1

When a person takes a vow or an oath, saying: "I will not taste [food] today," he is forbidden only until nightfall.1 [If he said]: "I will not taste food for one day," he is forbidden [to eat] for a twenty-four hour period after taking his vow. Accordingly, even though he is permitted [to eat] after nightfall, one who takes a vow "not to taste [food] today" should not eat after nightfall until he asks a sage [to retract his vow]. [This is] a decree lest he take an oath another time not to eat for an entire day and eat after nightfall. For people at large do not know the difference between these two situations.

א

הַנּוֹדֵר אוֹ הַנִּשְׁבָּע שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם הַיּוֹם אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ. שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם יוֹם אֶחָד אָסוּר מֵעֵת לְעֵת מִשְּׁעַת נִדְרוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ הַנּוֹדֵר שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם הַיּוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ לֹא יֹאכַל מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁאַל לְחָכָם. גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשָּׁבַע פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת יוֹם אֶחָד וְיֹאכַל מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּל הָעָם יוֹדְעִים הֶפְרֵשׁ שֶׁבֵּין זֶה לָזֶה:

2

When one takes a vow, saying: "I will not taste [food] a day," there is an unresolved question.2 [Hence] he is forbidden to [eat] for an entire day, as if he had said "for one day." If he eats after nightfall, he does not receive lashes.3

When one takes a vow, saying: "I will not taste [food] during this week,"4 he is forbidden to eat during the remainder of the week and on the Sabbath, but he is permitted on Sunday.5 [When he says:] "I will not taste [a type of food]6 for one week," he is forbidden to eat [that type of food] for seven full days. If he says "[I will not eat a type of food] a week," there is an unresolved question. [Hence] he is forbidden to [eat that type of food] for seven full days. If he eats after the Sabbath, he does not receive lashes, as we explained.7

ב

נָדַר שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם יוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק וְאָסוּר מֵעֵת לְעֵת כְּאוֹמֵר יוֹם אֶחָד. וְאִם אָכַל אַחַר שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם שַׁבָּת זוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בִּשְׁאָר יְמֵי הַשַּׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת. וַהֲרֵי הוּא מֻתָּר מֵאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת. שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם שַׁבָּת אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שִׁבְעָה יָמִים מֵעֵת לְעֵת. אָמַר שַׁבָּת סְתָם וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ לֹא אַחַת וְלֹא זוֹ הֲרֵי סָפֵק וְאָסוּר שִׁבְעָה יָמִים מֵעֵת לְעֵת. וְאִם אָכַל אַחַר שַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

[When one takes a vow, saying:] "I will not drink [wine] during this month," he is forbidden in the remaining days of the month. He is, however, permitted on the day of the following Rosh Chodesh even if the month is lacking.8 [If he took a vow, saying]: "I will not drink [wine] for an entire month," he is forbidden for 30 full days. [If he said]: I will not drink [wine] for a month," he is forbidden for 30 full days because of the unresolved question.9

ג

שֶׁאֲנִי שׁוֹתֶה חֹדֶשׁ זֶה אָסוּר בִּשְׁאָר יְמֵי הַחֹדֶשׁ. אֲבָל בְּיוֹם רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה חֹדֶשׁ חָסֵר. שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם חֹדֶשׁ אֶחָד אָסוּר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם גְּמוּרִים מֵעֵת לְעֵת. נָדַר חֹדֶשׁ סְתָם אָסוּר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם מֵעֵת לְעֵת מִסָּפֵק:

4

[When one takes a vow, saying:] "I will not eat meat this year," even if there is only one day left in the year,10 he is forbidden only that day and is permitted to eat [meat] on Rosh HaShanah. For the beginning of the year with regard to vows is Rosh Chodesh Tishrei.11

[If he says:] "I will not eat [meat] for one year," he is forbidden for a complete year12 from day to day. If it is a leap year,13 he is forbidden in that year and in the extra month. [If he says]: "I will not eat [meat] for a year," he is forbidden for a complete year from day to day, because of the unresolved question as explained.14

ד

שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹכֵל בָּשָׂר שָׁנָה זוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִשְׁאַר מִן הַשָּׁנָה אֶלָּא יוֹם אֶחָד אֵין אָסוּר אֶלָּא אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם. וּבְיוֹם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה מֻתָּר. וְרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לִנְדָרִים הוּא יוֹם רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ תִּשְׁרֵי. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹכֵל שָׁנָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שָׁנָה תְּמִימָה מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם. וְאִם נִתְעַבְּרָה הַשָּׁנָה אָסוּר בָּהּ וּבְעִבּוּרָהּ. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹכֵל שָׁנָה הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שָׁנָה תְּמִימָה מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם מִסָּפֵק כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

5

[When one takes a vow, saying:] "I will not drink wine this seven-year cycle," he is forbidden in the remaining years of the seven year cycle and in the Sabbatical year.15 He is not permitted until Rosh HaShanah of the year after the Sabbatical year.

[If he says:] "I will not drink wine for a seven-year cycle," he is forbidden for seven full years from day to day. [If he says: "I will not drink wine] this Jubilee cycle, he is forbidden in the remaining years of the Jubilee cycle and in the fiftieth year itself.16

ה

שֶׁאֲנִי שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן שָׁבוּעַ זֶה אָסוּר בִּשְׁאָר שְׁנֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ וּבִשְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה. וְאֵינוֹ מֻתָּר אֶלָּא מֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁל מוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית. שֶׁאֲנִי שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד אָסוּר שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים גְּמוּרוֹת מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם. אָמַר יוֹבֵל זֶה אָסוּר בִּשְׁאָר שְׁנֵי הַיּוֹבֵל וּבִשְׁנַת חֲמִשִּׁים עַצְמָהּ:

6

[The following rules apply when one says:] "I will not drink wine until Rosh Chodesh Adar: If it was a leap year, but he did not know that it was a leap year when he took the vow, he is forbidden only until Rosh Chodesh Adar I.17 If he took the vow until the end of Adar, he is forbidden until the end of Adar II.18 If he did know that it was a leap year, he is forbidden until Rosh Chodesh Adar II.19

ו

שֶׁאֲנִי שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן עַד רֹאשׁ אֲדָר אִם הָיְתָה שָׁנָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁהִיא מְעֻבֶּרֶת כְּשֶׁנָּדַר אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר רִאשׁוֹן. וְאִם נָדַר עַד סוֹף אֲדָר הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר עַד סוֹף אֲדָר שֵׁנִי. וְאִם יָדַע שֶׁהַשָּׁנָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת וְנָדַר עַד רֹאשׁ אֲדָר אָסוּר עַד רֹאשׁ אֲדָר שֵׁנִי:

7

When a person forbids himself from benefiting from a substance until Pesach, whether he said "until before Pesach" or "until Pesach," he is only forbidden until the holiday commences. If he says: "while it is Pesach,"20 he is forbidden until Pesach concludes. If he said: "until the wheat harvest" or "until the grape harvest," or "while it is the grape harvest" or "while it is the wheat harvest," he is forbidden only until that time arrives.21

ז

הָאוֹסֵר עַצְמוֹ בְּדָבָר עַד הַפֶּסַח בֵּין שֶׁאָמַר עַד פְּנֵי הַפֶּסַח בֵּין שֶׁאָמַר עַד הַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ בִּלְבַד. וְאִם אָמַר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַפֶּסַח הֲרֵי אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא הַפֶּסַח. אָמַר עַד הַקָּצִיר אוֹ עַד הַבָּצִיר אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַבָּצִיר אוֹ הַקָּצִיר אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ:

8

This is the general principle: Whenever there is a fixed time22 for a subject mentioned in a vow, he is forbidden only until that time comes. If he words [his vow] "as long as it is," he is forbidden until that time concludes. Whenever a subject does not have a fixed time - like the time of the wheat harvest or the grape harvest23 - whether he said "until" or "while it is," he is forbidden only until that time arrives.24

ח

זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁזְּמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ וְנָדַר עָדָיו אֵין אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ. וְאִם נָדַר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ זְמַן קָבוּעַ כְּגוֹן זְמַן הַקָּצִיר וְהַבָּצִיר בֵּין שֶׁנָּדַר עָדָיו בֵּין שֶׁנָּדַר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ:

9

When a person forbids himself [from benefiting from] a substance until the kayitz,25 he is forbidden until the people in his place begin bringing in baskets of figs. [If he vowed] until the katzir, [he is forbidden] until people will harvest wheat, but not barley.26

If he explicitly said: "...until the kayitz passes," he is forbidden until the majority of the people fold up the mats they have set aside to dry figs and grapes to produce dried figs and raisins.27 Everything depends on the local practice in the place where the person took his vow.28

ט

הָאוֹסֵר עַצְמוֹ בְּדָבָר עַד הַקַּיִץ הֲרֵי אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיַּתְחִילוּ אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנָּדַר בּוֹ לְהַכְנִיס כַּלְכָּלוֹת תְּאֵנִים. עַד הַקָּצִיר עַד שֶׁיַּתְחִילוּ הָעָם לִקְצֹר קְצִיר חִטִּים אֲבָל לֹא קְצִיר שְׂעוֹרִים. פֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר עַד שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר הַקַּיִץ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיִּכְפְּלוּ הָעָם רֹב הַמַּחְצְלָאוֹת שֶׁבַּמֻּקְצֶה שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁין עֲלֵיהֶם תְּאֵנִים וַעֲנָבִים לַעֲשׂוֹתָם גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים הַכּל לְפִי מְקוֹם נִדְרוֹ שֶׁל נוֹדֵר:

10

What is implied? If he took a vow in a valley and forbid himself [from benefiting] from a substance until the kayitz and then moved to a mountainous region,29 he should not pay attention to the time whether or not the fig harvest has begun in the place where he is at present. Instead, [he is concerned] with when it begins in the place where he took the vow and that is what he follows.30 Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.31

י

כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁנָּדַר בְּבִקְעָה וְאָסַר עַצְמוֹ בַּדָּבָר עַד הַקַּיִץ וְעָלָה לָהָר אֵינוֹ מִסְתַּכֵּל בַּקַּיִץ שֶׁל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא בּוֹ עַתָּה אִם הִגִּיעַ אִם לֹא הִגִּיעַ. אֶלָּא בַּקַּיִץ שֶׁל מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּדַר בּוֹ וְעָלָיו הוּא סוֹמֵךְ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

11

When a person forbids himself [from benefiting] from a substance until "the rains," he is forbidden until the rainy season which in Eretz Yisrael [begins] on Rosh Chodesh Kislev. When the time of the rainy season arrives, he is released [from his vow] whether it rains or not. If, however, it rained from the seventeenth of MarCheshvan, he is released.32

If he said: "...Until it rains," he is forbidden until it rains, provided it rains from the second phase of the preliminary rainy season.33 In Eretz Yisrael and in the places close to it, this is from the twenty-third of MarCheshvan onward. If he explicitly said: "...until the rains cease," he is forbidden until the conclusion of Pesach in Eretz Yisrael and in the places like it.34

יא

הָאוֹסֵר עַצְמוֹ בְּדָבָר עַד הַגֶּשֶׁם. הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר עַד זְמַן הַגְּשָׁמִים שֶׁהוּא בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ כִּסְלֵו. הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַגְּשָׁמִים הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בֵּין יָרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים בֵּין לֹא יָרְדוּ. וְאִם יָרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים מִשִּׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּמַרְחֶשְׁוָן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְאִם אָמַר עַד הַגְּשָׁמִים הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים. וְהוּא שֶׁיָּרְדוּ מִזְּמַן רְבִיעָה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁהוּא בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְקוֹמוֹת הַסְּמוּכִין לָהּ מִכ''ג בְּמַרְחֶשְׁוָן וְאֵילָךְ. וְאִם פֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר עַד שֶׁיִּפָּסְקוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר הַפֶּסַח בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהֵם כְּמוֹתָהּ:

12

When a person has his wife bound by a vow in MarCheshvan, telling her: "You may not benefit from me from now until Pesach if you go to your father's house from now until Sukkot," she is forbidden to benefit from him immediately. [This is] a decree for perhaps she will go.35 If she went before Pesach and derived benefit from him before Pesach, he is liable for lashes.36

If Pesach passed, even though the stipulation has expired,37 it is forbidden for him to treat the vow casually and allow her to go [to her father's home] and derive benefit from him.38 Instead, he should treat her as if it is forbidden until Sukkot as he vowed. [This applies] even though he made the vow dependent on a time that has already passed. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. If she went [to her father's home] after Pesach, she is not forbidden to benefit from him.39

יב

מִי שֶׁהִדִּיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ בְּמַרְחֶשְׁוָן וְאָמַר לָהּ שֶׁאֵין אַתְּ נֶהֱנֵית לִי מִכָּאן וְעַד הַפֶּסַח אִם תֵּלְכִי לְבֵית אָבִיךָ מֵהַיּוֹם וְעַד סֻכּוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה לֵהָנוֹת לוֹ מִיָּד גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תֵּלֵךְ. וְאִם הָלְכָה לִפְנֵי הַפֶּסַח וַהֲרֵי הוּא מְהַנֶּה אוֹתָהּ לִפְנֵי הַפֶּסַח הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה. עָבַר הַפֶּסַח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָלַךְ הַתְּנַאי הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לִנְהֹג חֻלִּין בְּנִדְרוֹ וּלְהַנִּיחָהּ שֶׁתֵּלֵךְ וְתֶהֱנֶה. אֶלָּא נוֹהֵג בָּהּ אִסּוּר עַד הֶחָג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנָּדַר. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתָּלָה הַנֵּדֶר בְּאִסּוּר זְמַן שֶׁעָבַר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְאִם הָלְכָה אַחַר הַפֶּסַח אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה מִלֵּהָנוֹת לוֹ:

13

If he told her: "You may not benefit from me from now until Sukkot if you go to your father's house from now until Pesach," she is forbidden to benefit from him immediately.40 If she went [to her father's home] before Pesach and he gave her benefit, he is subject to lashes. She remains forbidden to him until Sukkot.41 After Pesach arrives, she is permitted to go to her father's house.42

יג

אָמַר לָהּ שֶׁאֵין אַתְּ נֶהֱנֵית לִי עַד הֶחָג אִם תֵּלְכִי לְבֵית אָבִיךָ עַד הַפֶּסַח אֲסוּרָה לֵהָנוֹת מִיָּד. וְאִם הָלְכָה לִפְנֵי הַפֶּסַח וְנִמְצָא מְהַנֶּה אוֹתָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה וַאֲסוּרָה בַּהֲנָיָתוֹ עַד הֶחָג וּמֻתֶּרֶת לֵילֵךְ לְבֵית אָבִיהָ מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח: