[The following laws apply when] there are two doughs that when combined comprise the measure that obligates the separation of challah, but neither comprises that measure alone should they touch each other and become attached to each other.1 If they belong to two individuals,2 they are exempt from challah even though they are of the same type of grain.3 [The rationale is that] we assume that the two people object [to the combination of their doughs].4 If it is known that they would not object to the combination of their doughs, they are considered as one.


שְׁתֵּי עִסּוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן שִׁעוּר הַחַיָּב בְּחַלָּה וְאֵין בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן כַּשִּׁעוּר וְנָגְעוּ זוֹ בְּזוֹ וְנָשְׁכוּ זוֹ אֶת זוֹ אִם הָיוּ שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם אֲפִלּוּ הֵן מִמִּין אֶחָד פְּטוּרִין מִן הַחַלָּה. שֶׁסְּתָם שְׁנַיִם מַקְפִּידִין. וְאִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵינָן מַקְפִּידִין עַל עֵרוּב הָעִסּוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת:


[Different rules apply if] the two belonged to one person. If they were from one type [of grain], they are combined and challah is obligated to be separated from them. If they are from two types, they are not combined. [The rationale is that] we assume that one person does not object [to the combination of his doughs].5 If he objects [to their combination and endeavors] that one dough not touch the other or become mixed with it, they are not considered as one, even if they are of one type of grain.


הָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שֶׁל אִישׁ אֶחָד אִם הָיוּ מִמִּין אֶחָד מִצְטָרְפִין וְחַיָּבוֹת בְּחַלָּה וְאִם מִשְּׁנֵי מִינִין הָיוּ אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין. שֶׁסְּתָם אֶחָד אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד. וְאִם הָיָה מַקְפִּיד שֶׁלֹּא תִּגַּע עִסָּה זוֹ בְּזוֹ וְלֹא תִּתְעָרֵב עִמָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ מִמִּין אֶחָד אֵין מִצְטָרְפוֹת:


What is meant by the statement that if they belonged to one person and were from the same type [of grain] they are combined? When a dough from wheat touches6 a dough from spelt, they are combined.7 If it touched [a dough from] another type of grain,8 they are not combined.9 Similarly, if a dough of barley touches a dough of spelt,10 oats, or rye, or doughs of spelt, oats, or rye touch each other, they can be combined.11


וְכֵיצַד מִצְטָרְפוֹת. אִם הָיוּ שֶׁל אֶחָד מִמִּין אֶחָד עִסַּת הַחִטִּים שֶׁנָּגְעָה בְּעִסַּת הַכֻּסְּמִין מִצְטָרְפוֹת. נָגְעָה בִּשְׁאָר הַמִּינִין אֵין מִצְטָרְפוֹת. וְכֵן עִסַּת שְׂעוֹרִין שֶׁנָּגְעָה בְּעִסַּת הַכֻּסְּמִין אוֹ שִׁבּלֶת שׁוּעָל אוֹ שִׁיפוֹן וְכֵן עִסַּת כֻּסְמִין וְשֶׁל שִׁבּלֶת שׁוּעָל וְשֶׁל שִׁיפוֹן שֶׁנָּגְעָה כָּל אַחַת מִשְּׁלָשְׁתָּן בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת:


A dough from grain from one year should not be combined with a dough from grain from the previous year even though they are of the same species. [This is a decree,] lest people say that terumah may be separated from new grain for old grain.12 A person should not separate [the challah] from the middle of the two.13 Instead, he should bring another dough - either from this year or the previous - and combine it with them to complete the required measure.14

When does the above apply? When one dough touches another. If, however, one mixes flour from the species of grain and makes a single dough from one of them, the five are combined to comprise the measure of dough required for challah, as we explained.15


עִסַּת חָדָשׁ אֵינָהּ מִצְטָרֶפֶת לְשֶׁל יָשָׁן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מִמִּין אֶחָד. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ תּוֹרְמִין מִן הֶחָדָשׁ עַל הַיָּשָׁן. וְלֹא יִתְרֹם מֵאֶמְצַע שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֶלָּא יָבִיא עִסָּה אַחֶרֶת חָדָשׁ אוֹ יָשָׁן וְיִצְטָרֵף לָהֶם לְהַשְׁלִים הַשִּׁעוּר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֵמוּרִים בְּעִסָּה שֶׁנָּגְעָה בְּעִסָּה אַחֶרֶת. אֲבָל הַבּוֹלֵל קֶמַח חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִין וְעוֹשֶׂה מֵהֶם עִסָּה אַחַת הֲרֵי חֲמִשְּׁתָּן מִצְטָרְפִין לְשִׁעוּר עִסַּת חַלָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


When there is a dough that is less than the required measure on one side and another dough less than the required measure on the other side,16 and a dough that is exempt from challah in the middle - e.g., a dough of rice, a dough of terumah [flour] or from terumah [flour] that was mixed with ordinary flour, or a dough from a gentile17 - [the doughs] are not combined even though they touch each other.18 [The rationale is that] an entity that is exempt from challah separates in the middle.


עִסָּה שֶׁהִיא פְּחוּתָה מִכַּשִּׁעוּר מִכָּאן. וְעִסָּה פְּחוּתָה מִכַּשִּׁעוּר מִכָּאן. וְעִסָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ חַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה בְּאֶמְצַע כְּגוֹן עִסַּת אֹרֶז אוֹ עִסַּת תְּרוּמָה אוֹ מְדֻמָּע אוֹ עִסַּת עַכּוּ''ם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנּוֹגְעוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי דָּבָר הַפָּטוּר מִן הַחַלָּה מַבְדִּיל בָּאֶמְצַע:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When, by contrast, there is a dough from which challah was separated between them, [the two outer doughs] can be combined, because originally, there was an obligation to separate challah from the dough in the center.19 Similarly, if a dough that was consecrated was in the center, they are combined, [because that dough] is fit to be redeemed20 [at which point,] there will be an obligation to separate challah from it. Similarly, if there was a dough of another type of grain, a dough belonging to another person, or a dough from a different year between them, the doughs on the sides are combined [to comprise an obligation to separate] challah.


הָיָה בָּאֶמְצַע עִסָּה שֶׁהוּרְמָה חַלָּתָהּ מִצְטָרְפוֹת שֶׁהָעִסָּה שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן כְּבָר הָיְתָה מְחֻיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה בֵּינֵיהֶן עִסַּת הֶקְדֵּשׁ מִצְטָרְפוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרָאוּי לִפְדּוֹתָהּ וְתִתְחַיֵּב בְּחַלָּה. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה בֵּינֵיהֶן עִסַּת מִין אַחֵר אוֹ עִסַּת אִישׁ אַחֵר אוֹ עִסַּת חָדָשׁ הֲרֵי שְׁתֵּי הָעִסּוֹת שֶׁבַּצְּדָדִין מִצְטָרְפוֹת לְחַלָּה:


There were two doughs, each one of them less than the minimum measure for challah. One separated challah from each of them. Afterwards, they touched each other and [the combined doughs] comprise the [required] measure. There is an obligation to separate challah [from the combined doughs], for the challot separated originally are of no consequence.21


שְׁתֵּי עִסּוֹת שֶׁכָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן פְּחוּתָה מִכַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ חַלָּה מִזּוֹ וְחַלָּה מִזּוֹ וְחָזְרוּ וְנָגְעוּ זוֹ בָּזוֹ וַהֲרֵי בִּשְׁתֵּיהֶם כַּשִּׁעוּר חַיָּבִין לְהַפְרִישׁ מֵהֶן חַלָּה שֶׁהַחַלּוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת אֵינָן כְּלוּם:


Two gentiles22 made a dough comprising the required measure [for challah]23 and divided it. Afterwards, they converted24 and after the conversion, each one added to his portion until it comprised the [required] measure. There is an obligation [to separate] challah. [The rationale is that] there was no time that it was of the size obligating [challah] while they were gentiles, because each was to receive less than the required measure.25


שְׁנֵי עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁעָשׂוּ עִסָּה כַּשִּׁעוּר וְחִלְּקוּהָ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּיְּרוּ. וְהוֹסִיף כָּל אֶחָד עַל חֶלְקוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר עַד שֶׁהִשְׁלִימוּ לַשִּׁעוּר הֲרֵי זוֹ חַיֶּבֶת. שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה לָהּ שְׁעַת חוֹבָה כְּשֶׁהָיוּ עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהֲרֵי פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר הָיָה בְּיַד כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן:


If, however, two Jews made [a dough] in the above manner and then, they divided it and each one of them added to his portion26 until it comprised the required measure, it is exempt. [The rationale is that] there was a time when there would have been an obligation [to separate challah from the original dough]27 and they were exempt at that time, because the dough was made to be divided.28


אֲבָל שְׁנֵי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ כָּךְ וְחָזַר כָּל אֶחָד אַחַר שֶׁחִלְּקוּ וְהוֹסִיף עַל חֶלְקוֹ עַד שֶׁהִשְׁלִימוֹ לַשִּׁעוּר הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּטוּרָה. שֶׁכְּבָר הָיְתָה לָהּ שְׁעַת חוֹבָה וְהֵן הָיוּ פְּטוּרִין בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲשָׂאוּהָ לְחַלֵּק:


[Different rules apply when], by contrast, the dough was owned by a gentile and a Jew in partnership and they divided it.29 If, afterwards, the gentile converted and then added to his portion and the Jew added to his portion until each one of them completed the measure that requires the separation of challah, there is an obligation to separate challah from the dough of the Jew,30 but the dough of the gentile31 is exempt.32


הָיְתָה הָעִסָּה בְּיַד הָעַכּוּ''ם וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת וְחִלְּקוּ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּיֵּר הָעַכּוּ''ם וְהוֹסִיף הַגֵּר עַל שֶׁלּוֹ [וְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל שֶׁלּוֹ] עַד שֶׁהִשְׁלִים כָּל אֶחָד עִסָּתוֹ לַשִּׁעוּר שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל חַיֶּבֶת וְשֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם פְּטוּרָה:


[The following laws apply when a person] takes yeast from a dough from which challah was not separated and places it in a dough from which challah was separated. He should bring a second dough that - together with this yeast - will comprise a measure that obligates the separation of challah and combine it with the dough from which challah was separated.33 He should then separate from the second dough the appropriate measure of challah for it and for the yeast. [In this manner,] he is separating [challah] from [dough] that is in the same place.34 If he does not have a second dough, the entire [first dough] is considered as tevel. He should separate challah for the entire amount.35 [The rationale is that] when tevel36 is mixed with its own type,37 even the slightest amount causes the mixture to become forbidden.38


הַנּוֹטֵל שְׂאוֹר מֵעִסָּה שֶׁלֹּא הוּרְמָה חַלָּתָהּ וּנְתָנוֹ לְתוֹךְ עִסָּה שֶׁהוּרְמָה חַלָּתָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא עִסָּה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּהּ עִם שְׂאוֹר זֶה שִׁעוּר עִסָּה שֶׁחַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה וְנוֹתְנָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה שֶׁהוּרְמָה חַלָּתָהּ. וּמַפְרֵשׁ מִן הָעִסָּה הַשְּׁנִיָּה שִׁעוּר חַלָּה עָלֶיהָ וְעַל הַשְּׂאוֹר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטּל מִן הַמֻּקָּף. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ עִסָּה שְׁנִיָּה נַעֲשֵׂית זוֹ כֻּלָּהּ טֶבֶל וּמַפְרִישׁ חַלָּה עַל הַכּל שֶׁהַטֶּבֶל בְּמִינוֹ אוֹסֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:


A dough from which challah has not been separated is like ordinary produce and not like challah with regard to the laws of ritual purity. As will be explained in the appropriate place,39 impurity of the second degree does not bring about impurity of the third degree with regard to ordinary produce.40

It is permitted to cause ordinary produce to contract ritual impurity in Eretz Yisrael.41 Therefore when there are two doughs, one that is ritually impure and one that is ritually pure, one may take [a portion of dough]42 equivalent to the measure of challah to be separated from both of them from a dough from which challah was not separated and place it in the center close to the pure dough. He should then extend a portion of the impure dough the size of an egg43 to the pure dough44 so that he will be able to separate challah45 from the dough in the same place.46


עִסָּה הַטְּבוּלָה לְחַלָּה אֵינָהּ כְּחַלָּה. וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּחֻלִּין לְעִנְיַן הַטֻּמְאָה. שֶּׁאֵין הַשֵּׁנִי עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִישִׁי בְּחֻלִּין כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. וּמֻתָּר לִגְרֹם טֻמְאָה לְחֻלִּין שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. לְפִיכָךְ שְׁתֵּי עִסּוֹת אַחַת טְמֵאָה וְאַחַת טְהוֹרָה נוֹטֵל כְּדֵי חַלַּת שְׁתֵּיהֶם מֵעִסָּה שֶׁלֹּא הוּרְמָה חַלָּתָהּ וְנוֹתְנוֹ בָּאֶמְצַע סָמוּךְ לָעִסָּה הַטְּהוֹרָה וּמוֹשֵׁךְ מִן הַטְּמֵאָה לַטְּהוֹרָה כְּדֵי בֵּיצָה כְּדֵי לִתְרֹם מִן הַמֻּקָּף:


A person may make a pure dough and refrain from separating challah from it, setting it - or a portion of it - aside to continuously separate challot from other doughs with it until the dough set aside becomes challah in its entirety,47 provided [the dough set aside] does not become spoiled to the point that it is no longer fit for human consumption. [This applies] even if the doughs became impure. Once the dough is no longer fit for human consumption, [challah] cannot be separated with it.

When does the above apply? When there is a question whether or not challah has been separated from the doughs for which he is separating challah.48 [The rationale is that] challah of a doubtful status49 may be taken from the pure dough for the impure as an initial preference50 and the two need not be in the same place.51


עוֹשֶׂה אָדָם עִסָּה טְהוֹרָה וְאֵינוֹ מַפְרִישׁ חַלָּתָהּ וּמַנִּיחָהּ אוֹ מַנִּיחַ מִקְּצָתָהּ לִהְיוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עָלֶיהָ וְהוֹלֵךְ חַלּוֹת שֶׁל עִסּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת. וַאֲפִילוּ נִטְמְאוּ הָעִסּוֹת עַד שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה הָעִסָּה שֶׁהִנִּיחַ כֻּלָּהּ חַלָּה וְיִתְּנֶנָּה לַכֹּהֵן. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא תִּפָּסֵל מֵאֹכֶל אָדָם. אֲבָל מִשֶּׁתִּסְרַח אֵינוֹ מַפְרִישׁ עָלֶיהָ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ אוֹתָם הָעִסּוֹת שֶׁמַּפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן סָפֵק אִם הוּרְמָה חַלָּה מֵהֶן אוֹ לֹא הוּרְמָה שֶׁחַלַּת דְּמַאי נִטֶּלֶת מִן הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא לְכַתְּחִלָּה וְשֶׁלֹּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף: