Introduction to Hilchos Nedarim

They contain 3 mitzvot: two positive commandments and one negative commandment. They are:

1. To heed the utterances of one’s mouth and to carry out one’s vow;
2. Not to desecrate one’s word;
3. To nullify a vow or an oath; this is the law concerning the nullification of oaths explicitly stated in the Torah.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

רמב"ם הלכות נדרים - הקדמה הלכות נדרים. יש בכללן שלש מצות, שתי מצות עשה, ואחת מצות לא תעשה. וזה הוא פרטן: א) שישמור מוצא שפתיו ויעשה כמו שנדר.
(ב) שלא יחל דברו.
(ג) שיפר הנדר או) השבועה, זהו דין הפרת נדרים המפורש בתורה שבכתב. וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו.

1

There are two categories of vows: The first is to forbid oneself [from benefiting] from entities permitted to him;1 e.g., he said: "The produce from this-and-this country is forbidden to me for 30 days" or "...forever." "This type of produce is forbidden to me" or "This produce is forbidden." Regardless of the language in which the prohibition is stated,2 they become forbidden to him, even though there is no oath at all, nor did it mention God's name or a term used to describe Him.3 Concerning this, the Torah [Numbers 30:3] states: "To cause a prohibition to take effect upon his soul," i.e., to cause permitted entities to become forbidden to him. Similarly, such a vow takes effect if he says: "They are forbidden to me." I call this category: "vows involving prohibitions."

א

הַנֵּדֶר נֶחְלָק לִשְׁתֵּי מַחֲלוֹקוֹת. הַחֵלֶק הָרִאשׁוֹן הוּא שֶׁיֶּאֱסֹר עַל עַצְמוֹ דְּבָרִים הַמֻּתָּרִים לוֹ כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֹּאמַר פֵּרוֹת מְדִינָה פְּלוֹנִית אֲסוּרִין עָלַי כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם אוֹ לְעוֹלָם. אוֹ מִין פְּלוֹנִי מִפֵּרוֹת הָעוֹלָם אוֹ פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין עָלַי. בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן שֶׁיֶּאֱסֹר הֲרֵי זֶה נֶאֱסָר בָּהֶן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם שְׁבוּעָה כְּלָל וְלֹא הַזְכָּרַת שֵׁם וְלֹא כִּנּוּי. וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (במדבר ל ג) "לֶאְסֹר אִסָּר עַל נַפְשׁוֹ". שֶׁיֶּאֱסֹר עַל עַצְמוֹ דְּבָרִים הַמֻּתָּרִים. וְכֵן אִם אָמַר הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי אִסָּר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין וְחֵלֶק זֶה הוּא שֶׁאֲנִי קוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ נִדְרֵי אִסָּר:

2

The second category is to obligate himself for a sacrifice that he is not required to bring. For example, he said: "I obligate myself [to bring] a burnt offering," "I obligate myself to bring a peace offering," "...a meal offering," or "This animal is a burnt offering," or "...a peace offering."

When he says: "I obligate myself [to bring]...", this is called a vow.4 When he says: "This is...", it is called a donation.5 Donations and vows are of the same type [of pledges], but [the one making the pledge] is responsible for a vow.6With regard to a donations, by contrast, he is not responsible.7 Concerning these the Torah states [Deuteronomy 12:17]: "Your vows which you pledge and your donations...." This category, I refer to as "vows of sanctification."

ב

וְהַחֵלֶק הַשֵּׁנִי הוּא שֶׁיְּחַיֵּב עַצְמוֹ בְּקָרְבָּן שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בּוֹ. כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֹּאמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי לְהָבִיא עוֹלָה. אוֹ הֲרֵי עָלַי לְהָבִיא שְׁלָמִים אוֹ מִנְחָה. הֲרֵי בְּהֵמָה זוֹ עוֹלָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים. וְהָאוֹמֵר [הֲרֵי] עָלַי הוּא הַנִּקְרָא נֵדֶר. וְהָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי זוֹ הוּא הַנִּקְרָא נְדָבָה. וְהַנְּדָבָה וְהַנֵּדֶר מִמִּין אֶחָד הוּא אֶלָּא שֶׁהַנְּדָרִים חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן וּנְדָבוֹת אֵין חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן. וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (דברים יב יז) "וּנְדָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּדֹּר וְנִדְבֹתֶיךָ" וְגוֹ'. וְחֵלֶק זֶה הוּא שֶׁאֲנִי קוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ נִדְרֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ:

3

The laws concerning the first category and its relevant matters are [the subject] we will discuss in these halachot. The laws concerning vows of sanctification and their particulars will be discussed in their appropriate place in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot.8

ג

וְדִינֵי הַחֵלֶק הָרִאשׁוֹן וְעִנְיָנוֹ הֵם שֶׁאָנוּ מְבָאֲרִים בַּהֲלָכוֹת אֵלּוּ. אֲבָל דִּינֵי נִדְרֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ וּמִשְׁפְּטֵיהֶם כֻּלָּם יִתְבָּאֲרוּ בִּמְקוֹמָם בְּהִלְכוֹת מַעֲשֵׂה הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת:

4

It is a positive commandment of Scriptural origin for a person to carry out his oath or vow9 whether it be a vow involving prohibitions or a vow of sanctification, as [Deuteronomy 12:23] states: "Heed the utterances of your mouth and do as you vowed." And [Numbers 30:3] states: "He shall act in accordance with all that he uttered with his mouth."10

ד

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁיְּקַיֵּם אָדָם שְׁבוּעָתוֹ אוֹ נִדְרוֹ בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִנִּדְרֵי אִסָּר בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִנִּדְרֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג כד) "מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ" וְנֶאֱמַר (במדבר ל ג) "כְּכָל הַיֹּצֵא מִפִּיו יַעֲשֶׂה":

5

When a person forbids himself from partaking of a particular type of food, e.g., he said: "Figs are forbidden to me," "Figs from such-and-such a country are forbidden to me," "These figs are forbidden to me," or the like, if he partakes of any amount of them, he is liable for lashes according to Scriptural Law,11 as [Numbers, Ibid.] states: "He shall not desecrate his word."

There is no minimum measure [for the desecration of] a vow, for by taking a vow [not to partake of] a substance, it is as if one explicitly stated that he would not partake of even the slightest amount.12 If one said: "It is forbidden for me to eat the produce of this-and-this country" or "...to eat these fruit," he does not receive lashes unless he partakes of an olive-sized portion.

ה

הָאוֹסֵר עַל עַצְמוֹ מִין מִמִּינֵי מַאֲכָל כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר תְּאֵנִים אֲסוּרִין עָלַי אוֹ תְּאֵנִים שֶׁל מְדִינָה פְּלוֹנִית אֲסוּרִים עָלַי אוֹ תְּאֵנִים אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין עָלַי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ וְאָכַל מֵהֶן כָּל שֶׁהוּא לוֹקֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ל ג) "לֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ". שֶׁאֵין לִנְדָרִים שִׁעוּר. שֶׁכָּל הַנּוֹדֵר מִדָּבָר הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְפָרֵשׁ כָּל שֶׁהוּא. אָמַר אֲכִילָה מִפֵּרוֹת מְדִינָה פְּלוֹנִית אֲסוּרִין עָלַי אוֹ אֲכִילָה מִפֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּזַיִת:

6

If a person forbade himself from eating figs and grapes - whether in two vows or in one - the two can be combined to make up the measure of an olive-sized portion.13 Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ו

אָסַר עַל עַצְמוֹ אֲכִילָה מִן הַתְּאֵנִים וַאֲכִילָה מִן הָעֲנָבִים בֵּין בְּנֵדֶר אֶחָד בֵּין בִּשְׁנֵי נְדָרִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְזַיִת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

7

When a person says: "This produce is considered like a sacrifice," or he tells a colleague: "Everything that I partake of with you is a sacrifice,"14 "...like a sacrifice," "or considered like a sacrifice for me," they are forbidden to him. For it is possible that a person will make a vow for a sacrifice and make an animal that is ordinary a sacrifice and thus be forbidden for him.15

ז

הָאוֹמֵר פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ עָלַי קָרְבָּן אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵי הֵם כְּקָרְבָּן אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ כָּל מַה שֶּׁאֹכַל עִמְּךָ עָלַי קָרְבָּן אוֹ כְּקָרְבָּן אוֹ הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי קָרְבָּן. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּדֹּר אָדָם קָרְבָּן וְיַעֲשֶׂה בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהָיְתָה חֹל קָרְבָּן וְתֵאָסֵר:

8

If, however, a person says: "This produce is considered for me...", "This type of produce is considered for me...", "What I will eat with so-and-so will be considered as pig meat," "...as a false deity," "...as nevelot and trefot," or the like, they are permitted and no vow takes effect. [The rationale is that] it is impossible for a person to make something that is not pig meat as pig meat.16

ח

אֲבָל הָאוֹמֵר פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ עָלַי אוֹ מִין פְּלוֹנִי עָלַי אוֹ מַה שֶּׁאֹכַל עִם פְּלוֹנִי עָלַי כִּבְשַׂר חֲזִיר אוֹ כְּעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ כִּנְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין וְאֵין כָּאן נֵדֶר. שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּשַׂר חֲזִיר כִּבְשַׂר חֲזִיר:

9

This is the general principle [that applies] whenever anyone attempts to have permitted entities considered as forbidden entities: If he could have endowed that forbidden entity with its status by taking a vow,17 [the permitted entities] are forbidden. If he cannot endow it with its status by taking a vow,18 [the permitted entities] remain permitted.

ט

זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל הַמֵּשִׂים דְּבָרִים הַמֻּתָּרִים כַּדְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים אִם אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר הָאָסוּר יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּנֵדֶר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִים. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּנֵדֶר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין:

10

Sin-offerings and guilt-offerings cannot be brought as vows or as donations, as will be explained in the appropriate place.19 Nevertheless, it is possible for a person making a vow to offer them as a result of his vow. For a person who takes a nazirite vow must bring a sin offering,20 and if he becomes impure,21 he must bring a guilt offering, as will be stated.22 Accordingly, when one says: "This produce is considered for me like a sin-offering" or "...like a guilt-offering," or he says: "It is a sin-offering" or "It is a guilt-offering," it is forbidden. Needless to say, if he says: "It is a burnt-offering," "...a peace-offering," "...a meal-offering," or "...a thanksgiving-offering," it is forbidden, for all of these offerings can be brought as vows or as donations.23

י

הַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאִין בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ אֶפְשָׁר לַנּוֹדֵר לְהָבִיא אוֹתָם מֵחֲמַת נִדְרוֹ. שֶׁהַנּוֹדֵר בְּנָזִיר מֵבִיא חַטָּאת וְאִם נִטְמָא מֵבִיא אָשָׁם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. לְפִיכָךְ הָאוֹמֵר פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ עָלַי כְּחַטָּאת אוֹ כְּאָשָׁם אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵי הֵן חַטָּאת אוֹ הֲרֵי הֵן אָשָׁם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הֵן עוֹלָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים אוֹ מִנְחָה אוֹ תּוֹדָה שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ בָּאִין בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה:

11

If, however, one says: "This produce is considered for me like the challah [brought] to Aaron" or "...like the terumah for him,"24 it is permitted. For there is no way that these can be brought as vows or as donations.25

יא

אֲבָל הָאוֹמֵר פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ עָלַי כְּחַלַּת אַהֲרֹן אוֹ כִּתְרוּמָתוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין שֶׁאֵין שָׁם דֶּרֶךְ לְהָבִיא אֵלּוּ בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה:

12

If one says: "This produce is considered for me like notar,"26"...like piggul,"27 or "...like sacrificial meat that has become impure,"28 it is forbidden. For the person has, nonetheless, made the substance like sacrificial meat.29

יב

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הַפֵּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ עָלַי כְּנוֹתָר כְּפִגּוּל כְּבָשָׂר טָמֵא שֶׁל קָדָשִׁים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין שֶׁהֲרֵי עֲשָׂאָן כִּבְשַׂר קָרְבָּן מִכָּל מָקוֹם:

13

If one says: "[This produce] is considered for me like the tithe-sacrifice of an animal,"30 it is forbidden, for the sanctity [of the tithe-sacrifices] is conveyed upon them by mortals.31 If he says: "[This produce] is considered for me like a firstborn,"32 it is permitted, for the sanctity [of the firstborn] is not conveyed by mortals.33It cannot be designated [for another sacred purpose] with a vow, as [Leviticus 27:26] states: "A man should not consecrate it."34

יג

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי כְּמַעֲשַׂר בְּהֵמָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין הוֹאִיל וּקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ בִּידֵי אָדָם. הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי כִּבְכוֹר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין שֶׁאֵין קְדֻשָּׁתוֹ בִּידֵי אָדָם וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַתְפִּיסוֹ בְּנֵדֶר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז כו) "לֹא יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ אֹתוֹ":

14

If one says: "[This produce] is considered for me like a devotion offering for Above,"35 it is forbidden, for the devotion offering for Above are [set aside] for improvements within the Temple.36

[A vow takes effect and produce] becomes forbidden although the person did not mention a sacrifice [if he makes any of the following statements]: "[This produce] is considered for me like the donations for the chamber,"37 "...like the daily sacrifices," "...like the storage rooms,"38 "...like the wood,"39 "...like the fire-offerings,"40 "...like the altar," or "...like any of the utensils of the altar," e.g., he said: "[This produce] is considered for me like the altar rakes,"41 "...like the ewers [for the blood of the sacrifices],"42 "...like the altar forks,"43 or the like. [This law also applies] if he says: "This produce] is considered for me like the Temple,"44 "...like Jerusalem."45 [The rationale is that] all of these statements are similar to saying: "[This produce] is considered for me like a sacrifice."

יד

אָמַר הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי כְּחֶרְמֵי שָׁמַיִם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין. שֶׁחֶרְמֵי שָׁמַיִם לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת. הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי כִּתְרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה כִּתְמִידִים כְּדִירִים כְּעֵצִים כְּאִשִּׁים כְּמִזְבֵּחַ אוֹ כְּאַחַד מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי כְּיָעִים כְּמִזְרָקוֹת כְּמִזְלָגוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי כְּהֵיכָל כִּירוּשָׁלַיִם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הַזְכִּיר שֵׁם קָרְבָּן. שֶׁכָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ עִנְיָנָם כְּאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי קָרְבָּן:

15

[When there was] sacrificial meat - even meat from a peace offering whose blood had been poured [on the altar] which is permitted to non-priests - before a person and he said: "[This produce] is considered for me like this meat," it is forbidden. [The rationale is that] he attached [his vow] to the fundamental element of the meat, and that was forbidden.46

[Different rules apply if] the meat was from a firstborn sacrifice. If its blood had not been poured [on the altar], [the produce] is forbidden.47 If it had been poured, it is permitted.

טו

הָיָה לְפָנָיו בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בְּשַׂר שְׁלָמִים אַחַר זְרִיקַת דָּמִים שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר לַזָּרִים וְאָמַר הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי כְּבָשָׂר זֶה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין. שֶׁלֹּא הִתְפִּיס אֶלָּא בְּעִקָּרוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אָסוּר. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בְּשַׂר בְּכוֹר אִם לִפְנֵי זְרִיקַת דָּמִים הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר וְאִם לְאַחר זְרִיקַת דָּמִים הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

16

There are places where people are inarticulate and mispronounce words, calling subjects by different names. [In those places,] we follow the meaning of the local term.

What is meant by the statement that all the terms used for the word korban, "sacrifice," are equivalent to the term korban? When one says: "[This produce] is considered for me like a konam," "...a konach," or "...a konaz," they are all terms referring to a korban. Cherek, cheref, and cherech are all terms referring to a cherem (dedication offering).

Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. We follow the language used by people at large in that place and at that time.48

טז

יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאַנְשֵׁיהֶם עִלְּגִים וּמַפְסִידִין אֶת הַלָּשׁוֹן וּמְכַנִּין עַל דָּבָר בְּדָבָר אַחֵר הוֹלְכִין שָׁם אַחַר הַכִּנּוּי. כֵּיצַד כָּל כִּנּוּיֵי קָרְבָּן כְּקָרְבָּן. הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הֵן עָלַי קוֹנַם קוֹנָח קוֹנָז הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִּנּוּיִין לְקָרְבָּן. חֵרֶק חֵרֶף חֵרֶךְ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִּנּוּיִין לְחֵרֶם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה הוֹלְכִין אַחַר לְשׁוֹן כְּלַל הָעָם בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם וּבְאוֹתוֹ זְמַן:

17

Just as a person can make a vow forbidding entities to himself with such terms, so, too, if he consecrates an entity with such terms, the entity is consecrated. Nicknames for such terms,49 however, are not binding50 whether for vows involving prohibitions or vows involving the consecration of property.

יז

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאוֹסֵר עַצְמוֹ בְּכִנּוּיִין כָּךְ אִם הִקְדִּישׁ בְּכִנּוּיִין הֲרֵי זֶה הֶקְדֵּשׁ. וְכִנּוּיֵי הַכִּנּוּיִין מֻתָּרִין בֵּין בְּנִדְרֵי אִסָּר בֵּין בְּנִדְרֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ:

18

If a person tells a colleague: "Whatever I eat from your [property] will not be like ordinary food," "...will not be kosher," or "...will not be pure,"51 it is as if he told him: "Everything that I eat from your [property] will be like a sacrifice,"52 which is forbidden. Similarly, if he tells him: "Everything that I eat from your [property] will be an impure [sacrifice]," "...notar," or piggul,"53 it is forbidden.

יח

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ מַה שֶּׁאֹכַל עִמְּךָ לֹא יְהֵא חֻלִּין אוֹ לֹא יְהֵא כָּשֵׁר אוֹ לֹא יְהֵא דְּכִי אוֹ לֹא יְהֵא טָהוֹר הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ כָּל מַה שֶּׁאֹכַל עִמְּךָ יְהֵא קָרְבָּן שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר. וְכֵן אִם אָמַר לוֹ כָּל מַה שֶּׁאֹכַל עִמְּךָ טָמֵא אוֹ נוֹתָר אוֹ פִּגּוּל הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר:

19

When a person tells a colleague: "Not ordinary food will I not eat from your [property]," it is as if he told him:54 "What I will eat from your [property] will not be like ordinary food, but instead, like a sacrifice."55

Similarly, if he tells him: "The sacrifice if I eat from your [property]," "A sacrifice if I eat from your [property]," or "Like a sacrifice if I eat from your [property]," he is forbidden [to eat from his property].56 If, by contrast, he tells him: "The sacrifice I will not eat from your [property]," "Like a sacrifice, I will not eat from your [property]," "For a sacrifice, I will not eat from your [property]," "A sacrifice I will not eat from your [property]," or "Not a sacrifice, I will not eat from your [property]," he is permitted in all of these instances.57 For all of these expressions do not have any implication other than he is taking an oath by a sacrifice that he will not eat from his [property] and taking an oath on a sacrifice is not binding. Alternatively, [his intent can be interpreted] as taking a vow that he will not partake of a sacrifice with him.

יט

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ לֹא חֻלִּין לֹא אֹכַל לְךָ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ מַה שֶּׁאֹכַל לְךָ לֹא יְהֵא חֻלִּין אֶלָּא קָרְבָּן. וְכֵן אִם אָמַר הַקָרְבָּן שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ קָרְבָּן שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ כְּקָרְבָּן שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. אֲבָל הָאוֹמֵר הַקָּרְבָּן לֹא אֹכַל לְךָ אוֹ כְּקָרְבָּן לֹא אֹכַל לְךָ אוֹ לְקָרְבָּן לֹא אֹכַל לְךָ אוֹ קָרְבָּן לֹא אֹכַל לְךָ אוֹ לֹא קָרְבָּן לֹא אֹכַל לְךָ כָּל אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִים. שֶׁאֵין מַשְׁמַע דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע בְּקָרְבָּן שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל לָזֶה וְהַנִּשְׁבָּע בְּקָרְבָּן אֵינוֹ כְּלוּם אוֹ שֶׁנָּדַר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל לוֹ קָרְבָּן:

20

[If he tells him:] "Ordinary food, I will eat from your [property]," "The ordinary food, I will eat from your [property]," "Like ordinary food, I will eat from your [property]," "Ordinary food, I will not eat from your [property]," "The ordinary food, I will eat not with you," "Like ordinary food, I will not eat from your [property]," it is permitted for him [to eat from his property].58

כ

חֻלִּין שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ הַחֻלִּין שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ כְּחֻלִּין שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ חֻלִּין שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ הַחֻלִּין שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ כְּחֻלִּין שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

21

If, by contrast, he says: "No impure [sacrifices] will I eat from your [property]," "No notar, will I eat from your [property]," or "No piggul will I eat from your [property]," he is forbidden. [The vow takes effect, because] the intent of his statements appears to be: "What I will eat will be piggul or impure. Therefore, I will not eat from your [property]."59

כא

אֲבָל הָאוֹמֵר לֹא טָמֵא שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ לֹא נוֹתָר שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ לֹא פִּגּוּל שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ אָסוּר. שֶׁמַּשְׁמָעוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר דָּבָר שֶׁאֹכַל הוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה פִּגּוּל אוֹ טָמֵא לְפִיכָךְ לֹא אֹכַל לְךָ:

22

[If he says:] "By the Temple, I will eat from your [property]," "The Temple, I will eat from your [property]," or "No Temple, I will eat from your [property]," [the vow is effective,60 and] it is forbidden. "The Temple, I will not eat from your [property]," "Like the Temple, I will not eat from your [property]," or "No Temple, I will not eat from your [property]," he is permitted.61 For this is like taking an oath by the Temple, that he will not eat from his [property]. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

כב

בַּהֵיכָל שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ הֵיכָל שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ לֹא הֵיכָל שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ אָסוּר. הֵיכָל שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ כְּהֵיכָל שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ לֹא הֵיכָל שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ מֻתָּר. שֶׁזֶּה כְּמִי שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע בַּהֵיכָל שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

23

When a person tells a colleague, "I am taking a vow from you," his statement implies that he will not speak with him.62 "I am separate from you" implies that he will not do business with him. "I am distant from you" implies that he will not sit within four cubits of him. That same implication is conveyed by telling him: "I am ostracized from you" or "I am banned from you."63

If, however, says "I am taking a vow from you in that I will not eat from your [property]," "I am separate from you in that I will not eat from your [property]," or "I am distant from you in that I will not eat from your [property]," he is forbidden to eat from his [property].64 If he eats an olivesized portion [of food] from any of his property, he is liable for lashes for [violating the prohibition]: "He shall not desecrate his word."

כג

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ מֻדָּר אֲנִי מִמְּךָ מַשְׁמַע דָּבָר זֶה שֶׁלֹּא יְדַבֵּר עִמּוֹ. מֻפְרָשׁ אֲנִי מִמְּךָ מַשְׁמָעוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׂא וְיִתֵּן עִמּוֹ. מְרֻחָק אֲנִי מִמְּךָ מַשְׁמָעוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֵשֵׁב בְּאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹתָיו. וְכֵן אִם אָמַר לוֹ מְנֻדֶּה אֲנִי לְךָ אוֹ מְשַׁמַּתְנָא מִמְּךָ. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ מֻדָּר אֲנִי מִמְּךָ שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ. אוֹ מֻפְרָשׁ אֲנִי מִמְּךָ שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ אוֹ מְרֻחָק אֲנִי מִמְּךָ שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לֶאֱכל. וְאִם אָכַל כְּזַיִת מִכָּל נְכָסָיו לוֹקֶה מִשּׁוּם (במדבר ל ג) "לֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ":

24

If he tells him: "I am ostracized from you in that I will not eat from your [property]," he may not eat from his [property, but] if he does, he is not liable for lashes.65 If he tells him: "I have drifted66 from you," he is forbidden to benefit from him.67

כד

אָמַר לוֹ מְנֻדֶּה אֲנִי לְךָ שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל לְךָ אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל לוֹ וְאִם אָכַל אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. אָמַר לוֹ נָדִינָא מִמְּךָ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת:

25

When a person tells a colleague: "Let it be considered for me like the vows of the wicked who make nazirite vows, vows for a sacrifice, and oaths,68 if I eat from your [property]," should he eat [from his property], he is liable for all of the above.69

Similarly, if he says: "Let it be considered for me like the pledges of the upright who make nazirite pledges70 and donations for a sacrifice,71 if I eat from your [property," should he eat from his property,] he is liable.72

כה

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ הֲרֵי עָלַי כְּנִדְרֵי רְשָׁעִים אִם אֹכַל לְךָ שֶׁמִּנִּדְרֵיהֶם נָזִיר וְקָרְבָּן וּשְׁבוּעָה וְאָכַל חַיָּב בְּכֻלָּן. וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי כִּנְדָבוֹת כְּשֵׁרִים שֶׁמִּנִּדְבוֹתָם נָזִיר וְקָרְבָּן הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב:

26

If one says: "Let it be considered for me like the vows of the wicked..." or "...like the pledges of the upright73 that I will eat from your [property]," or "...if I eat from your property," he is forbidden [to do so], even if he did not make an explicit statement.74

If he said: "Like the vows of the upright," his statement is of no consequence, for the upright do not take vows to prohibit things out of anger. If he says: "I am like the vows of the wicked," and a nazirite was passing before him, he is obligated to observe a nazirite vow.75 If he says: "I am responsible, like the vows of the wicked," he is obligated to bring a sacrifice.76 "Like the vows of the wicked, I will not eat from it,"77 he is liable for an oath.78

כו

אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי כְּנִדְרֵי רְשָׁעִים אוֹ כִּנְדָבוֹת כְּשֵׁרִים שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ אוֹ אִם אֹכַל לְךָ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ. אָמַר כְּנִדְרֵי כְּשֵׁרִים לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב בִּכְלוּם שֶׁאֵין הַכְּשֵׁרִים נוֹדְרִים בְּדֶרֶךְ אִסּוּר וָכַעַס. אָמַר כְּנִדְרֵי רְשָׁעִים הֲרֵינִי וְהָיָה נָזִיר עוֹבֵר לְפָנָיו חַיָּב בִּנְזִירוּת. כְּנִדְרֵי רְשָׁעִים עָלַי חַיָּב קָרְבָּן. כְּנִדְרֵי רְשָׁעִים שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב בִּשְׁבוּעָה:

27

When a person takes a vow by the Torah, i.e., he says: "This produce is considered for me like this,"79 his statements are of no consequence80 and he need not ask a sage to release him from it.81 [An exception is made if] he is a common person so that he will not act frivolously with regard to vows.82

כז

הַנּוֹדֵר בַּתּוֹרָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ עָלַי כָּזוֹ לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שְׁאֵלָה לְחָכָם. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה עַם הָאָרֶץ. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִנְהֲגוּ קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ בִּנְדָרִים:

28

If one took a vow by what was written in [the Torah], he is forbidden [to partake of the article mentioned in his vow], for [the Torah] contains statements involving prohibitions and vows.83 If he took it in his arm and took an oath on it, it is as if he took a vow by what was written in it.84

כח

נָדַר בְּמַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּתוּב בָּהּ אִסָּר וְנֶדֶר. נְטָלָהּ בְּיָדוֹ וְנָדַר בָּהּ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁנָּדַר בְּמַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ:

29

When a person tells a colleague: "Let's get up and study a chapter [of Torah]," he is obligated to get up and study.85 Even though he did not use the wording of a vow, this is comparable to a vow.86

כט

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ נַשְׁכִּים וְנִשְׁנֶה פֶּרֶק. עָלָיו לְהַשְׁכִּים וְלִקְרוֹת שֶׁזֶּה כְּמוֹ נֵדֶר הוּא וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיאוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן נֵדֶר:

30

When a person tells his wife: "You are considered to me as my mother," "...as my sister,"87 "...as orlah," or "...as mixed species in a vineyard,"88 it is as if one says concerning produce: "May it be like pig meat." Just as he is permitted to partake of that produce, as explained,89 so, too, he is permitted [to engage in relations] with his wife.

If, however, he tells her: "I am taking a vow, forbidding all pleasure from you"90or "The pleasure of relations with you is forbidden to me," she is forbidden to him, as will be explained.91

ל

הָאוֹמֵר לְאִשְׁתּוֹ הֲרֵי אַתְּ עָלַי כְּאִמִּי אוֹ כַּאֲחוֹתִי אוֹ כְּעָרְלָה אוֹ כְּכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאוֹמֵר עַל הַפֵּרוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִּבְשַׂר חֲזִיר. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ כָּךְ מֻתָּר בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לָהּ הֲרֵינִי מֻדָּר מִמְּךָ הֲנָיָה אוֹ הֲנָאַת תַּשְׁמִישֵׁךְ אֲסוּרָה עָלַי הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה עָלָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר: