1

We should separate terumah only from the most choice [produce], as [implied by Numbers 18:30]: "When you separate its most choice portion from it."1 If, however, there is no priest accessible,2 one should separate terumah from produce that will last3 even though there is more choice produce but it will not last.

What is implied? A person should separate fresh figs as terumah for dried figs.4 In a place where there are no priests, he should separate dried figs for fresh figs.5 If he is accustomed to dry fresh figs, he may separate fresh figs as terumah for dried figs even in a place where there is no priest.6 In a place where there is a priest, by contrast, dried figs are never separated as terumah for fresh figs, even in a place where it is customary to dry fresh figs.

א

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין אֶלָּא מִן הַיָּפֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח ל) (במדבר יח לב) "בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ". וְאִם אֵין שָׁם כֹּהֵן תּוֹרֵם מִן הַמִּתְקַיֵּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם יָפֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם. כֵּיצַד. תּוֹרֵם תְּאֵנִים עַל הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת. וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם כֹּהֵן תּוֹרֵם גְּרוֹגָרוֹת עַל הַתְּאֵנִים. וְאִם רָגִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת תְּאֵנִים גְּרוֹגָרוֹת תּוֹרֵם מִן הַתְּאֵנִים עַל הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם כֹּהֵן. אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כֹּהֵן אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִן הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת עַל הַתְּאֵנִים אֲפִלּוּ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לַעֲשׂוֹת תְּאֵנִים גְּרוֹגָרוֹת:

2

One may separate an entire onion as terumah even if it is small,7 but not half an onion, even if it is large in all places.8 We do not separate one type of produce as terumah for another type of produce, as [implied by Numbers 18:30]: "As grain from the granary and as wine from the vat."9 If one made such a separation, it is not considered terumah.

ב

תּוֹרְמִין בָּצָל שָׁלֵם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא קָטָן. אֲבָל לֹא חֲצִי בָּצָל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא גָּדוֹל. בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִמִּין עַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח כז) "כַּדָּגָן מִן הַגֹּרֶן וְכַמְלֵאָה מִן הַיֶּקֶב". וְאִם תָּרַם אֵין תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה:

3

Zucchini and cucumbers are considered as one species.10 All of the types of wheat are one species. All of the types of figs,11 dried figs, and blocks of figs are one species. [In the above instances,] one may separate terumah from one type for the other. [By contrast,] all types of produce which are considered as a mixture of species may not be separated as terumah for each other, even when one separates the choicest produce as terumah for produce of lesser quality.

What is implied? A person has 50 se'ah of wheat and 50 se'ah of barley in one building. If he separates two se'ah of wheat [as terumah] for the entire amount, his separation is not effective.12 When types of produce are not considered as a mixture of species, one may separate the better type as terumah for the lesser type, but not the lesser type as terumah for the better type. If one did separate [the lesser type of produce as terumah for the better type, after the fact,] the separation is effective with one exception. Zunin13may not be separated as terumah for wheat, because it is not used as food for humans.

ג

הַקְּשׁוּת וְהַמְּלָפְפוֹן מִין אֶחָד. כָּל מִין חִטִּים אֶחָד. כָּל מִין תְּאֵנִים וּגְרוֹגָרוֹת וּדְבֵלָה אֶחָד. וְתוֹרֵם מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. וְכָל שֶׁהוּא כִּלְאַיִם בַּחֲבֵרוֹ לֹא יִתְרֹם מִזֶּה עַל זֶה אֲפִלּוּ מִן הַיָּפֶה עַל הָרַע. כֵּיצַד. הָיוּ לוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים סְאָה חִטִּין וַחֲמִשִּׁים סְאָה שְׂעוֹרִים בְּבַיִת אֶחָד וְהִפְרִישׁ עַל הַכּל שְׁנֵי סְאִין חִטִּין אֵינָן תְּרוּמָה. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ כִּלְאַיִם בַּחֲבֵרוֹ תּוֹרֵם מִן הַיָּפֶה עַל הָרַע אֲבָל לֹא מִן הָרַע עַל הַיָּפֶה. וְאִם תָּרַם תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה חוּץ מִן הַזּוֹנִין עַל הַחִטִּים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן אֹכֶל אָדָם:

4

We do not separate terumah from produce for which all the work [in preparing it] was completed14 for produce for which the work [in preparing it] is incomplete, from produce for which the work [in preparing it] is incomplete for [other] produce for which the work [in preparing it] is incomplete, nor from produce for which the work [in preparing it] is incomplete for produce for which all the work [in preparing it] was completed.15 [This is also derived from the above prooftext:] "As grain from the granary and as wine from the vat."16 [Implied is that terumah should be separated from produce] for which [all work] was completed for similar produce. If, however, one separated terumah [in any of the above instances], the separation is effective [after the fact].17

ד

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִדָּבָר שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ עַל דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ. וְלֹא מִדָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ עַל דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ. וְלֹא מִדָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ עַל דָּבָר שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח כז) "כַּדָּגָן מִן הַגֹּרֶן וְכַמְלֵאָה מִן הַיֶּקֶב" מִן הַגָּמוּר עַל הַגָּמוּר. וְאִם תָּרְמוּ תְּרוּמָתָן תְּרוּמָה:

5

When should terumah be separated from a granary? When the kernels are separated.18 If a person separated part [of the grain], he may designate the kernels he separated as terumah for the produce that was not separated. When one brings stalks of grain into his home to eat husked grain, he should separate terumah while the grain is in the stalks.19

ה

מֵאֵימָתַי תּוֹרְמִין אֶת הַגֹּרֶן מִשֶּׁיִּבְרֹר. בָּרַר מִקְצָת תּוֹרְמִין מִן הַבָּרוּר עַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּרוּר. הַמַּכְנִיס שִׁבֳּלִים לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתָן מְלִילוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹרֵם מִן שִׁבֳּלִים:

6

When should terumah be separated from a vat? When [the treaders] have walked horizontally and vertically over the grapes.20

When should one separate terumah from olives? When [the beam of the press] is placed upon them.21

ו

מֵאֵימָתַי תּוֹרְמִין אֶת הַגַּת מִשֶּׁיְּהַלְּכוּ בָּהּ שְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב. מֵאֵימָתַי תּוֹרְמִין אֶת הַזֵּיתִים מִשֶּׁיִּטְעֲנוּ:

7

We should not separate terumah from ritually pure produce for produce that is not ritually pure.22 If, however, one separated terumah [in this manner], the separation is effective [after the fact].

It is a halachah conveyed to Moses at Sinai that when a portion of a cake of dried figs has become impure, we may separate terumah from the pure portion of it for the impure portion of it as an initial preference.23 This applies not only to a cake of dried figs which appears as one mass, but also to a bundle of vegetables and even a mound of wheat.24 If a portion of it became impure, one may separate terumah from the pure portion for the impure portion.

If, however, there were two cakes of dried figs, two bundles of vegetables, or two mounds of wheat, one impure and one pure at its side, as an initial preference, one should not separate terumah from the produce that is pure for the produce that is impure.25 One may, however, separate terumat ma'aser from produce that is pure for produce that is impure as an initial preference. [This is derived from Numbers 18:29:] "its sacred portion from it." [Implied is that] one should take from the sacred portion in it.26

ז

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִן הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא וְאִם תָּרַם תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה. וַהֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי שֶׁעִגּוּל שֶׁל דְּבֵלָה שֶׁנִּטְמָא מִקְצָתוֹ תּוֹרְמִין לְכַתְּחִלָּה מִן הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁבּוֹ עַל הַטָּמֵא שֶׁבּוֹ. וְלֹא הָעִגּוּל בִּלְבַד שֶׁהוּא גּוּף אֶחָד אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אֲגֻדָּה שֶׁל יָרָק אֲפִלּוּ עֲרֵמוֹת שֶׁל חִטִּים שֶׁנִּטְמְאָה מִקְצָתָהּ תּוֹרְמִין מִן הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁבָּהּ עַל הַטָּמֵא שֶׁבָּהּ. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵי עִגּוּלִים אוֹ שְׁתֵּי אֲגֻדּוֹת אוֹ שְׁתֵּי עֲרֵמוֹת אַחַת טְמֵאָה וְאַחַת טְהוֹרָה בְּצִדָּהּ לֹא יִתְרֹם מִן הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְתוֹרְמִין תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר מִן הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח כט) "אֶת מִקְדָּשׁוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ" טֹל מִן הַמְקֻדָּשׁ שֶׁבּוֹ:

8

We may not separate produce that is ritually impure as terumah for produce that is ritually pure.27 If one made such a separation inadvertently, the portion separated is terumah.28 If one made the separation intentionally, he did not fulfill the obligation for the remainder [of the produce], but [the produce] separated is terumah. He must separate terumah a second time.

When does the above apply? When he did not know of the impurity. If, however, he knew of the impurity, but erred in that he thought it was permitted to separate produce that is ritually impure as terumah for produce that is ritually pure, he is considered as if he acted intentionally.29 Similar laws apply with regard to terumat ma'aser.

ח

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִן הַטָּמֵא עַל הַטָּהוֹר וְאִם תָּרַם בְּשׁוֹגֵג תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה. בְּמֵזִיד לֹא תִּקֵּן אֶת הַשְּׁיָרִים וְזֶה שֶׁהֵרִים תְּרוּמָה וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁלֹּא יָדַע בַּטֻּמְאָה. אֲבָל אִם יָדַע וְשָׁגַג שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִתְרֹם מִן הַטָּמֵא עַל הַטָּהוֹר הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמֵזִיד. וְכֵן בִּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר:

9

We may not separate produce that is still attached to the earth as terumah for produce that has already been detached.30 Nor may produce that has already been detached be separated as terumah for produce that is still attached to the earth.

What is implied? A person had produce that was detached and said: "This produce will be terumah for this produce which is attached to the earth" - and even if he said "...when [the attached produce] is detached,"31 his words are of no consequence. [This ruling also applies] if he possessed two rows [of produce] and said: "The produce of this row which is detached will be terumah for this row which is attached," or "The produce of this row which is attached will be terumah for this row which is detached."

[Diferent rules apply should] he say: "The produce of this row which is detached will be terumah for this row when it will be detached," if [the produce] is [later] detached - since it is within his potential to detach it32 - when they are both detached, his words are binding, provided both [types of produce] had attained at least a third of their standard size33 at the time he made his statements.

ט

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִן הַמְחֻבָּר עַל הַתָּלוּשׁ וְלֹא מִן הַתָּלוּשׁ עַל הַמְחֻבָּר. כֵּיצַד. הָיוּ לוֹ פֵּרוֹת תְּלוּשִׁין וְאָמַר פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ יִהְיוּ תְּרוּמָה עַל פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ הַמְחֻבָּרִים אֲפִלּוּ (אָמַר) לִכְשֶׁיִּתָּלְשׁוּ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ שְׁתֵּי עֲרוּגוֹת וְאָמַר פֵּרוֹת עֲרוּגָה זוֹ תְּלוּשִׁין יִהְיוּ תְּרוּמָה עַל פֵּרוֹת עֲרוּגָה זוֹ מְחֻבָּרִים. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר פֵּרוֹת עֲרוּגָה זוֹ מְחֻבָּרִים יִהְיוּ תְּרוּמָה עַל פֵּרוֹת עֲרוּגָה זוֹ תְּלוּשִׁין לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר פֵּרוֹת עֲרוּגָה זוֹ תְּלוּשִׁין יִהְיוּ תְּרוּמָה עַל פֵּרוֹת עֲרוּגָה זוֹ לִכְשֶׁיִּתָּלְשׁוּ וְנִתְלְשׁוּ הוֹאִיל וּבְיָדוֹ לְתָלְשָׁן אֵינוֹ מְחֻסָּר מַעֲשֶׂה וְלִכְשֶׁיִּתָּלְשׁוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין. וְהוּא שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שְׁלִישׁ בְּעֵת שֶׁאָמַר:

10

We may not separate fresh produce as terumah for dried produce, nor dried produce as terumah for fresh produce. If, however, one made such a separation, it is effective.34

What is implied? One reaped a type of vegetable one day and then reaped the same [type of vegetable] the following day. One may not separate one as terumah for the other unless this vegetable remains fresh for two days. Similarly, if a vegetable usually remains fresh for three days, e.g., cucumbers, all [of that type of vegetable] that are harvested for three days may be joined together and terumah may be separated from one for the other. When a type of vegetable remains fresh for only one day and one harvested some in the morning and some in the evening, one may separate one as terumah for the other.

י

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִן הַלַּח עַל הַיָּבֵשׁ וְלֹא מִן הַיָּבֵשׁ עַל הַלַּח. וְאִם תָּרַם תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה. כֵּיצַד. לִקֵּט יָרָק הַיּוֹם וְלִקֵּט מִמֶּנּוּ לְמָחָר אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִזֶּה עַל זֶה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן דַּרְכּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּר שְׁנֵי יָמִים. וְכֵן יָרָק שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּר שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים כְּגוֹן הַמְּלָפְפוֹנוֹת כָּל שֶׁלִּקֵּט בִּשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים מִצְטָרֵף וְתוֹרֵם מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. יָרָק שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּר יוֹם אֶחָד בִּלְבַד וְלִקֵּט בְּשַׁחֲרִית וְלִקֵּט בָּעֶרֶב תּוֹרֵם מִזֶּה עַל זֶה:

11

One may not separate produce from the present year as terumah for produce of the previous year,35 nor may one separate produce from the previous year as terumah for produce of the present year. If one made such a separation, it is not effective,36 as [indicated by Deuteronomy 14:22]: "From year to year."37Thus if one harvested a vegetable on the day preceding Rosh HaShanah before sunset and harvested another after sunset, one may not separate terumah from one for the other. For one is considered "old" and the other, "new."

Similarly, if one harvested an esrog38 on the day before the fifteenth of Shvat on the evening before sunset and harvested another one after sunset [that day], one may not separate terumah from one for the other.39 [The rationale is that] the first of Tishrei is the Rosh HaShanah for tithing grain, legumes, and vegetables and the fifteenth of Shvat is Rosh HaShanah for tithing [of the produce] of trees.

יא

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִפֵּרוֹת שָׁנָה זוֹ עַל פֵּרוֹת שָׁנָה שֶׁעָבְרָה. וְלֹא מִפֵּרוֹת שָׁנָה שֶׁעָבְרָה עַל פֵּרוֹת שָׁנָה זוֹ. וְאִם תָּרַם אֵינָהּ תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד כב) "שָׁנָה שָׁנָה". לִקֵּט יָרָק עֶרֶב רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָּאָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְחָזַר וְלִקֵּט אַחַר שֶׁבָּאָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִזֶּה עַל זֶה שֶׁזֶּה חָדָשׁ וְזֶה יָשָׁן. וְכֵן אִם לִקֵּט אֶתְרוֹג בְּעֶרֶב ט''ו בִּשְׁבָט עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְחָזַר וְלִקֵּט אֶתְרוֹג אַחֵר מִשֶּׁבָּאָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִזֶּה עַל זֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לְמַעַשְׂרוֹת תְּבוּאָה וְקִטְנִיּוֹת וִירָקוֹת. וְט''ו בִּשְׁבָט רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לְמַעַשְׂרוֹת הָאִילָן:

12

We may not separate produce from Eretz [Yisrael] as terumah for produce of the Diaspora, nor may produce of the Diaspora be separated for produce from Eretz Yisrael,40 nor may produce of Eretz Yisrael be separated for produce from Syria, and nor may produce of Syria be separated for produce from Eretz Yisrael.41

Similarly, [we may not separate terumah] from produce for which terumah need not be separated, e.g., leket, shichachah, and pe'ah42 or from produce from which terumah was already separated for produce for which terumah must be separated. Nor may we separate terumah from produce for which terumah must be separated for produce for which there is no obligation.43 [Even] if the terumah was separated, the separation is not of consequence.

יב

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ עַל פֵּרוֹת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. וְלֹא מִפֵּרוֹת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ עַל פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ. [וְלֹא מִפֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ עַל פֵּרוֹת סוּרְיָא. וְלֹא מִפֵּרוֹת סוּרְיָא עַל פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ]. וְלֹא מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן חַיָּבִין בִּתְרוּמָה כְּגוֹן לֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה. אוֹ פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְרְמָה תְּרוּמָתָן עַל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁחַיָּבִין בִּתְרוּמָה. וְלֹא מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁחַיָּבִין בִּתְרוּמָה עַל פֵּרוֹת הַפְּטוּרִין. וְאִם תָּרַם אֵינָהּ תְּרוּמָה:

13

When a person separates terumah [for other produce] from produce that was designated as the first tithe, but from which its terumah44 had not been separated45 or from produce which was designated as the second tithe46 or that had been consecrated,47 but which had not been redeemed, the separation is not effective.48

יג

הַמַּפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה מִמַּעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ. אוֹ מִמַּעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ עַל פֵּרוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת אֵין תְּרוּמָתָן תְּרוּמָה:

14

We may not separate terumah from produce for which we are required to separate terumah according to Scriptural Law for produce for which we are required to separate terumah [only] according to Rabbinic Law,49 nor from produce for which we are required to separate terumah [only] according to Rabbinic Law for produce for which we are required to separate terumah according to Scriptural Law.50 If one separated terumah [in the above instance], the produce separated is considered as terumah,51 but he must separate terumah again [for the obligation incumbent on this produce to be fulfilled].52

יד

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִדָּבָר שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב מִן הַתּוֹרָה עַל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן וְלֹא מִן הַמְחֻיָּב מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן עַל הַחַיָּב מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְאִם תָּרַם תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם:

15

A flowerpot with a hole is considered as [connected] to the earth.53 How large must the hole be [for this law to apply]? Large enough for a small root to pass through it.54 This is smaller than an olive.

[The following rules apply when a person] planted grain in a flowerpot that did not have a hole and it reached a third of its maturity.55 Afterwards, he perforated [the flowerpot]56and the grain completed [its growth] while [the flowerpot] was perforated. It is, [nevertheless,] considered as if it grew in [a flowerpot] without a hole. [This ruling changes] only when [the flowerpot] was perforated before [the grain] reached a third of its maturity.

טו

עָצִיץ נָקוּב הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֶרֶץ. וְכַמָּה יְהֵא בַּנֶּקֶב כְּדֵי שֹׁרֶשׁ קָטָן וְהוּא פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת. זָרַע תְּבוּאָה בְּעָצִיץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב וְהֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִקְּבוֹ וְנִגְמְרָה הַתְּבוּאָה וְהוּא נָקוּב הֲרֵי הוּא כַּצּוֹמֵחַ בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב עַד שֶׁיִּקְּבֶנּוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבִיא שְׁלִישׁ:

16

When a person separates terumah from produce which grows in the earth for produce that grows in a perforated flowerpot or from produce which grows in a perforated flowerpot for produce which grows in the earth, the separation is effective.57

If he separates terumah from [produce growing] in a [flowerpot] that was not perforated for [produce growing] in a perforated [flowerpot], the produce separated is considered as terumah,58 but he must separate terumah again.59

If he separates terumah from [produce growing] in a perforated [flowerpot] for [produce growing] in a [flowerpot] that was not perforated, the produce separated is considered as terumah. [Nevertheless, the priest to whom it was given] should not partake of it until [the owner] separates terumah and tithes for [the portion separated] from other produce.60

טז

הַתּוֹרֵם מִפֵּרוֹת הַגְּדֵלִין בְּאֶרֶץ עַל הַגְּדֵלִין בְּעָצִיץ נָקוּב אוֹ מִפֵּרוֹת עָצִיץ נָקוּב עַל הַגְּדֵלִין בָּאָרֶץ תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה. תָּרַם מִשֶּׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב עַל הַנָּקוּב תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם. תָּרַם מִן הַנָּקוּב עַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה וְלֹא תֵּאָכֵל עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ תְּרוּמָה וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר:

17

When a person separates terumat [ma'aser] from produce that is demai61 for other produce that is demai or from produce that is demai for produce from which we are certain that the tithes were not separated, the produce separated is considered as terumat [ma'aser].62 [Nevertheless,] he should separate terumah again for each type of produce individually.63

When he separates terumah from produce from which we are certain that the tithes were not separated for produce that is demai, the produce separated is considered as terumat [ma'aser].64 [Nevertheless, the priest to whom it was given] should not partake of it until [the owner] separates terumah and tithes for [the portion separated].65

יז

הַתּוֹרֵם מִן הַדְּמַאי עַל הַדְּמַאי וּמִן הַדְּמַאי עַל הַוַּדַּאי תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. תָּרַם מִן הַוַּדַּאי עַל הַדְּמַאי תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה וְלֹא תֵּאָכֵל עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ תְּרוּמָה וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת:

18

We may not separate stalks of grain as terumah for kernels of grain, olives [as terumah] for oil, or grapes [as terumah] for wine.66 If one made such a separation, it is not effective.67 This is a decree [enacted] lest one cause the priest to undertake the difficulty of treading [on the grapes] or pressing [the olives].

One may, however, separate oil as terumah for olives that are being pickled68 or wine as terumah for grapes that are being dried as raisins. What does this resemble? To separating terumah from two species that are not considered kilayim, separating from the good for the bad.69

Similarly, one may separate terumah from olives from which oil will be squeezed70 for olives that will be pickled,71 but not from olives that will be pickled for olives from which oil will be squeezed.72 [One may separate terumah] from wine that has not been boiled for wine that has been boiled,73 but not from [wine] that has been boiled for [wine] that has not been boiled. [One may separate terumah] from [wine that is] clear74 for [wine that is] not clear, but not from [wine that is] not clear for wine [that is] clear.

[One may separate terumah] from a specific number of fresh figs for a specific number of dried figs75 and from a measure of dried figs for a measure of fresh figs,76 but not from a measure of fresh figs for a measure of dried figs, nor for a specific number of dried figs for a specific number of fresh figs. [The rationale for all the above is that] one should always separate terumah in a generous manner.77

One may separate terumah from kernels of wheat for bread,78 but not from bread for kernels of wheat according to the appropriate calculations.79 In all the above situations, if one separated terumah [when it was stated that one should not], the separation is effective.80

יח

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין שִׁבֳּלִים עַל הַחִטִּים. וְזֵיתִים עַל שֶׁמֶן. וַעֲנָבִים עַל יַיִן. וְאִם תָּרַם אֵינָהּ תְּרוּמָה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַטְרִיחַ הַכֹּהֵן לִדְרֹךְ וְלִכְתּשׁ. אֲבָל תּוֹרְמִין שֶׁמֶן עַל הַזֵּיתִים הַנִּכְבָּשִׁין וְיַיִן עַל עֲנָבִים לַעֲשׂוֹתָן צִמּוּקִין. לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְתוֹרֵם מִשְּׁנֵי מִינִין שֶׁאֵינָן כִּלְאַיִם זֶה בָּזֶה מִן הַיָּפֶה עַל הָרַע. וְכֵן תּוֹרְמִין מִזֵּיתֵי שֶׁמֶן עַל זֵיתֵי כֶּבֶשׁ. אֲבָל לֹא מִזֵּיתֵי כֶּבֶשׁ עַל זֵיתֵי שֶׁמֶן. מִיַּיִן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבֻשָּׁל עַל הַמְבֻשָּׁל. אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַמְבֻשָּׁל עַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבֻשָּׁל. מִן הַצָּלוּל עַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָלוּל. אֲבָל לֹא מִשֶּׁאֵינוֹ צָלוּל עַל הַצָּלוּל. מִתְּאֵנִים עַל גְּרוֹגָרוֹת בְּמִנְיָן. מִגְּרוֹגָרוֹת עַל הַתְּאֵנִים בְּמִדָּה. אֲבָל לֹא תְּאֵנִים עַל גְּרוֹגָרוֹת בְּמִדָּה. וְלֹא גְּרוֹגָרוֹת עַל הַתְּאֵנִים בְּמִנְיָן. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְרֹם לְעוֹלָם בְּעֵין יָפָה. וְתוֹרְמִין חִטִּים עַל הַפַּת. אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַפַּת עַל הַחִטִּים לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן. וּבְכָל אֵלּוּ אִם תָּרַם תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה:

19

We do not separate terumah from oil for olives that are being pressed, nor [do we separate terumah] from wine for grapes that are being tread, for this resembles separating terumah from produce for which all work has been completed for produce for which the work has not been completed.81 If he did separate terumah [in such a situation], the produce separated is considered as terumah, but he must separate terumah from the olives and the grapes from them themselves.82

[When mixed with other produce,] the first creates a situation of dimua83alone.84 One who eats it is liable for it, as one is liable [for partaking] of other terumah that is clearly defined as such.85 This does not apply with regard to the second terumah [separated].86

יט

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין שֶׁמֶן עַל הַזֵּיתִים הַנִּכְתָּשִׁין. וְלֹא יַיִן עַל עֲנָבִים הַנִּדְרָכוֹת שֶׁזֶּה דּוֹמֶה לְתוֹרֵם מִדָּבָר שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ עַל דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ. וְאִם תָּרַם תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם מִן הַזֵּיתִים וְהָעֲנָבִים בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן. הָרִאשׁוֹנָה מְדַמַּעַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ וְהָאוֹכְלָהּ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ כִּשְׁאָר תְּרוּמוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַשְּׁנִיָּה:

20

When a person separated oil as terumah for olives that he intended to eat or he separated olives for olives when he intended to eat the entire quantity and then changed his mind and decided to press the olives [for oil] and indeed pressed them after separating terumah for them, he is not required to separate terumah again.87 [This law also applies if] one separated wine for grapes that he intended to eat or grapes for grapes when he intended to eat the entire quantity and then changed his mind and decided to tread the grapes for wine and indeed had them tread upon after separating terumah for them.

כ

מִי שֶׁתָּרַם שֶׁמֶן עַל זֵיתִים שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לְאָכְלָן. אוֹ זֵיתִים עַל זֵיתִים וְדַעְתּוֹ עַל הַכּל לַאֲכִילָה. אוֹ שֶׁתָּרַם יַיִן עַל עֲנָבִים שֶׁהֵם לַאֲכִילָה. אוֹ עֲנָבִים עַל עֲנָבִים וְהַכּל לַאֲכִילָה. וְנִמְלַךְ לְדָרְכָן וְדָרַךְ הַזֵּיתִים וְהָעֲנָבִים שֶׁכְּבָר תָּרַם עֲלֵיהֶם. אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִתְרֹם:

21

We do not separate vinegar as terumah for wine,88 but we may separate wine as terumah for vinegar, for wine and vinegar are one type of produce.89 If one had the intent of separating wine for wine and it was discovered that what he separated was vinegar, the separation is not effective.90 If one had the intent of separating vinegar for vinegar and it was discovered that what he separated was wine, the separation is effective.91

כא

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין חֹמֶץ עַל יַיִן. אֲבָל תּוֹרְמִין יַיִן עַל חֹמֶץ. שֶׁהַיַּיִן וְהַחֹמֶץ מִין אֶחָד הֵן. (הָיָה בְּלִבּוֹ לִתְרֹם מִן הַיַּיִן עַל הַיַּיִן וְנִמְצָא בְּיָדוֹ חֹמֶץ אֵינָהּ תְּרוּמָה). הָיָה בְּלִבּוֹ לִתְרֹם חֹמֶץ עַל חֹמֶץ וְנִמְצָא הַחֹמֶץ שֶׁתָּרַם יַיִן תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה:

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[The following rules apply when a person] separates a barrel of wine as terumah for wine and it is discovered to be vinegar. If it was known to be vinegar before it was separated, the separation is not effective.92 If it became vinegar after it was designated as terumah, the separation is effective.93 If there is a doubt, the separation is effective,94 but he should make a second separation.95 The same laws apply when one separates squash as terumah and it is discovered to be bitter or one separates a watermelon as terumah and it has become spoiled96 or perforated.97 If he separated a barrel of wine as terumah and it was discovered to have been left open in which instance, it is forbidden to drink it,98 it is terumah, but he should make a second separation.99

[In all these situations, when mixed with other produce,] neither of the two [portions separated as terumah] creates a situation of dimua alone.100 Nor is a person who eats only one of the two obligated to pay a fifth.101

כב

הַתּוֹרֵם חָבִית שֶׁל יַיִן עַל הַיַּיִן וְנִמְצָא חֹמֶץ אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהָיְתָה חֹמֶץ עַד שֶׁלֹּא תְּרָמָהּ אֵינָהּ תְּרוּמָה. וְאִם אַחַר שֶׁתְּרָמָהּ הֶחְמִיצָה הֲרֵי זוֹ תְּרוּמָה. וְאִם סָפֵק תְּרוּמָה וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם. וְכֵן הַתּוֹרֵם קִשּׁוּת וְנִמְצֵאת מָרָה אֲבַטִּיחַ וְנִמְצָא סָרוּחַ אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ נְקוּרִין. תָּרַם חָבִית שֶׁל יַיִן וְנִמְצֵאת מְגֻלָּה שֶׁאָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹתָהּ תְּרוּמָה וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם שְׁנִיָּה. וְאֵין אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן מְדַמַּעַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. וְהָאוֹכֵל אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן אֵינוֹ חַיָּב חֹמֶשׁ:

23

What is implied? If one [of the two portions separated as terumah] fell into ordinary produce, it does not cause it to be considered as dimua. If the other [portion] fell into other produce, it does not cause it to be considered as dimua.102If, however, both fell into the same produce, it is considered as dimua according to the size of the smaller of the two.103

Similarly, if a person other than a priest ate both of them, he should make restitution for the smaller one and its additional fifth.104 What should he do with the two [portions separated]?105 He should give them to one priest and take the value of the greater portion from him.106

כג

כֵּיצַד. נָפְלָה אַחַת מֵהֶן עַל הַחֻלִּין אֵינָהּ מְדַמַּעַת. נָפְלָה שְׁנִיָּה לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר אֵינָהּ מְדַמַּעְתָּהּ. נָפְלוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד מְדַמְּעוֹת בַּקְּטַנָּה שֶׁבִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן. וְכֵן אִם אָכַל זָר שְׁתֵּיהֶן מְשַׁלֵּם בַּקְּטַנָּה שֶׁבִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן וְחֻמְשָׁהּ. וְכֵיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן נוֹתְנָן לְכֹהֵן אֶחָד וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַכֹּהֵן דְּמֵי הַגְּדוֹלָה:

24

[The following rules apply when a person] checks a barrel [of wine]107 and then leaves it to separate terumah [from it] on other [wine] until it becomes terumah in its entirety, [at which point,] he would give it to the priest.108 After a certain time, he checked the barrel again and discovered that it had become vinegar.109 [We rule that the wine] certainly remained wine for three days after the inspection. [The obligations for terumah] have certainly been met for all of the wine for which he considered the wine in the barrel as its terumah during those [three days]. From that time afterwards, there is a doubt [whether the wine had already turned to vinegar] and a second separation [of terumah] must be made.110

כד

הַבּוֹדֵק אֶת הֶחָבִית וְהִנִּיחָהּ לְהַפְרִישָׁהּ תְּרוּמָה עַל אֲחֵרִים עַד שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה כֻּלָּהּ תְּרוּמָה וְיִתְּנֶנָּה לַכֹּהֵן. וּלְאַחַר זְמַן בְּדָקָהּ וּמְצָאָהּ חֹמֶץ. מֵעֵת שֶׁבְּדָקָהּ תְּחִלָּה עַד שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים וַדַּאי יַיִן וְכָל יַיִן שֶׁחָשַׁב אוֹתָן הַיָּמִים שֶׁהַתְּרוּמָה שֶׁלּוֹ בְּחָבִית זוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא מְתֻקָּן. מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ סָפֵק וְצָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָה שְׁנִיָּה:

25

At three times [during the year], it is necessary to check the wine that one set aside to separate terumah from111 lest it have become vinegar. They are: When the east wind blows after the Sukkos holiday, when grapes form,112 when fluid begins to enter the unripened grapes.113 [When one has wine] from the vat,114he may use it for the separation [of terumah] for 40 days with the presumption that it is still wine.115

כה

בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה פְּרָקִים צָרִיךְ לִבְדֹּק אֶת הַיַּיִן שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ לִפְרשׁ עָלָיו שֶׁמָּא הֶחְמִיץ. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. בְּקַדִּים שֶׁל מוֹצָאֵי הֶחָג. וּבְהוֹצָאַת הַסְּמָדַר. וּבִשְׁעַת כְּנִיסַת מַיִם לַבֹּסֶר. וְיַיִן מִגִּתּוֹ מַפְרִישִׁין עָלָיו בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהוּא יַיִן [עַד] אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם:

26

[The following rules apply when a person] sets aside produce to separate terumah from until [the entire amount] becomes terumah.116 Although as an initial preference, one should separate terumah only from the same collection of produce,117 if one separates terumah [in such a manner], we operate under the presumption that the produce continues to exist. If he discovers that they perished, he should entertain doubts that all [the produce for which he thought he separated terumah is in fact tevel].118 For perhaps, he did not make any separation until [the produce set aside] perished. Therefore he should separate terumah a second time for them.119

כו

הַמַּנִּיחַ פֵּרוֹת לִהְיוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ תְּרוּמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מַפְרִישִׁין לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף אִם הִפְרִישׁ הֲרֵי הֵן בְּחֶזְקַת קַיָּמִין. מְצָאָן שֶׁאָבְדוּ הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹשֵׁשׁ לְכָל מַה שֶּׁתִּקֵּן שֶׁמָּא לֹא הִפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן אֶלָּא אַחַר שֶׁאָבְדוּ לְפִיכָךְ מַפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה שְׁנִיָּה: