1

The first fruits are given to the men of the priestly watch1 [on duty at that time]. They divide them among themselves like the Temple sacrifices.2 We have already explained that [the first fruits] are called terumah.3 Therefore a non-priest who partakes of the first fruits anywhere4 is liable for death at the hand of heaven,5 provided he partook of them after they entered the walls of Jerusalem.6

א

הַבִּכּוּרִים נוֹתְנִין [אוֹתָן] לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר וְהֵן מְחַלְּקִים אוֹתָן בֵּינֵיהֶן כְּקָדְשֵׁי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהֵן קְרוּיִין תְּרוּמָה. וּלְפִיכָךְ זָר שֶׁאָכַל בִּכּוּרִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם חַיָּב מִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם. וְהוּא שֶׁיֹּאכְלֵם מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לְחוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם:

2

If a portion [of the first fruits] were inside Jerusalem and a portion were outside,7 [a non-priest] is liable for death for the portion that is inside and it is considered as consecrated property in all contexts. The portion that is outside is considered as ordinary property in all contexts.

ב

הָיוּ מִקְצָתָן בִּפְנִים וּמִקְצָתָן בַּחוּץ. זֶה שֶׁבִּפְנִים חַיָּבִין עָלָיו מִיתָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא הֶקְדֵּשׁ לְכָל דְּבָרָיו. וְזֶה שֶׁבַּחוּץ הֲרֵי הוּא חֻלִּין לְכָל דְּבָרָיו:

3

When a priest partakes of the first fruits outside of Jerusalem after they have entered inside [the city's] walls, he is liable for lashes according to Scriptural Law, as [Deuteronomy 12:17] states: 'You may not eat within your gates...8 the terumah of your hand.' [The latter term] refers to the first fruits,9 as we explained in Hilchot Terumah.10

Similarly, if a priest partakes of them in Jerusalem before they are placed in the Temple courtyard,11 he is liable for lashes according to Scriptural Law, as if he partook of them outside ofJerusalem,12 because [the first fruits] must be placed down in the Temple Courtyard as [ibid. 26:10] states: 'And you shall place them before the altar of God your Lord.'

ג

כֹּהֵן שֶׁאָכַל בִּכּוּרִים חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לְפָנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה לוֹקֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יב יז) "לֹא תוּכַל לֶאֱכל בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ" וְגוֹ' (דברים יב יז) "וּתְרוּמַת יָדֶךָ" וְהֵם הַבִּכּוּרִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת תְּרוּמָה. וְכֵן אִם אֲכָלָן הַכֹּהֵן בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם קֹדֶם הַנָּחָה בָּעֲזָרָה לוֹקֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה כְּמִי שֶׁאֲכָלָן בַּחוּץ לְפִי שֶׁהֵן טְעוּנִין הַנָּחָה בָּעֲזָרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהִנַּחְתּוֹ לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּח ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ:

4

After the person bringing [the first fruits] places them down in the Temple Courtyard, they are permitted to the priest even though the former has not recited the declaration over them. When the first fruits were taken out of their place13 and then returned, they are permitted to be eaten.14

ד

וּמִשֶּׁיָּנִיחֵם הַמְּבִיאָם בָּעֲזָרָה הֻתְּרוּ לַכֹּהֵן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִתְוַדָּה עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁאֵין הַקְּרִיאָה מְעַכֶּבֶת אֲכִילָתָן. ובִּכּוּרִים שֶׁיָּצְאוּ חוּץ לִמְחִצָּתָן וְחָזְרוּ מֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה:

5

[The laws applying to] partaking of the first fruits are identical [to those applying] to partaking of terumah in all of their details. In addition, [the following stringencies apply with regard] to first fruits. They are forbidden to one in the acute state of one in mourning.15 They must be brought to [Jerusalem]. And a priest who is ritually pure who partook of the first fruits that were impure receives lashes like an Israelite who is ritually pure who partook of the second tithe that became impure.16 [These concepts] do not apply with regard to terumah.17

ה

אֲכִילַת בִּכּוּרִים כַּאֲכִילַת תְּרוּמָה לְכָל דְּבָרָיו. יֶתֶר בְּבִכּוּרִים שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין לְאוֹנֵן וּטְעוּנִין הֲבָאַת מָקוֹם. וְכֹהֵן טָהוֹר שֶׁאָכַל בִּכּוּרִים טְמֵאִים לוֹקֶה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁלּוֹקֶה יִשְׂרָאֵל טָהוֹר שֶׁאָכַל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּתְרוּמָה:

6

What is the source which teaches that the first fruits are forbidden to an onein?18 With regard to these fruits, [Deuteronomy 26:11] states: 'And you shall rejoice in all the good.'19 Implied is that they have to be eaten in a state of happiness and not in a state of acute mourning. One who partakes of [these fruits] in a state of acute mourning is liable for stripes for rebellious conduct.20

ו

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהַבִּכּוּרִים אֲסוּרִין לְאוֹנֵן שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶן (דברים כו יא) "וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּכָל הַטּוֹב" מִכְּלָל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לְאָכְלָן בְּשִׂמְחָה לֹא בַּאֲנִינוּת. וְהָאוֹכְלָן בַּאֲנִינוּת מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

7

The first fruits must [be brought in] a container, as [ibid.:2] states: 'And you shall place them in a container.' The most preferable way of performing the mitzvah is to bring each type of fruit in a separate container. If one brings them [all] in one container, he has fulfilled his obligation. [Even in such an instance,] he should not bring them mixed together. Instead, he should bring the barley below,21 wheat on top of it, olives on top of it, dates on top of them, pomegranates on top of them, and figs on the top of the container. There should be a substance, e.g., palm leaves, wild grass, or leaves, or the like, that intervenes between each type of produce. One should surround the figs with clusters of grapes from the outside.

ז

הַבִּכּוּרִים טְעוּנִין כְּלִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כו ב) "וְשַׂמְתָּ בַטֶּנֶא". וּמִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְהָבִיא כָּל מִין וּמִין בִּכְלִי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וְאִם הֱבִיאָם בִּכְלִי אֶחָד יָצָא. וְלֹא יְבִיאֵם בְּעִרְבּוּב אֶלָּא שְׂעוֹרִים מִלְּמַטָּה וְחִטִּים עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן וְזֵיתִים עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן וּתְמָרִים עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן וְרִמּוֹנִים עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן וּתְאֵנִים לְמַעְלָה מִן הַכְּלִי. וְיִהְיֶה דָּבָר אֶחָד מַפְסִיק בֵּין מִין וָמִין כְּגוֹן הוּצִין וְחֵלֶף אוֹ עָלִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וּמַקִּיף לַתְּאֵנִים אֶשְׁכּוֹלוֹת שֶׁל עֲנָבִים מִבַּחוּץ:

8

When a person brings the first fruits in a metal container, the priest takes them and returns the container to its owner. If he brings them in a reed or grass basket or the like, both the first fruits and the basket should be given to the priests.22 If the first fruits become impure, the baskets should not be given to the priests.23

ח

הֱבִיאָם בִּכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת נוֹטֵל הַכֹּהֵן הַבִּכּוּרִים וְחוֹזֵר הַכְּלִי לִבְעָלָיו. וְאִם הֱבִיאָם בִּכְלֵי עֲרָבָה וְחֵלֶף וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הַבִּכּוּרִים וְהַסַּלִּים לַכֹּהֲנִים. וְאִם נִטְמְאוּ הַבִּכּוּרִים אֵין הַסַּלִּים לַכֹּהֲנִים:

9

When they would bring the first fruits, they would also bring turtle doves and doves in their hands. Similarly, they would hang turtle doves and doves from the sides of the baskets24 in order to adorn the first fruits. Those that were with the baskets would be offered as burnt offerings25 and those they would bring by hand would be given to the priests [as presents].26

ט

כְּשֶׁהָיוּ מְבִיאִין אֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים הָיוּ מְבִיאִין בְּיָדָם תּוֹרִין וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה. וְכֵן הָיוּ תּוֹלִין מִצִּדֵּי הַסַּלִּים תּוֹרִין וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה כְּדֵי לְעַטֵּר אֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים. אֵלּוּ שֶׁעִם הַסַּלִּים הָיוּ קְרֵבִים עוֹלוֹת וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁבִּידֵיהֶן הָיוּ נִתָּנִין לַכֹּהֲנִים:

10

It is a positive commandment27 to make a declaration in the Temple concerning the first fruits when they are brought. One should begin and say [Deuteronomy 26:3-10]: 'I am making a statement to God your Lord that I have come to the land... An Aramean [sought] to destroy my ancestor...' until he completes the entire passage, concluding: '...You gave me, O God.' [This declaration] may only be made in the Holy Tongue, as it states: 'And you shall respond and say.'28

י

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְהִתְוַדּוֹת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ עַל הַבִּכּוּרִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּבִיאָם. מַתְחִיל וְקוֹרֵא (דברים כו ג) "הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי בָאתִי אֶל הָאָרֶץ" וְגוֹ' (דברים כו ה) "אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי" עַד שֶׁיִּגְמֹר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה עַד (דברים כו י) "אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּ לִּי ה'". וְאֵין קוֹרִין אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כו ה) "וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ". בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֹּאת:

11

At first, those who knew how to read would read [the passage themselves] and those who did not know how to read would read after one who read for them. [As a result,] those who did not know how to read would refrain from bringing [the first fruits] so that they would not be embarrassed.29 [Hence] the court ordained that the passage would be read for one who knows how to read like it is read for one who does not know.30

יא

בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה כָּל מִי שֶׁהָיָה יוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת קוֹרֵא וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת מַקְרִין אוֹתוֹ. נִמְנְעוּ אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין יוֹדְעִין לִקְרוֹת מִלְּהָבִיא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּלְמוּ. הִתְקִינוּ בֵּית דִּין שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מַקְרִין אֶת מִי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ כְּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ:

12

A person who brings the first fruits is permitted to give them to his servant or his relative [to carry] throughout the journey until he reaches the Temple Mount.31 When he reaches the Temple Mount, even if he is a king of Israel,32 he must place the basket on his own shoulder33 and proceed until he reaches the Temple Courtyard. He should read [the declaration,] 'I am making a statement to God your Lord today...,' while the basket is still on his shoulder. He then removes the basket from his shoulder. While he holds it by its edge, the priest puts his hand below it and raises it [up and down and to all four directions].34 He then reads: An Aramean [sought] to destroy my ancestor and he descended to Egypt...' until he completes the entire passage.' He then places the first fruits at the side of the altar, at the southwest comer, on the south side of the altar.35 He then prostrates himself36 and departs.

What is the source which teaches that the first fruits must be raised [up and down and to all four directions]? [The above prooftext states:] 'And the priest shall take the basket from your hand,' including [an obligation to] raise the first fruits [up and down and to all four directions]. Just as [the first fruits] must be raised [up and down and to all four directions], so to they require that a peace offering be brought with them and song [accompany their offering], for with regard to them, [ibid.:11] states: 'And you shall rejoice in all the good.' [Now,] with regard to the festivals, [ibid. states: 'And you shall rejoice on your festivals.' [An association is drawn between the two:] Just as the happiness of the festivals is marked by peace offerings, so too, peace offerings [are required] here. [Nevertheless,] these offerings are not absolute requirements.37

יב

הַמֵּבִיא אֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים יֵשׁ לוֹ רְשׁוּת לִתְּנֵם לְעַבְדּוֹ וּקְרוֹבוֹ בְּכָל הַדֶּרֶךְ עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְהַר הַבַּיִת. הִגִּיעַ לְהַר הַבַּיִת נוֹטֵל הַסַּל עַל כְּתֵפוֹ הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְנִכְנָס עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לַעֲזָרָה וְקוֹרֵא וְעוֹדֵהוּ הַסַּל עַל כְּתֵפוֹ (דברים כו ג) "הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ" וְגוֹ'. וּמוֹרִיד הַסַּל מֵעַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְאוֹחֲזוֹ בִּשְׂפָתָיו וְהַכֹּהֵן מַנִּיחַ יָדוֹ תַּחְתָּיו וּמֵנִיף וְקוֹרֵא (דברים כו ה) "אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה" וְגוֹ' עַד שֶׁגּוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה וּמַנִּיחוֹ בְּצַד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּקֶרֶן דְּרוֹמִית מַעֲרָבִית בִּדְרוֹמָהּ שֶׁל קֶרֶן וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיֵצֵא. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהֵן טְעוּנִין תְּנוּפָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כו ד) "וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַטֶּנֶא" מִיָּדֶךָ לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים לִתְנוּפָה. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁטְּעוּנִין תְּנוּפָה כָּךְ טְעוּנִין קָרְבַּן שְׁלָמִים [וְשִׁיר] שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶן (דברים כו יא) "וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּכָל הַטּוֹב" וּבָרְגָלִים אוֹמֵר (דברים טז יד) "וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּחַגֶּךָ" מָה שִׂמְחַת הֶחָג בִּשְׁלָמִים אַף כָּאן בִּשְׁלָמִים. וְאֵין הַקָּרְבָּן מְעַכֶּבֶת:

13

When is a song pronounced over them? When they reach the Temple courtyard. The Levites would begin proclaiming:38 'I will exalt You God, for You have drawn me up...' (Psalms 30:2).39

יג

וְאֵימָתַי קוֹרִין בְּשִׁיר עֲלֵיהֶן. מִשֶּׁיַּגִּיעוּ לַעֲזָרָה הַלְוִיִּם הָיוּ מַתְחִילִין וְקוֹרִין (תהילים ל ב) "אֲרוֹמִמְךָ ה' כִּי דִלִּיתָנִי":

14

[When bringing] the first fruits, it is necessary that one remain [in Jerusalem] overnight.

What is implied? When a person brought his first fruits to the Temple, made the declaration, and offered his peace offerings, he should not depart from Jerusalem that day to return home.40 Instead, he should stay in Jerusalem overnight and return to his city on the following day, as [Deuteronomy 16:7] states: 'And you shall turn back in the morning and return to your tent.' [That verse41 teaches a general principle:] All occasions when you turn from the Temple when you visit it should only be in the morning.42

Thus the first fruits require seven factors: a) that they be brought to [Jerusalem], b) [in a] container, c) that the declaration be recited, d) that they be accompanied by a peace offering, e) and song, f) that they be raised [up and down and to all four directions], and g) that the person stay overnight [in Jerusalem].

יד

הַבִּכּוּרִים טִעוּנִים לִינָה. כֵּיצַד. הֵבִיא בִּכּוּרָיו לַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְקָרָא וְהִקְרִיב שְׁלָמָיו לֹא יֵצֵא בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מִירוּשָׁלַיִם לַחֲזֹר לִמְקוֹמוֹ אֶלָּא יָלִין שָׁם וְיַחֲזֹר לְמָחָר לְעִירוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז ז) "וּפָנִיתָ בַבֹּקֶר וְהָלַכְתָּ לְאֹהָלֶיךָ". כָּל פּוֹנוֹת שֶׁאַתָּה פּוֹנֶה מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לִכְשֶׁתָּבוֹא לוֹ לֹא יִהְיוּ אֶלָּא בַּבֹּקֶר. נִמְצֵאתָ אוֹמֵר שֶׁהַבִּכּוּרִים טְעוּנִין שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים. הֲבָאַת מָקוֹם. וּכְלִי. קְרִיאָה. וְקָרְבָּן. וְשִׁיר. וּתְנוּפָה. וְלִינָה: