of pickled vegetables. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ג

נָדַר אוֹ נִשְׁבַּע מִן הַכָּבוּשׁ אִם דַּרְכָּם לִקְרוֹת כָּבוּשׁ לְכָל הַכְּבוּשִׁים הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בַּכּל. וְאִם אֵין דַּרְכָּם לִקְרוֹת כָּבוּשׁ אֶלָּא לְיָרָק כָּבוּשׁ בִּלְבַד אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא בְּכָבוּשׁ שֶׁל יָרָק. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

4

If some of the people would refer to food with one term and others would not use that term, we do not follow [the practice of] the majority. Instead, it is considered an unresolved question with regard to his vow. And whenever there is an unresolved question with regard to a vow, we rule stringently.5 If one violates the vow, however, he is not worthy of lashes.6

ד

הָיוּ מִקְצָת בְּנֵי הַמָּקוֹם קוֹרִין לוֹ כָּךְ וּמִקְצָתָם אֵין קוֹרִין אֵין הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הָרֹב אֶלָּא הֲרֵי זֶה סְפֵק נְדָרִים וְכָל סְפֵק נְדָרִים לְהַחְמִיר וְאִם עָבַר אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה:

5

What is implied? A person takes a vow [not to partake] of oil in a place where both olive oil and sesame seed oil are used. When most people from that place use the term "oil" without any modifier, they mean olive oil. When they refer to sesame seed oil, they call it "sesame seed oil." A minority of the populace, however, also refer to sesame seed oil with the term "oil" without a modifier. [Hence,] he is forbidden to partake of both of them, but is not liable for lashes for [partaking of] sesame seed oil. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ה

כֵּיצַד. נָדַר מִן הַשֶּׁמֶן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּסְתַּפְּקִין בְּשֶׁמֶן זַיִת וּבְשֶׁמֶן שֻׁמְשְׁמִין וְרֹב אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם אֵין קוֹרִין שֶׁמֶן סְתָם אֶלָּא לְשֶׁמֶן זַיִת וְקוֹרִין לְשֶׁמֶן שֻׁמְשְׁמִין שֶׁמֶן שֻׁמְשְׁמִין וּמִעוּטָם קוֹרִין אַף לְשֶׁמֶן שֻׁמְשְׁמִין שֶׁמֶן סְתָם. הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה עַל שֶׁמֶן שֻׁמְשְׁמִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

6

Whenever an agent in a given locale would have to question [the principal if that was his intent], it is considered in the category of the substance that was mentioned to the agent when [the term is mentioned] without a modifier.

What is implied? In a place where if a person would send an agent to buy meat without using a modifier to describe the term, the agent would tell him: "I found only fish [being sold],"7 [a person who took a vow not to partake of meat] is forbidden to partake of fish as well.8 Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

In all places, a person who takes a vow [not to partake] of meat is forbidden to partake of fowl and of the entrails,9 but is permitted to partake of grasshoppers.10 If it appears that at the time he took the vow, his intent was only to forbid meat from an animal - or meat from an animal and fowl - he is permitted [to partake] of fish even in a place where an agent would question [if fish would be considered as meat].11

ו

כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ שָׁלִיחַ בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם לְהִמָּלֵךְ עָלָיו הֲרֵי הוּא בִּכְלַל הַמִּין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְשָׁלִיחַ סְתָם. כֵּיצַד. מָקוֹם שֶׁדַּרְכָּן אִם יִשְׁלַח אָדָם שָׁלִיחַ לִקְנוֹת לוֹ בָּשָׂר סְתָם אָמַר לוֹ לֹא מָצָאתִי אֶלָּא דָּגִים אִם נִשְׁבַּע אוֹ נָדַר בְּמָקוֹם זֶה מִן הַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱסָר אַף בִּבְשַׂר דָּגִים. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וּבְכָל מָקוֹם הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַבָּשָׂר אָסוּר בִּבְשַׂר עוֹפוֹת וּבִקְרָבַיִם וּמֻתָּר בַּחֲגָבִים. וְאִם מַרְאִין הַדְּבָרִים בְּעֵת שֶׁנָּדַר שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן אֶלָּא בִּבְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה בִּלְבַד [אוֹ לִבְשַׂר עוֹף וּבְהֵמָה בִּלְבַד] הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בִּבְשַׂר דָּגִים וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַשָּׁלִיחַ נִמְלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶן:

7

When a person takes a vow against partaking of cooked food, he is permitted to partake of an egg that has not been cooked until it hardens, but has merely been soft-boiled.12 When a person takes a vow [not to partake of food] boiled lightly in a pot,13 he is only forbidden [to partake] of those foods that are boiled in a pot, e.g., groats, dumplings, and the like.14 If he forbade himself from partaking of anything placed in a pot, he is forbidden to partake of all food cooked in a pot.

ז

הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַמְבֻשָּׁל מֻתָּר בְּבֵיצָה שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּשְּׁלָה עַד שֶׁקָּפְתָּה אֶלָּא נִתְגַּלְגְּלָה בִּלְבַד. הַנּוֹדֵר מִמַּעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁמַּרְתִּיחִין אוֹתָן בִּקְדֵרָה. כְּגוֹן רִיפוֹת וּלְבִיבוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. אָסַר עַצְמוֹ מִכָּל הַיּוֹרֵד לִקְדֵרָה הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בְּכָל הַמִּתְבַּשְּׁלִין בִּקְדֵרָה:

8

A person who vows [not to partake] of fish is permitted to partake of brine and a dip made with fish oil.15 A person who vows [not to partake] of milk is permitted to partake of the whey, i.e., the liquid that is separated from the milk. If he vows [not to partake] of whey, he is permitted to partake of milk. If he vows [not to partake] of cheese, he is forbidden to partake of both salted cheese and unsalted cheese.16

ח

הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַדָּגִים מֻתָּר בְּצִיר וּבְמֻרְיָס שֶׁל דָּגִים. הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הֶחָלָב מֻתָּר בַּקּוֹם וְהוּא הַמַּיִם הַמֻּבְדָּלִין מִן הֶחָלָב. נָדַר מִן הַקּוֹם מֻתָּר בְּחָלָב. נָדַר מִן הַגְּבִינָה אָסוּר בָּהּ בֵּין מְלוּחָה בֵּין תְּפֵלָה:

9

A person who vows not to partake of grains of wheat is forbidden to partake of wheat kernels whether they are fresh or cooked. If he says: "Neither wheat, nor grains of wheat will I taste,"17 he is forbidden to partake of either flour or bread. "I will not taste wheat," he is forbidden to partake of baked goods, but permitted to chew kernels of wheat. If he states: "I will not partake of grains of wheat," he is permitted to partake of baked goods, but forbidden to chew kernels of wheat. If he says: "Neither wheat, nor grains of wheat will I taste," he is forbidden to partake of baked goods, nor may he chew kernels of wheat. When a person takes a vow forbidding himself from partaking of grain, he is forbidden only [to partake of] the five species.18

ט

הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַחִטִּים אָסוּר בָּהֶן בֵּין חַיִּין בֵּין מְבֻשָּׁלִין. חִטָּה חִטִּים שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם אָסוּר בָּהֶן בֵּין קֶמַח בֵּין פַּת. חִטָּה שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם אָסוּר בְּאָפוּי וּמֻתָּר לָכֹס. חִטִּים שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם מֻתָּר בְּאָפוּי וְאָסוּר לָכֹס. חִטָּה חִטִּים שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם אָסוּר בֵּין בְּאָפוּי בֵּין לָכֹס. וְהַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַדָּגָן אוֹ מִן הַתְּבוּאָה אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא בַּחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִין:

10

When a person takes a vow [not to partake of] green vegetables, he is permitted to partake of squash.19 If he takes a vow [not to partake of] leek, he is permitted to partake of the poret.20

If a person takes a vow [not to partake of] cabbage, he is forbidden to partake of the water cooked with cabbage, for the water in which food is cooked is considered as the food itself.21 If, however, he vowed not to partake of the water in which a food is cooked, he may partake of the cooked food itself.22

A person who takes a vow [not to partake of] sauce is permitted [to partake of] the spices. [One who takes a vow not to partake] of the spices is permitted [to partake of] the sauce. One who takes a vow [not to partake of] groats23 is forbidden [to partake of] the thick sauce produced by the groats.24

י

הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַיָּרָק מֻתָּר בִּדְלוּעִין. הַנּוֹדֵר בִּכְרֵישִׁין מֻתָּר בְּקַפְלוֹטוֹת. הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַכְּרוּב אָסוּר בְּמַיִם שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ הַכְּרוּב שֶׁהֲרֵי מֵי שְׁלָקוֹת כִּשְׁלָקוֹת. נָדַר מִמֵּי הַשְּׁלָקוֹת מֻתָּר בַּשְּׁלָקוֹת עַצְמָן. הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הָרֹטֶב מֻתָּר בַּתַּבְלִין שֶׁבּוֹ. מִן הַתַּבְלִין מֻתָּר בָּרֹטֶב. הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַגְּרִיסִין אָסוּר בַּמִּקְפָּה שֶׁל גְּרִיסִין:

11

A person who takes a vow [not to partake of] the produce of the earth is forbidden to partake of all the produce of the earth,25 but is permitted [to partake of] fungi and mushrooms.26 If he says: "Everything that grows upon the earth is [forbidden] to me," he is forbidden to partake of even fungi and mushrooms. [The rationale is that] although they do not derive their nurture from the earth, they grow upon the earth.

יא

הַנּוֹדֵר מִן פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ אָסוּר בְּכָל פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ וּמֻתָּר בִּכְמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת. וְאִם אָמַר כָּל גִּדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע עָלַי אָסוּר אַף בִּכְמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹנְקִין מִן הַקַּרְקַע גְּדֵלִין הֵן בַּקַּרְקַע:

12

When a person takes a vow forbidding himself from partaking of the produce of a particular year, he is forbidden to partake of all the produce of that year. He is, however, permitted to partake of kid-goats, lambs, milk, eggs, and, chicks.27 If, however, he said: "All of the products of a given year are [forbidden] to me," he is forbidden to partake of all of them.28

When a person takes a vow forbidding himself from partaking of the fruits of the kayitz, he is forbidden only to partake of figs.29

יב

הַנּוֹדֵר מִפֵּרוֹת הַשָּׁנָה אָסוּר בְּכָל פֵּרוֹת הַשָּׁנָה וּמֻתָּר בִּגְדָיִים וּבִטְלָאִים וּבְחָלָב וּבְבֵיצִים וּבְגוֹזָלוֹת. וְאִם אָמַר כָּל גִּדּוּלֵי שָׁנָה עָלַי אָסוּר בְּכֻלָּם. הַנּוֹדֵר מִפֵּרוֹת הַקַּיִץ אֵין אָסוּר אֶלָּא בִּתְאֵנִים:

13

In all of the above - and in analogous instances - follow this general principle: With regard to vows, we follow the intent of the words people use at that place, in that language, and at that time when the vow or oath was taken.30 Based on this principle, one should rule and say: "The person who took the vow is forbidden [to benefit from] these entities and permitted [to benefit from] these entities."

יג

וּבְכָל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הִזָּהֵר בְּעִקַּר הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁהוּא בִּנְדָרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר לְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם בְּאוֹתוֹ לָשׁוֹן וּבְאוֹתוֹ זְמַן. וְעַל פִּי עִקָּר זֶה תּוֹרֶה וְתֹאמַר זֶה הַנּוֹדֵר אָסוּר בְּדָבָר פְּלוֹנִי וּמֻתָּר בְּדָבָר פְּלוֹנִי:

14

When a person takes a vow [not to partake of grapes], he is permitted to partake of wine, even fresh wine.31 [If he takes a vow not to partake] of olives, he is permitted to partake of oil. [If he takes a vow not to partake] of dates, he is permitted to partake of date-honey. [If he takes a vow not to partake] of grapes that blossom in the fall,32 he is permitted to partake of vinegar that is produced from them.33

If he takes a vow not to partake] of wine, he is permitted to partake of apple wine. [If he takes a vow not to partake] of oil, he is permitted to partake of sesame seed oil. [If he takes a vow not to partake] of honey,34 he is permitted to partake of date honey. [If he takes a vow not to partake] of vinegar, he is permitted to partake of vinegar produced from grapes that blossom in the fall. [If he takes a vow not to partake] of vegetables, he is permitted to partake of vegetables that grow on their own.35 [The rationale for all of these rulings is] that [the names of] all these substances have a modifier36 and [when] the person took the vow, he referred to the substance without a modifier. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

יד

הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הָעֲנָבִים מֻתָּר בְּיַיִן וַאֲפִלּוּ הֶחָדָשׁ. מִן הַזֵּיתִים מֻתָּר בְּשֶׁמֶן. מִן הַתְּמָרִים מֻתָּר בִּדְבַשׁ תְּמָרִים. מִן הַסִּתְוָנִיּוֹת מֻתָּר בְּחֹמֶץ סִתְוָנִיּוֹת. מִן הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר בְּיֵין תַּפּוּחִים. מִן הַשֶּׁמֶן מֻתָּר בְּשֶׁמֶן שֻׁמְשְׁמִין. מִן הַדְּבַשׁ מֻתָּר בִּדְבַשׁ תְּמָרִים. מִן הַחֹמֶץ מֻתָּר בְּחֹמֶץ סִתְוָנִיּוֹת. מִן הַיָּרָק מֻתָּר בְּיַרְקוֹת שָׂדֶה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ שֵׁם לְוַוי הֵם וְהוּא לֹא נָדַר אֶלָּא מִשֵּׁם שֶׁאֵינוֹ לְוַוי בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

15

When a person takes a vow not to wear clothing, he is permitted [to cover himself] with sackcloth,37 a coarsely woven thick fabric,38 a thick sheet used as a rainshield.39

[When a person takes a vow not to enter] a house, he is forbidden to enter its loft. For the loft is part of the house. [If he] takes a vow [not to enter] a loft, he is permitted [to enter] the home.

[When a person takes a vow not to] use a dargeish,40 he is permitted [to use] a bed. [If he takes a vow not to use] a bed, he is forbidden to use a dargeish, because it is like a small bed.

טו

הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַכְּסוּת מֻתָּר בְּשַׂק וּבִירִיעָה וּבַחֲמִילָה. מִן הַבַּיִת אָסוּר בַּעֲלִיָּה שֶׁהָעֲלִיָּה בִּכְלַל הַבַּיִת. נָדַר מִן הָעֲלִיָּה מֻתָּר בַּבַּיִת. מִן הַדַּרְגָּשׁ מֻתָּר בַּמִּטָּה. מִן הַמִּטָּה אָסוּר בַּדַּרְגָּשׁ שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ מִטָּה קְטַנָּה:

16

When a person takes a vow not to enter a particular house, he is forbidden to enter from the doorframe onward. When one takes a vow not to enter a particular city, he is permitted to enter its Sabbath limits.41 He is, however, forbidding to enter its outlying areas.42

טז

הַנּוֹדֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס לְבַיִת זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר מִן הָאֲגַף וְלִפְנִים. נָדַר שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס לְעִיר זוֹ מֻתָּר לְהִכָּנֵס לִתְחוּמָהּ וְאָסוּר לְהִכָּנֵס לְעִבּוּרָהּ:

17

When a person takes a vow not to benefit from the residents of a city and a person comes and lives there for twelve months, it is forbidden for the person who took the vow to benefit from him.43 If he stays for a lesser time, it is permitted.

If he takes a vow from those who dwell in a city, he is forbidden to benefit from anyone who dwells there for 30 days. He is permitted to benefit from one who dwells there for a lesser period.44

יז

הַנּוֹדֵר הֲנָיָה מִבְּנֵי הָעִיר וּבָא אָדָם וְנִשְׁתַּהָה שָׁם שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן מֻתָּר. נָדַר מִיּוֹשְׁבֵי הָעִיר כָּל שֶׁשָּׁהָה שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ. פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן מֻתָּר:

18

When a person takes a vow [not to benefit] from the water that flows from this-and-this spring, he is forbidden [to benefit] from all the rivers that derive nurture from it. Needless to say, this refers to those that flow directly from it. Although the name [of the body of water] has changed and it is now called "the So-and-So River" or "the So-and-So well," and we do not associate it at all with the name of the spring concerning which a vow was taken, since it is the source for these bodies of water, he is forbidden to benefit from all of them. If, however, a person takes a vow [not to benefit] from this-and-this river or spring, he is only forbidden [to benefit] from those rivers called by that name.

יח

הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַמַּיִם הַנִּמְשָׁכִין מִמַּעְיָן פְּלוֹנִי. אָסוּר בְּכָל הַנְּהָרוֹת הַיּוֹנְקוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַנִּמְשָׁכוֹת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה שְׁמָם וְאֵין קוֹרִין אוֹתָן אֶלָּא נָהָר פְּלוֹנִי וּבְאֵר פְּלוֹנִי וְאֵין מְלַוִּין אוֹתָן לְשֵׁם הַמַּעְיָן הַנָּדוּר הוֹאִיל וְהוּא עִקָּרָן אָסוּר בַּכּל. אֲבָל אִם נָדַר מִנָּהָר פְּלוֹנִי אוֹ מִמַּעְיָן פְּלוֹנִי אֵין אָסוּר אֶלָּא בְּכָל הַנְּהָרוֹת הַנִּקְרָאוֹת עַל שְׁמוֹ:

19

When a person takes a vow not [to benefit] from sea-farers,45 he is permitted [to benefit] from those who dwell on the land. When he takes a vow not [to benefit] from those who dwell on the land, he is forbidden [to benefit] from sea-farers even though they set out to the Mediterranean Sea. For sea-farers are considered as among those who dwell on land.46

When he takes a vow not [to benefit] from those who see the sun, he is forbidden to benefit from the blind.47 For his intent was those who are seen by the sun. If he takes a vow not [to benefit] from those who are dark-haired, he is forbidden to benefit from men who are bald and grey-haired48 and permitted to benefit from women49 and children.50 If it customary to refer to all people as dark-haired, he is forbidden to benefit from everyone.

יט

הַנּוֹדֵר מִיּוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם מֻתָּר בְּיוֹשְׁבֵי הַיַּבָּשָׁה. מִיּוֹשְׁבֵי הַיַּבָּשָׁה אָסוּר בְּיוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מְפָרְשִׁים בְּאֶמְצַע הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל. שֶׁיּוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם בִּכְלַל יוֹשְׁבֵי הַיַּבָּשָׁה. נָדַר מֵרוֹאֵי חַמָּה אָסוּר בְּסוּמִין שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא מִמִּי שֶׁהַחַמָּה רוֹאָה אוֹתוֹ. נָדַר מִשְּׁחוֹרֵי הָרֹאשׁ אָסוּר בְּקֵרְחִים וּבַעֲלֵי שֵׂיבוֹת וּמֻתָּר בְּנָשִׁים וּבִקְטַנִּים. וְאִם דַּרְכָּן לִקְרוֹת שְׁחוֹרֵי הָרֹאשׁ לַכּל אָסוּר בַּכּל:

20

When a person takes a vow not [to benefit] from those who rest on the Sabbath, he is forbidden [to benefit] from Jews and Samaritans.51 One who takes a vow not [to benefit] from those who make pilgrimages to Jerusalem is forbidden to benefit from the Jews and permitted to benefit from Samaritans. For his intent was to include only those for whom it is a mitzvah to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.52

When one takes a vow not [to benefit] from the descendants of Noah, he is permitted to benefit from the Jews.53 For the term "descendants of Noah" is used only to refer to members of other nations.

כ

נָדַר מִשּׁוֹבְתֵי שַׁבָּת אָסוּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבְכוּתִים. נָדַר מֵעוֹלֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אָסוּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֻתָּר בְּכוּתִים. שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁמִּצְוָה עָלָיו לַעֲלוֹת לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְהַנּוֹדֵר מִבְּנֵי נֹחַ מֻתָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאֵין נִקְרָאִים בְּנֵי נֹחַ אֶלָּא שְׁאָר הָאֻמּוֹת:

21

When a person takes a vow not [to benefit] from the descendants of Abraham, he is permitted [to benefit] from the descendants of Yishmael and the descendants of Esau.54 He is forbidden to benefit only from the Jews,55 as [indicated by Genesis 21:12]: "Through Isaac, your offspring will be called."56 And Isaac told Jacob [ibid. 28:4]: "And I will give you the blessing of Abraham."57

כא

נָדַר מִזֶּרַע אַבְרָהָם מֻתָּר בִּבְנֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וּבְנֵי עֵשָׂו וְאֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כא יב) "כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע" וַהֲרֵי יִצְחָק אָמַר לְיַעֲקֹב (בראשית כח ד) "וְיִתֶּן לְךָ אֶת בִּרְכַּת אַבְרָהָם":

22

When a person takes a vow not [to benefit] from uncircumcised individuals, he is forbidden [to benefit] from circumcised gentiles,58 but is permitted [to benefit] from uncircumcised Jews. If he takes a vow not [to benefit] from circumcised individuals, he is forbidden [to benefit] from uncircumcised Jews, but is permitted [to benefit] from circumcised gentiles.

[The rationale is that] the foreskin is identified with the gentiles, as [Jeremiah 9:25] states: "For all the gentiles are uncircumcised. His intent is only to refer to those who are commanded concerning the circumcision and not to those who were not commanded concerning it.

כב

נָדַר מִן הָעֲרֵלִים אָסוּר בְּמוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם וּמֻתָּר בַּעֲרֵלֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. נָדַר מִן הַמּוּלִים אָסוּר בְּעַרְלֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֻתָּר בְּמוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם. שֶׁאֵין הָעָרְלָה קְרוּיָה אֶלָּא לְשֵׁם עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ט כה) "כִּי כָל הַגּוֹיִם עֲרֵלִים" וְאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ שֶׁל זֶה אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁהוּא מְצֻוֶּה עַל הַמִּילָה וְלֹא לְמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצֻוֶּה עָלֶיהָ:

23

When a person takes a vow not [to benefit] from the Jewish people, he is forbidden [to benefit] from converts. [When a person takes a vow not to benefit] from converts, he is permitted [to benefit] from natural born Jews. When he takes a vow [not to benefit] from Israelites, he is forbidden [to benefit] from priests and Levites.59 [When he vows not to benefit] from the priests and the Levites, he is permitted to benefit from an Israelite. [When he vows not to benefit] from the priests, he is permitted to benefit from the Levites.60 [When he vows not to benefit] from the Levites, he is permitted to benefit from the priests. [When he vows not to benefit] from his sons, he is permitted to benefit from his grandchildren.61In all these and analogous matters, the laws regarding those who take a vow and an oath are the same.

כג

הַנּוֹדֵר מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר בְּגֵרִים. מִן הַגֵּרִים מֻתָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. הַנּוֹדֵר מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר בְּכֹהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם. מִן הַכֹּהֲנִים וּמִן הַלְוִיִּם מֻתָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַכֹּהֲנִים מֻתָּר בִּלְוִיִּם. מֵהַלְוִיִּם מֻתָּר בְּכֹהֲנִים. הַנּוֹדֵר מִבָּנָיו מֻתָּר בִּבְנֵי בָּנָיו. וּבְכָל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן דִּין הַנּוֹדֵר וְהַנִּשְׁבָּע אֶחָד הוּא: