1

It is a positive commandment to bring the first fruits to the Temple.1 [The obligation of] the first fruits applies only while the Temple is standing, and only in Eretz Yisrael, as [implied by Exodus 23:19]: 'Bring of the first ripened fruit of your land2 to the house of God your Lord.'3 According to Rabbinic decree, one should bring first fruits even from the cities of Sichon and Og4 and from Syria.5 For a person who purchases land in Syria is like one who purchases in Jerusalem. We do not bring the first fruits from the lands of Ammon and Moab6 and Babylon, even though they are liable for terumah and tithes according to Rabbinic decree.7 If one brings the first fruits from the Diaspora, they are not considered as first fruits.8

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְהָבִיא בִּכּוּרִים לַמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְאֵינָם נוֹהֲגִין אֶלָּא בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וּבְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יט) (שמות לד כו) "רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ". וּמְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם מֵעָרֵי סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג וּמִסּוּרְיָא. שֶׁהַקּוֹנֶה בְּסוּרְיָא כַּקּוֹנֶה בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. [אֲבָל עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב וּבָבֶל] אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן חַיָּבִין בִּתְרוּמָה וּבְמַעַשְׂרוֹת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם אֵין מְבִיאִין מֵהֶן בִּכּוּרִים. וְאִם הֵבִיא בִּכּוּרִים מִחוּץ לָאָרֶץ אֵינָן בִּכּוּרִים:

2

The first fruits are brought only from the seven species which are mentioned when relating the praise of Eretz Yisrael.9 They are: wheat, barley,10 grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates. If one brought fruit from other species, it is not sanctifted.11

ב

אֵין מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים אֶלָּא מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִין הָאֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁבַח הָאָרֶץ. וְהֵם הַחִטִּים וְהַשְּׂעוֹרִים וְהָעֲנָבִים וְהַתְּאֵנִים וְהָרִמּוֹנִים וְהַזֵּיתִים וְהַתְּמָרִים. וְאִם הֵבִיא חוּץ מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִין לֹא נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ:

3

We do not bring [first fruits] from the dates in the mountains, nor from the fruit from the valleys, not from oil-producing olives that are not of the highest quality, but rather from dates from the valleys and fruit from the mountains, for they are of the highest quality. If a person brought first fruits of inferior quality, e.g., dates from the mountains, figs that were perforated and had oil applied to them,12 dusty and smoked grapes,13 they are not consecrated.

ג

אֵין מְבִיאִין לֹא מִתְּמָרִים שֶׁבֶּהָרִים. וְלֹא מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים. וְלֹא מִזֵּיתֵי שֶׁמֶן שֶׁאֵינָן מִן הַמֻּבְחָר. אֶלָּא מִתְּמָרִים שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים וּמִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁבֶּהָרִים לְפִי שֶׁהֵן מִן הַמֻּבְחָר [וְאִם הֵבִיא שֶׁלֹּא מִן הַמֻּבְחָר] כְּגוֹן תְּמָרִים שֶׁבֶּהָרִים וּתְאֵנִים סוּרוֹת וּמְרֻקָּבוֹת וַעֲנָבִים מְאֻבָּקוֹת וּמְעֻשָּׁנוֹת לֹא נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ:

4

We may not bring liquids as the first fruits14 with the exception of [oil from] olives and [wine from] grapes, as [implied by Deuteronomy 26:2 which speaks of]: 'the fruit of the land,' i.e., [the fruit and] not a beverage. If one brought beverages, they are not accepted.15

ד

אֵין מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים מַשְׁקִין חוּץ מִזֵּיתִים וַעֲנָבִים בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כו ב) (דברים כו י) "פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" [וְלֹא מַשְׁקֶה]. וְאִם הֵבִיא מַשְׁקִין אֵין מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ:

5

People who are close to Jerusalem should bring fresh figs and grapes.16 People who are distant should bring dried figs and raisins.17

ה

הַקְּרוֹבִים לִירוּשָׁלַיִם מְבִיאִין תְּאֵנִים וַעֲנָבִים לַחִים. וְהָרְחוֹקִין מְבִיאִין אוֹתָן גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִין:

6

The first fruits should not be brought before Shavuot, for that holiday is referred to as 'the harvest festival, the first fruits of your work.' If one brings [them at that time], we do not accept them from him. Instead, they should be left there18 until Shavuot, at which time, he should make the declaration concerning them. Similarly, the first fruits should not be brought after Chanukah.19 For first fruits that ripen after Chanukah are considered as being of the coming year. They should be left until Shavuot.

ו

אֵין מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים קֹדֶם לַעֲצֶרֶת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג טז) "וְחַג הַקָּצִיר בִּכּוּרֵי מַעֲשֶׂיךָ". וְאִם הֵבִיא אֵין מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא יַנִּיחֵם שָׁם עַד שֶׁתָּבוֹא עֲצֶרֶת וְיִקְרָא עֲלֵיהֶן. וְכֵן אֵין מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים אַחַר חֲנֻכָּה. שֶׁהַבִּכּוּרִים שֶׁבִּכְּרוּ אַחַר חֲנֻכָּה הֵן חֲשׁוּבִין מִשָּׁנָה הַבָּאָה. וְיַנִּיחֵם עַד אַחַר עֲצֶרֶת:

7

The first fruits may not be brought from produce of the present harvest for produce of the previous harvest or from produce of the previous harvest for produce of the present harvest.20

What is implied? One should not bring produce that budded before the 15th of Shvat21 as first fruits for produce that budded after the 15th of Shvat. [This applies] both to produce that is planted and produce that grows on its own, as [implied by Numbers 18: 13]: 'The first fruits of everything in their land.'22

ז

אֵין מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים לֹא מִן הֶחָדָשׁ עַל הַיָּשָׁן וְלֹא מִן הַיָּשָׁן עַל הֶחָדָשׁ. כֵּיצַד. לֹא יָבִיא מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁחָנְטוּ קֹדֶם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בִּשְׁבָט עַל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁחָנְטוּ אַחַר חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ. אֶחָד הַנָּטוּעַ וְאֶחָד הָעוֹלֶה מֵאֵלָיו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח יג) "בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצָם":

8

The obligation of the first fruits applies to the produce of partners, [implied by]: 'The first fruits of everything in their land.'23

ח

הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁל שֻׁתָּפִין חַיָּבִים בְּבִכּוּרִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח יג) "בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצְךָ" [אֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ]:

9

When produce grows in a flower pot, even if it has a hole or it grows in a ship, one should not bring first fruits from them at all. [for the prooftext] speaks of 'their land.'24 One should, however, bring from produce that grows on a roof or in a ruin.

ט

הַגָּדֵל בְּעָצִיץ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נָקוּב וְהַגָּדֵל בִּסְפִינָה אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל עִקַּר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח יג) "בְּאַרְצָם". אֲבָל מֵבִיא מִן הַגָּדֵל בַּגַּג אוֹ בַּחֻרְבָּה:

10

[In all the following situations,] a person should not bring the first fruits from the produce that grows in one domain or the produce that grows in another domain. [These situations include] one who plants a tree in his field and extends25 it into his colleague's field26 or into the public domain, or the trunk of the tree was in his field and he extended its end in his field but there was a public road or a private path interrupting between the trunk and the end which was extended. [This is derived from Exodus 23:19]: "the first fruits of your land.' [Implied is that] all the growth [of the tree] must be from your land.'27

י

הַנּוֹטֵעַ אִילָן בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְהִבְרִיכוֹ לְתוֹךְ שְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה נוֹטֵעַ בִּשְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִבְרִיכוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה עִקָּרוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְהִבְרִיךְ קְצָתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְדֶרֶךְ הָרַבִּים אוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הַיָּחִיד מַפְסֶקֶת בָּאֶמְצַע בֵּין הָעִקָּר וְהַצַּד הַמֻּבְרָךְ. אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא בִּכּוּרִים לֹא מִמַּה שֶּׁהוֹצִיא בִּרְשׁוּת זוֹ וְלֹא מִן הַצַּד שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יט) (שמות לד כו) "בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ" עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל הַגִּדּוּלִין מֵאַדְמָתְךָ:

11

If his colleague gave him permission28 [to implant the end] in his property even for a brief time, he may bring the first fruits. If the tree was close to his colleague's boundary or leaned into his colleague's field29 [and he planted there], even though he was obligated to distance [his planting], he may bring [the first fruits]30 and recite the declaration, for Joshua gave the land [to our people] as an inheritance with that intent.31

יא

נָתַן לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ רְשׁוּת לְהַבְרִיךְ בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְשָׁעָה הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא בִּכּוּרִים. וְאִם הָיָה הָאִילָן סָמוּךְ לְמֵצַר חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ נוֹטֶה לִשְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחַיָּב לְהַרְחִיק הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ וְקוֹרֵא שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן הִנְחִיל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת הָאָרֶץ:

12

Sharecroppers, tenant farmers,32 men of force who compel the owners [to sell] their land and purchase it for a low price,33 and robbers34 may not bring first fruits, because [the prooftext] states: 'the first fruits of your land.'35 [This applies] even when the owners despair [of recovering their land].36

יב

הָאֲרִיסִין וְהַחֲכִירִין וּבַעֲלֵי זְרוֹעַ שֶׁאוֹנְסִין אֶת הַבְּעָלִים וְלוֹקְחִין מֵהֶן אַרְצוֹתָם בְּפָחוֹת וְהַגַּזְלָנִין אֵינָן מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים. וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יט) (שמות לד כו) "בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ":

13

When a person purchases a tree in a field belonging to a friend, he may not bring [the first fruits], because he does not own land. [If he purchases] three [trees], he does own land. Even if he formally acquired only the trees, it is as if he owns land.37 If he purchased one tree and the land around it, he should bring [the first fruits].38

יג

הַקּוֹנֶה אִילָן בְּתוֹךְ שְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע. שְׁלֹשָׁה יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא אִילָנוֹת בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁקָּנָה קַרְקַע. קָנָה אִילָן אֶחָד וְקַרְקָעוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא:

14

When a person purchases fruit that has been harvested and purchases the land [on which they grew],39 he should bring the first fruits, because he possesses both land and the fruits.

When one sells a colleague fruit, but not the land, even when the fruit is still attached to the land, [neither the seller, nor the purchaser may bring the first fruits]. The seller may not bring them, because he does not own the fruits. The purchaser may not bring them, because he does not own the land. If the seller buys the fruit back from the purchaser, he may bring [the first fruits], because he [now] owns [both] the land and its produce.

יד

הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת תְּלוּשִׁין וְלָקַח הַקַּרְקַע הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא בִּכּוּרִים שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע וּפֵרוֹתֶיהָ. מָכַר לוֹ פֵּרוֹת חוּץ מִן הַקַּרְקַע אֲפִלּוּ מְחֻבָּרִים. מוֹכֵר אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לוֹ פֵּרוֹת וְלוֹקֵחַ אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע. חָזַר הַמּוֹכֵר וְלָקַח הַפֵּרוֹת מִן הַלּוֹקֵחַ הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע וּפֵרוֹתֶיהָ:

15

When a person sells his property to a gentile and later purchases it back from him, he must bring the first fruits from it according to Scriptural Law.40 [The rationale is that] it is not absolved from the mitzvah because of the gentile's purchase,41 as we explained.42

טו

הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֵהוּ לְעַכּוּ''ם וְחָזַר וּלְקָחָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא מִמֶּנָּה בִּכּוּרִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה. שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִפְקַעַת מִן הַמִּצְוָה בְּקִנְיַן הָעַכּוּ''ם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

16

[Although] one nullified an asherah,43 the first fruits should not be brought from its produce. For the first fruits are like the sacrifices of the Temple.44

טז

אֲשֵׁרָה שֶׁבִּטְּלָהּ אֵין מְבִיאִין מִמֶּנָּה בִּכּוּרִים שֶׁהַבִּכּוּרִים כְּקָדְשֵׁי מִקְדָּשׁ הֵן:

17

There is no set measure for the first fruits according to Scriptural Law. According to Rabbinic Law, one should give one sixtieth of the crop. If one desires to set aside his entire crop as first fruits, he may.

יז

הַבִּכּוּרִים אֵין לָהֶם שִׁעוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים. וְהָרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ בִּכּוּרִים עוֹשֵׂהוּ:

18

When a person separated his first fruits and afterwards added to them or adorned them, the addition is also considered as the first fruits.45

When does the above apply? When he brought [the first fruits] from Eretz Yisrael. If, however, he brought them from Transjordan or Syria, they are not as the first fruits.46 Even though they are not considered as the first fruits, they should only be eaten in a state of ritual purity.47 No matter where it is from,48 the first fruits should only be adorned with fruit from the seven species [mentioned in the praise of Eretz Yisrael].49

יח

הִפְרִישׁ בִּכּוּרָיו וְחָזַר וְהוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶן אוֹ עִטְּרָן הֲרֵי הַתּוֹסֶפֶת כְּבִכּוּרִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהֵבִיא מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל אִם הֵבִיא מֵעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן אוֹ מִסּוּרְיָא אֵינָהּ כְּבִכּוּרִים. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ כְּבִכּוּרִים אֵינָהּ נֶאֱכֶלֶת אֶלָּא בְּטָהֳרָה. וְאֵין מְעַטְּרִין אֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֶלָּא מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים:

19

How should one separate the first fruits? A person descends to his field, sees a fig tree, a cluster [of grapes], and/or a pomegranate tree that has budded, and ties them with a reed.50 He should say: "These are the first fruits.' They become designated as first fruits even though they are attached to the ground after they have been given that title, even though they have not ripened entirely.51

When they ripen and are reaped from the ground, it is not necessary to designate them again. If he did not designate them while attached or call them first fruits and then he reaped them, he should designate them after he reaps them.52

If his entire harvest becomes impure, he should not designate the impure produce as first fruits. Instead, as an initial preference, he should set aside other produce as first fruits for the impure produce. It appears to me that if he does not have other produce, to separate [as first fruits], he should not set them aside to be destroyed.53 Similarly, it appears to me54 that if the first fruits become impure, he should not use them as kindling for a furnace, because they are like objects consecrated for the Temple.55

יט

כֵּיצַד מַפְרִישִׁין הַבִּכּוּרִים. יוֹרֵד אָדָם לְתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְרוֹאֶה תְּאֵנָה שֶׁבִּכְּרָה אֶשְׁכּוֹל עֲנָבִים שֶׁבִּכְּרוּ רִמּוֹן שֶׁבִּכֵּר קוֹשְׁרָן בְּגֶמִי וְאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בִּכּוּרִים. וְהֵם נַעֲשִׂים בִּכּוּרִים בִּמְחֻבָּר מִשֶּׁקָּרָא לָהֶן שֵׁם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא בָּשְׁלוּ כָּל צָרְכָּן. וּמִשֶּׁיִּגָּמְרוּ וְיִתְלְשֵׁם מִן הַקַּרְקַע אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִקְרוֹת לָהֶם שֵׁם. לֹא הִפְרִישָׁן בִּמְחֻבָּר וְלֹא קָרָא לָהֶם שֵׁם וּתְלָשָׁם הֲרֵי זֶה מַפְרִישָׁם אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ. וְאִם נִטְמְאוּ הַפֵּרוֹת כֻּלָּן אֵינוֹ מַפְרִישׁ בִּכּוּרִים בְּטֻמְאָה. אֶלָּא מַפְרִישׁ מִן הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ פֵּרוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת לְהַפְרִישׁ מֵהֶן יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַפְרִישׁ בְּטֻמְאָה שֶׁאֵין מַפְרִישִׁין לְאִבּוּד. וְכֵן יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהַבִּכּוּרִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ אֵינוֹ מַסִּיק בָּהֶן הַתַּנּוּר כִּתְרוּמָה טְמֵאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּקָדְשֵׁי מִקְדָּשׁ:

20

When a person set aside his first fruits and they rotted away,56 were taken by others, lost, stolen, or became impure,57 he is obligated to set aside others in place ofthem,58 as [Exodus 23:19] states: '...bring to the house of God your Lord.' This teaches that one is liable to replace them until he brings them to the Temple Mount.59

כ

הַמַּפְרִישׁ בִּכּוּרָיו וְנָמַקּוּ אוֹ נִבְזְזוּ אוֹ אָבְדוּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּגְנְבוּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ חַיָּב לְהַפְרִישׁ אֲחֵרִים תַּחְתֵּיהֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יט) (שמות לד כו) "תָּבִיא בֵּית ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ" מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּאַחְרָיוּתָן עַד שֶׁיְּבִיאֵם לְהַר הַבַּיִת:

21

If a person set aside his first fruits to bring them to Jerusalem himself, he should not send them with an agent60 If, however, he initially harvested them with the intent of sending them [to the Temple] with an agent, it is permitted for him to do so.61

כא

הַמַּפְרִישׁ בִּכּוּרָיו לְהַעֲלוֹתָן בְּיָדוֹ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם לֹא יִשְׁלָחֵם בְּיַד שָׁלִיחַ. וְאִם לִקְּטָן מִתְּחִלָּה עַל מְנָת לְשַׁלְּחָם בְּיַד שָׁלִיחַ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְשַׁלְּחָם: