[The following rules apply with regard to] a male minor who is twelve years and one day old1 and a female minor who is eleven years and one day old who took an oath or a vow, whether a vow forbidding something to them or a vow consecrating an article. We investigate them and ask them [questions]. If they know for Whose sake they took the vow2 or for Whose sake they consecrated [the article] or took the oath, their vows and their consecration are binding.3 If they do not know, their vows and their statements are of no consequence.

It is necessary to make an investigation throughout the entire twelfth year of a female minor and the entire thirteenth year of a male minor.4


קָטָן בֶּן שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד וּקְטַנָּה בַּת אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּעוּ אוֹ נָדְרוּ בֵּין נִדְרֵי אִסָּר בֵּין נִדְרֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתָן וְשׁוֹאֲלִין אוֹתָן. אִם יוֹדְעִין לְשֵׁם מִי נָדְרוּ וּלְשֵׁם מִי הִקְדִּישׁוּ וְנִשְׁבְּעוּ נִדְרֵיהֶן קַיָּמִים וְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן הֶקְדֵּשׁ. וְאִם לֹא יָדְעוּ אֵין בְּנִדְרֵיהֶם וּבְדִבְרֵיהֶם כְּלוּם. וּצְרִיכִין בְּדִיקָה כָּל הַשָּׁנָה כֻּלָּהּ שֶׁהִיא שְׁנַת י''ב לִקְטַנָּה. וּשְׁנַת י''ג לְקָטָן:


What is implied? A minor took a vow or consecrated [property] at the beginning of the year, they were questioned, it was discovered that they knew [for Whose sake the vow was taken], and the vow was maintained. If they took another vow, even at the end of this year, they must be questioned again [for the vow] to be maintained. We do not say: "Since they were knowledgeable at the beginning of the year, they no longer have to be questioned. Instead, we question them throughout the entire year.5


כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁנָּדְרוּ אוֹ הִקְדִּישׁוּ בִּתְחִלַּת שָׁנָה זוֹ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתָן וְנִמְצְאוּ יוֹדְעִין וְנִתְקַיֵּם נִדְרָן וְנָדְרוּ נֵדֶר אַחֵר אֲפִלּוּ בְּסוֹף שָׁנָה זוֹ צְרִיכִין בְּדִיקָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְקַיֵּם. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין הוֹאִיל וְנִמְצְאוּ יוֹדְעִין בִּתְחִלַּת הַשָּׁנָה אֵין צְרִיכִין בְּדִיקָה אֶלָּא בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתָן אֶת כָּל הַשָּׁנָה הַזּוֹ כֻּלָּהּ:


Before this time, even when they say: "We know for Whose sake we took the vow or for Whose sake we consecrated it," their vows and their consecration are of no consequence. After this time [passes] and a male is thirteen years and one day and a female is twelve years and one day,6 even though they say: "We do not know for Whose sake we took the vow or for Whose sake we consecrated it,"7 their vows and their consecration are binding even if they did not manifest physical signs of maturity.8 This is the time when vows [take effect] which is mentioned in all sources.9


קֹדֶם הַזְּמַן הַזֶּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ יוֹדְעִין אָנוּ לְשֵׁם מִי נָדַרְנוּ וּלְשֵׁם מִי הִקְדַּשְׁנוּ אֵין נִדְרֵיהֶן נֵדֶר וְאֵין הֶקְדֵּשָׁן הֶקְדֵּשׁ. וְאַחַר הַזְּמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁנִּמְצָא הַבֵּן בֶּן י''ג שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד וְהַבַּת בַּת י''ב שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין לְשֵׁם מִי נָדַרְנוּ וּלְשֵׁם מִי הִקְדַּשְׁנוּ דִּבְרֵיהֶן קַיָּמִין וְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְנִדְרֵיהֶן נְדָרִים וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת. וְזוֹ הִיא עוֹנַת נְדָרִים הָאֲמוּרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם:


Since they reached the age of majority, their vows are binding even if they did not manifest physical signs of majority and [thus] are not considered as adults with regard to all matters. This concept is of Scriptural origin:10 that when a person close to the age of adulthood utters a vow, his consecration [of articles] and his vows are binding. Nevertheless, although the vows of these individuals are binding, if they desecrate their vows or take oaths and substitute for them, they are not punishable by lashes until they reach the age of majority and manifest signs of physical maturity.11


הוֹאִיל וְהִגִּיעוּ לִשְׁנֵי הַגְּדוֹלִים נִדְרֵיהֶן קַיָּמִין. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאוּ סִימָנִין וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נַעֲשׂוּ גְּדוֹלִים לְכָל דָּבָר. וְדָבָר זֶה מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁהַמֻּפְלָא הַסָּמוּךְ לְאִישׁ הֶקְדֵּשׁוֹ וְנִדְרוֹ נֵדֶר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּדְרֵיהֶן קַיָּמִין אִם חִלְּלוּ נִדְרָן אוֹ נִשְׁבְּעוּ וְהֶחְלִיפוּ אֵינָן לוֹקִין עַד שֶׁיַּגְדִּילוּ וְיָבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת:


If [such a minor] consecrated an article and an adult came and benefited from the article that he consecrated, [the adult] is liable for lashes.12 For [the minor's] vows are valid according to Scriptural Law, as explained.13


הִקְדִּישׁוּ וּבָא הַגָּדוֹל וְנֶהֱנָה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁוּ לוֹקֶה מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנִּדְרֵיהֶם נְדָרִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When does the above statement - that the vows taken by a female twelve years and one day old are binding - apply? When she is neither in her father's domain14 or her husband's domain. If, however, she is in her father's domain, even if she comes of age and she is a maiden,15 her father may nullify16 all17 of the vows and oaths she takes on the day he hears of them, as [Numbers 30:6] states: "All of her vows and prohibitions18... [shall not stand...] because her father withheld her."


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁבַּת י''ב שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד נְדָרֶיהָ קַיָּמִין. בְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה בִּרְשׁוּת הָאָב אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַבַּעַל. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה בִּרְשׁוּת הָאָב אֲפִלּוּ הִגְדִּילָה וַהֲרֵי הִיא נַעֲרָה. אָבִיהָ מֵפֵר כָּל נְדָרֶיהָ וְכָל שְׁבוּעוֹת שֶׁתִּשָּׁבַע בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ל ו) "כָּל נְדָרֶיהָ וֶאֱסָרֶיהָ" וְגוֹ' (במדבר ל ו) "כִּי הֵנִיא אָבִיהָ אֹתָהּ" וְגוֹ':


Until when may her father nullify [her vows]? Until she fully comes of age.19 Once she fully comes of age, he may not nullify her [vows].20 Instead, all of her vows and oaths are like those of a widow or a divorcee, as [implied by Numbers 30:10]: "Everything that she forbade upon her soul [shall remain upon her]."


וְעַד מָתַי אָבִיהָ מֵפֵר עַד שֶׁתִּבְגַּר. בָּגְרָה אֵינוֹ מֵפֵר לָהּ וַהֲרֵי כָּל נְדָרֶיהָ וּשְׁבוּעוֹתֶיהָ כְּנֵדֶר אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶן (במדבר ל י) "כּל אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל נַפְשָׁהּ" וְגוֹ':


When may a husband nullify his wife's vows and oaths? From the time she enters the chupah.21 He may continue to nullify her vows forever until he divorces her, with the bill of divorce reaching her hand.22

If there was an unresolved doubt concerning her divorce,23 he should not nullify her vows. If he gives her a bill of divorce conditionally24 or one that takes effect at a later time,25 he should not nullify [her vows] in the interim.26 Similarly, [when a woman] has heard that her husband died and remarried, but [in truth] her husband was alive27 or other similar situations [prevail],28 neither her first husband, nor her second husband should nullify her vows.29 If she was forbidden [to her husband] by a negative commandment30 and needless to say, if she is forbidden only by a positive commandment,31 and her husband nullified her vows, her vows are nullified.32


וּמֵאֵימָתַי מֵפֵר הַבַּעַל נִדְרֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ וּשְׁבוּעוֹתֶיהָ מִשֶּׁתִּכָּנֵס לַחֻפָּה. וְהוּא מֵפֵר לְעוֹלָם עַד שֶׁיְּגָרְשֶׁנָּה וְיַגִּיעַ הַגֵּט לְיָדָהּ. הָיְתָה מְגֹרֶשֶׁת מִסָּפֵק לֹא יָפֵר לָהּ. נָתַן לָהּ גֵּט עַל תְּנַאי אוֹ לְאַחַר זְמַן לֹא יָפֵר בַּיָּמִים שֶׁבֵּינְתַיִם. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁשָּׁמְעָה שֶׁמֵּת בַּעְלָהּ וְנִשֵּׂאת וַהֲרֵי בַּעְלָהּ קַיָּם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ אֵין הַבַּעַל הָרִאשׁוֹן וְלֹא הָאַחֲרוֹן מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ. הָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי לָאוִין וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מֵחַיָּבֵי עֲשֵׂה וְהֵפֵר נְדָרֶיהָ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מוּפָרִין:


When a maiden33 has been consecrated, her vows may be nullified only by her father and the erus34 together.35 If one nullified [a vow] alone, it is not nullified. If her erus nullified [the vow] alone and she violated the vow before her father nullified it, she is not liable for lashes.36


נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָסָה אֵין מֵפֵר נְדָרֶיהָ אֶלָּא הָאָב עִם הַבַּעַל כְּאַחַד. וְאִם הֵפֵר הָאֶחָד לְבַדּוֹ אֵינוֹ מוּפָר. הֵפֵר הַבַּעַל לְבַדּוֹ וְעָבְרָה עַל נִדְרָהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּפֵר הָאָב אֵינָהּ לוֹקָה:


If (the erus) dies, she returns to her father's domain. Any vow she takes37 may be nullified by her father as was her status before consecration.38 If her father died after she was consecrated and she took a vow after his death, her erus cannot nullify it. For an erus cannot nullify his wife's vows [alone] until she enters the chupah.39


מֵת הָאָרוּס חָזְרָה לִרְשׁוּת אָבִיהָ. וְכָל שֶׁתִּדֹּר הָאָב מֵפֵר כְּשֶׁהָיָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּתְאָרֵס. מֵת הָאָב אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְאָרְסָה וְנָדְרָה אַחַר מוֹתוֹ אֵין הַבַּעַל מֵפֵר שֶׁאֵין הַבַּעַל מֵפֵר נִדְרֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ עַד שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס לַחֻפָּה:


[The following rules apply when] a consecrated maiden takes a vow, her father heard her vow, but not her erus,40 she was divorced that day and then consecrated by another person41 that day.42 Even if [she was divorced and consecrated] 100 times [that day], her father and her last erus may nullify the vows she took before her first erus. [The rationale is that] she never departed into her own domain for one moment,43 for throughout the entire time, she is in her father's domain, for she is still a maiden.


נַעֲרָה אֲרוּסָה שֶׁנָּדְרָה וְשָׁמַע אָבִיהָ וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲרוּסָהּ וְנִתְגָרְשָׁה בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם וְנִתְאָרְסָה לְאַחֵר בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם אֲפִלּוּ לְמֵאָה אָבִיהָ וּבַעְלָהּ הָאַחֲרוֹן מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ שֶׁנָּדְרָה בִּפְנֵי אָרוּס רִאשׁוֹן. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָאתָה לִרְשׁוּת עַצְמָהּ שָׁעָה אַחַת שֶׁעֲדַיִן הִיא בִּרְשׁוּת הָאָב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא נַעֲרָה:


When, by contrast, a married woman took a vow and her husband did not nullify it, he divorced her that day, and remarried her that day, he cannot nullify her vows,44 for she departed into her independent domain after she took her vow.45 Although she took her vow in his domain and she is now in his domain, since she departed into her own domain in the interim, her vows are binding.


אֲבָל הָאִשָּׁה הַנְּשׂוּאָה שֶׁנָּדְרָה וְלֹא הֵפֵר לָהּ בַּעְלָהּ וְגֵרְשָׁהּ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם וְהֶחֱזִירָהּ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר שֶׁהֲרֵי יָצָאתָה לִרְשׁוּת עַצְמָהּ אַחַר שֶׁנָּדְרָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּדְרָה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וְהִיא עַתָּה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ הוֹאִיל וְיָצְתָה בִּרְשׁוּת עַצְמָהּ בֵּינְתַיִם נִתְקַיְּמוּ נְדָרֶיהָ:


[The following rule applies when] a consecrated maiden took a vow that was not heard by either her father or her erus,46 she was divorced, and then consecrated to someone else.47 Even several days after [she took the vow], when her father and her last erus hear about the vow that she took while consecrated to her first erus, they may nullify it, since her first erus did not hear it.


נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָסָה שֶׁנָּדְרָה וְלֹא שָׁמַע אָבִיהָ וְלֹא בַּעְלָהּ וְנִתְגָרְשָׁה וְנִתְאָרְסָה לַאֲחֵרִים. אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר כַּמָּה יָמִים כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁמַע הָאָב וְהַבַּעַל הָאַחֲרוֹן מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ שֶׁנָּדְרָה בִּפְנֵי אָרוּס הָרִאשׁוֹן הוֹאִיל וְלֹא שָׁמַע אוֹתָם הָאָרוּס הָרִאשׁוֹן:


[The following rule applies when] a consecrated maiden took a vow, her father alone heard it and nullified it, but the man to whom she was consecrated died before hearing it. If she was consecrated to another man - or to 100 other men - that day48 her father and her last erus may nullify her vow.49


נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָסָה שֶׁנָּדְרָה וְשָׁמַע אָבִיהָ לְבַדּוֹ וְהֵפֵר לָהּ וּמֵת הָאָרוּס קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע וְנִתְאָרְסָה בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם אֲפִלּוּ לְמֵאָה אָבִיהָ וַאֲרוּסָהּ הָאַחֲרוֹן מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ שֶׁנָּדְרָה בִּפְנֵי אָרוּס רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁמֵּת קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע:


[The following rule applies when] the erus heard [her vow], nullified it and died and afterwards,50 her father heard and she was consecrated to another person that day.51 Her father and the second erus may nullify her vows.52


שָׁמַע אָרוּס רִאשׁוֹן וְהֵפֵר וּמֵת וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁמַע הָאָב וְנִתְאָרְסָה לְאַחֵר בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם אָבִיהָ עִם הָאָרוּס הָאַחֲרוֹן מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ:


If her father heard [that she took a vow], but the erus did not and the erus died that day or the erus also heard [about her vow] and nullified it or remained silent53 and then died that day, she returns to her father's domain and her father may nullify [her vows].54

If the erus heard [about her vow] and maintained it and died that day, or remained silent and died the following day,55 her father cannot nullify her vow.


שָׁמַע אָבִיהָ וְלֹא שָׁמַע הָאָרוּס וּמֵת בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הָאָרוּס אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁמַע גַּם הָאָרוּס וְהֵפֵר אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁתַק וּמֵת בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִתְרוֹקְנָה רְשׁוּת לָאָב וְהָאָב יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר. שָׁמַע הָאָרוּס וְקִיֵּם וּמֵת בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁמַע וְשָׁתַק וּמֵת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו אֵין הָאָב יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר:


If the erus, divorced her after hearing [of her vow], there is an unresolved question whether the divorce is considered as silence and her father may nullify her vow together with a second erus who consecrates her that day.56 Or perhaps the divorce is like her first erus maintaining her vow, in which instance, the vow is maintained.57


גֵּרְשָׁהּ הָאָרוּס אַחַר שֶׁשָּׁמַע. הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם הַגֵּרוּשִׁין כִּשְׁתִיקָה וְיָפֵר הָאָב עִם הַבַּעַל הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁיְּאָרֵס בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם אוֹ הַגֵּרוּשִׁין כְּמוֹ שֶׁקִּיֵּם אָרוּס רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְקַיְּמוּ הַנְּדָרִים:


When the father heard the vow and nullified it and then died and then the erus heard [of the vow] or even if the erus heard of the vow before the death of the father,58 she is not transferred [entirely] to the domain of her erus. He cannot ever nullify the vow after the father's death, for an erus can nullify a vow only together [with the father].


שָׁמַע הָאָב וְהֵפֵר לָהּ וּמֵת הָאָב וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁמַע הַבַּעַל אֲפִלּוּ שָׁמַע הַבַּעַל קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּמוּת הָאָב לֹא נִתְרוֹקְנָה רְשׁוּת לַבַּעַל וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר לְעוֹלָם אַחַר מוֹת הָאָב. שֶׁאֵין הָאָרוּס מֵפֵר אֶלָּא בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת:


If the erus heard [the vow], nullified it, and died and then the father heard or the father heard and nullified it and the erus died before he heard it, the father cannot nullify these vows that were in the jurisdiction of the first erus except together with a second erus to whom she is consecrated that day,59 as we explained.60


שָׁמַע אָרוּס וְהֵפֵר לָהּ וּמֵת וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁמַע הָאָב. אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁמַע הָאָב וְהֵפֵר לָהּ וּמֵת הַבַּעַל קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע. אֵין הָאָב לְבַדּוֹ יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר נְדָרִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁנִּרְאוּ לְאָרוּס רִאשׁוֹן אֶלָּא בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת אָרוּס הָאַחֲרוֹן אִם נִתְאָרְסָה בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


If a woman took a vow, her father nullified it alone, and her husband did not hear [of the vow] until he brought her into his domain,61 he cannot nullify [her vow]. For a husband cannot nullify a vow taken by the woman he consecrated after he marries her.62 Instead, [this must be done] before she enters his domain, when he nullifies it together with her father. For this reason,63 it was the practice of Torah Sages to tell their daughters before they left their domain:64 "All the vows which you took while in my household are nullified."


נָדְרָה וְהֵפֵר לָהּ אָבִיהָ לְבַדּוֹ וְלֹא שָׁמַע הָאָרוּס עַד שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לִרְשׁוּתוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר שֶׁאֵין הַבַּעַל מֵפֵר נִדְרֵי אֲרוּסָתוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת אֶלָּא קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס לִרְשׁוּתוֹ הוּא שֶׁמֵּפֵר בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת הָאָב. לְפִיכָךְ הָיָה דֶּרֶךְ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים עַד שֶׁלֹּא תֵּצֵא בִּתּוֹ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ אוֹמֵר לָהּ כָּל נְדָרִים שֶׁנָּדַרְתְּ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתִי הֲרֵי הֵן מוּפָרִין:


Similarly, the husband would tell her before she enters his domain: "All of the vows that you took from the time I consecrated you65 until you entered my home are nullified." For a husband66 can nullify the vows of his wife even though he did not hear them.67


וְכֵן הַבַּעַל עַד שֶׁלֹּא תִּכָּנֵס לִרְשׁוּתוֹ אוֹמֵר לָהּ כָּל נְדָרִים שֶׁנָּדַרְתְּ מִשֶּׁאֵרַסְתִּיךְ עַד שֶׁלֹּא תִּכָּנְסִי בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתִי הֲרֵי הֵן מוּפָרִין שֶׁהַבַּעַל מֵפֵר נִדְרֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע אוֹתָם:


If the father went with the agents of the husband68 or the father's agents went with the agents of the husband, her vows must still be nullified by her father and her husband jointly.69 If her father transferred her to the agents of her husband or her father's agents transferred her to her husband's agents, her father can no longer nullify her vows.70 Nor may the husband nullify them. For the husband cannot nullify vows that were taken before [he married her], as we explained.71


הָלַךְ הָאָב עִם שְׁלוּחֵי הַבַּעַל אוֹ שֶׁהָלְכוּ שְׁלוּחֵי הָאָב עִם שְׁלוּחֵי הַבַּעַל עֲדַיִן אָבִיהָ וּבַעְלָהּ מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ. מָסַר הָאָב לִשְׁלוּחֵי הַבַּעַל אוֹ שֶׁמָּסְרוּ שְׁלוּחֵי הָאָב לִשְׁלוּחֵי הַבַּעַל אֵין הָאָב יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר שֶׁהֲרֵי יָצָאת מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ וְלֹא הַבַּעַל יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר שֶׁאֵין הַבַּעַל מֵפֵר בְּקוֹדְמִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


When a woman is waiting for yivum72 - even if the yevam already made a statement of his intent,73 and even if there is only one yevam and one yevamah74 - [the yevam] may not nullify her vows until he is intimate with her.75


שׁוֹמֶרֶת יָבָם אֲפִלּוּ עָשָׂה בָּהּ יְבָמָהּ מַאֲמָר וַאֲפִלּוּ יָבָם אֶחָד לִיבָמָה אַחַת אֵינוֹ מֵפֵר נִדְרֵי יְבִמְתּוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא עָלֶיהָ:


When a yevamah who is a maiden had been [merely] consecrated to [her deceased husband] and her father is alive, the yevam and her father do not nullify her vows together. Instead, her father alone is the one who nullifies any vow that she takes.76 Even if the yevam stated his intent to marry her, she is not considered as a consecrated maiden, for a statement of intent does not [establish] a complete [marriage bond between] a yevamah [and her yevam], as we explained.77


הָיְתָה יְבִמְתּוֹ נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָסָה לְאָחִיו וְאָבִיהָ קַיָּם אֵין הַיָּבָם וְאָבִיהָ מְפֵרִים נְדָרֶיהָ כְּאַחַת אֶלָּא הָאָב לְבַדּוֹ הוּא שֶׁמֵּפֵר כָּל שֶׁתִּדֹּר וַאֲפִלּוּ עָשָׂה בָּהּ הַיָּבָם מַאֲמָר אֵינָהּ כְּנַעֲרָה מְאֹרָסָה. שֶׁאֵין הַמַּאֲמָר קוֹנֶה בִּיבָמָה קִנְיָן גָּמוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


When a maiden who was given in marriage by her father is widowed or divorced after marriage,78 she is like an orphan in her father's lifetime. Her father does not have the right to nullify her vows even if she is a maiden.79


נַעֲרָה שֶׁהִשִּׂיאָהּ אָבִיהָ וְנִתְאַלְמְנָה אוֹ נִתְגָּרְשָׁה מִן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין הֲרֵי זוֹ כִּיתוֹמָה בְּחַיֵּי הָאָב. וְאֵין אָבִיהָ מֵפֵר נְדָרֶיהָ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן הִיא נַעֲרָה:


When a consecrated maiden takes a vow, but neither her father or her husband heard of her vows until she came of age80 or until she became like an orphan in her father's lifetime,81 her vows are binding; they cannot be nullified by her erus.82 [The rationale is that] she departed from her father's domain and he [and her erus] must nullify her vows together and she has not entered her husband's domain.83


נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָסָה שֶׁנָּדְרָה וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ נְדָרֶיהָ אָבִיהָ וּבַעְלָהּ עַד שֶׁבָּגְרָה אוֹ עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית יְתוֹמָה בְּחַיֵּי הָאָב הֲרֵי נְדָרֶיהָ קַיָּמִים וְאֵין הַבַּעַל יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר שֶׁהֲרֵי יָצָאת מֵרְשׁוּת אָבִיהָ שֶׁהוּא מֵפֵר עִמּוֹ בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נִכְנְסָה לִרְשׁוּת הַבַּעַל: