When a non-priests partakes of terumah unknowingly, he must make restitution for the principal and add a fifth.1 Even if he knows that it is terumah and that he is warned against partaking of it, but he does not know whether or not he is liable for death,2 he is considered to have acted unknowingly and he must make restitution for the principal and add a fifth.


זָר שֶׁאָכַל תְּרוּמָה בִּשְׁגָגָה מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהִיא תְּרוּמָה וְשֶׁהוּא מֻזְהָר עָלֶיהָ אֲבָל לֹא יָדַע אִם חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ מִיתָה אִם לָאו הֲרֵי זוֹ שְׁגָגָה וּמְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ:


A person who eats an article [that is terumah] that is ordinarily eaten, drinks something that is ordinarily drunk, or smears himself with something ordinarily used for that purpose [is liable],3 as [derived from Leviticus 22:15]: "And they shall not defile the sacraments of the children of Israel." This includes one who smears himself.4

Whether one partakes of terumah which is ritually pure or ritually impure unknowingly, one must make restitution for the principal and add a fifth.5 He is not liable for a fifth until he eats an olive-sized portion, as [indicated by ibid.:14]: "When one will eat a sacrament unknowingly"; eating implies consuming no less than an olive-sized portion. Just as one is liable for eating an olive-sized portion, so too, [one is liable for] drinking an olive-sized portion.6


אֶחָד הָאוֹכֵל דָּבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לֶאֱכל וְאֶחָד הַשּׁוֹתֶה דָּבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת וְאֶחָד הַסָּךְ דָּבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לָסוּךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב טו) "וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ אֶת קָדְשֵׁי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל" לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הַסָּךְ. וְאֶחָד הָאוֹכֵל תְּרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה אוֹ טְמֵאָה בִּשְׁגָגָה מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּחֹמֶשׁ עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּזַיִת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב יד) "כִּי יֹאכַל קֹדֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה" וְאֵין אֲכִילָה פְּחוּתָה מִכְּזַיִת. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאֲכִילַת תְּרוּמָה בִּכְזַיִת כָּךְ שְׁתִיָּה בִּכְזַיִת:


[The following laws apply if a person] ate terumah and then ate again, drank and then drank again. If there is sufficient time to eat a half a loaf of bread7 from the time he began to eat until he concluded or sufficient time to drink a revi'it from the time he began to drink until he concluded,8 [all he consumes] is combined to comprise an olive-sized portion.


אָכַל וְחָזַר וְאָכַל. שָׁתָה וְחָזַר וְשָׁתָה. אִם יֵשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת אֲכִילָה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַד סוֹף אֲכִילָה אַחֲרוֹנָה כְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס וּמִתְּחִלַּת שְׁתִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַד סוֹף שְׁתִיָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה כְּדֵי שְׁתִיַּת רְבִיעִית הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְזַיִת:


Terumah, terumat ma'aser, whether the latter is from d'mai9 or from produce from which the tithes were definitely [not separated], challah,10 and the first fruits can all be combined together to comprise an olive-sized portion11 for which one is liable for death12 or [restitution, plus] a fifth,13 for they are all called terumah [at different times in the Torah].14

According to law, one should not be liable for a fifth for [the unknowing consumption of] terumat ma'aser that is d'mai, just as one is not liable for the second tithe [from d'mai], as will be explained.15 Nevertheless, our Sages said: If one is not liable for a fifth, people will treat it with disdain.


הַתְּרוּמָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר בֵּין שֶׁל דְּמַאי בֵּין שֶׁל וַדַּאי וְהַחַלָּה וְהַבִּכּוּרִים כֻּלָּן מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְזַיִת לְחַיֵּב עֲלֵיהֶן מִיתָה וְחֹמֶשׁ שֶׁכֻּלָּן נִקְרְאוּ תְּרוּמָה. וּמִן הַדִּין הָיָה שֶׁאֵין חַיָּבִין חֹמֶשׁ עַל תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל דְּמַאי כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין חַיָּבִין עַל מַעֲשֵׂר [שֵׁנִי] שֶׁלּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. אֲבָל אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים אִם לֹא יִתְחַיֵּב עָלֶיהָ חֹמֶשׁ יְזַלְזְלוּ בָּהּ:


When a person partook terumah intentionally [after] receiving a warning, he is liable for lashes and is not required to make financial restitution.16 If he did not receive warning, [he is required to make financial restitution].17 If [the terumah] was ritually pure, he is required to make restitution for the principal, but is not required to add a fifth.18 If [the terumah] was ritually impure, he is required to pay only as if it were wood, because it is fit only to use as fuel.19 Accordingly, if one ate berries or pomegranates or the like that were terumah that became impure, he is not obligated to make restitution, because these are not fit to be used as fuel.20


אָכַל תְּרוּמָה בְּמֵזִיד [וְהִתְרוּ בּוֹ לוֹקֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם. לֹא הִתְרוּ בּוֹ] אִם הָיְתָה טְהוֹרָה מְשַׁלֵּם הַקֶּרֶן וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַחֹמֶשׁ. וְאִם הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה מְשַׁלֵּם דְּמֵי עֵצִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה אֶלָּא לְהַסָּקָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָכַל תְּרוּמַת תּוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ פָּטוּר מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָם רְאוּיִין לְהַסָּקָה:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When a person eats terumah that is chametz on Pesach, whether willfully or unknowingly, whether it is ritually impure or pure, he is exempt from financial liability.21 Even if he separated terumah from matzah, but it became chametz [before he ate it], he is exempt. 22 He is not even required to pay as if it were wood, because it is not fit for use as fuel. [Instead,] since it is forbidden to benefit from it,23 it is of no value whatsoever.


הָאוֹכֵל תְּרוּמַת חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בֵּין בְּזָדוֹן בֵּין בִּשְׁגָגָה בֵּין טְמֵאָה בֵּין טְהוֹרָה פָּטוּר מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין. אֲפִלּוּ הִפְרִישָׁהּ מַצָּה וְהֶחְמִיצָה פָּטוּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ דְּמֵי עֵצִים אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לְהַסָּקָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא אֲסוּרָה בַּהֲנָאָה אֵין לָהּ דָּמִים:


If, however, one unknowingly ate terumah on Yom Kippur,24 ate terumah that was perforated,25 drank wine that was terumah that was left open,26 smeared himself with wine and oil [that were terumah] at the same time, or drank oil and vinegar [that were terumah] at the same time,27 chewed raw kernels of wheat,28 or swallowed vinegar,29 he is liable to make restitution for the principal and add a fifth.


אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹגֵג שֶׁאָכַל תְּרוּמָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל תְּרוּמָה נְקוּרָה. וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה יֵין תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְגַּלָּה. וְהַסָּךְ יַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן כְּאֶחָד אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁתָה שֶׁמֶן וְחֹמֶץ כְּאֶחָד אוֹ שֶׁכָּסַס אֶת הַחִטִּים אוֹ גָּמַע אֶת הַחֹמֶץ הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ:


When a person is satisfied and is disgusted by his food, but continues eating terumah despite the fact that he is satisfied, he is not required to add a fifth [when making restitution, for the prooftext cited above] states: "When one will eat...." [Implied is that he is when he eats in an ordinary manner] and not when he harms himself.30 Similarly, when one chews raw kernels of barley, he is not liable, because he harms himself.


הָיָה שָׂבֵעַ וְקָץ בִּמְזוֹנוֹ וְהוֹסִיף עַל שָׂבְעוֹ בַּאֲכִילַת תְּרוּמָה אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַחֹמֶשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב יד) "כִּי יֹאכַל" לֹא שֶׁיַּזִּיק אֶת עַצְמוֹ. וְכֵן הַכּוֹסֵס אֶת הַשְּׂעוֹרִים פָּטוּר מִן הַחֹמֶשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִזִּיק עַצְמוֹ:


When a non-priest swallowed prunes of terumah [whole31 unknowingly] and then regurgitated them, and another person came and also ate them unknowingly, the first person is required to make restitution for the principal and add a fifth32 and the second person is obligated to pay the first one as if the prunes were wood.33


זָר שֶׁבָּלַע שֵׁזָפִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וֶהֱקִיאָן וּבָא אַחֵר וַאֲכָלָן גַּם הוּא בִּשְׁגָגָה הָרִאשׁוֹן מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ וְהַשֵּׁנִי מְשַׁלֵּם דְּמֵי עֵצִים לָרִאשׁוֹן:


When one feeds terumah to workers34 or to guests, they are required to make restitution for the principal and add a fifth, for they acted unknowingly.35 He must pay them for their meal,36 for ordinary produce is more valuable than the terumah,37 since a person's soul is repelled from forbidden food.38


הַמַּאֲכִיל הַפּוֹעֲלִים וְאֶת הָאוֹרְחִים תְּרוּמָה הֵם מְשַׁלְּמִין קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּשׁוֹגְגִין. וְהוּא מְשַׁלֵּם לָהֶם דְּמֵי סְעֻדָּתָן שֶׁדְּמֵי הַחֻלִּין יְתֵרִין מִדְּמֵי תְּרוּמָה שֶׁאָכְלוּ שֶׁדָּבָר הָאָסוּר נַפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם חוֹתָה מִמֶּנּוּ:


When [a non-priest] feeds terumah to his children who were below majority39 or to his servants whether they are above or below majority,40 he must pay the principal, but not the additional fifth.41 [This ruling also applies to] one who partakes of terumah from the Diaspora,42 one who eats or drinks less than an olive-sized portion,43 a nazarite who unknowingly drank wine that was terumah,44 one drinks oil [without it being mixed with other liquids] and one who smears himself with wine.45


הַמַּאֲכִיל אֶת בָּנָיו הַקְּטַנִּים וְאֶת עֲבָדָיו בֵּין גְּדוֹלִים בֵּין קְטַנִּים. וְהָאוֹכֵל תְּרוּמַת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. וְהָאוֹכֵל אוֹ הַשּׁוֹתֶה פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת. וְנָזִיר שֶׁשָּׁגַג וְשָׁתָה יַיִן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה. וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה שֶׁמֶן וְהַסָּךְ אֶת הַיַּיִן. כָּל אֵלּוּ מְשַׁלְּמִים אֶת הַקֶּרֶן וְלֹא אֶת הַחֹמֶשׁ:


When the daughter of a priest who was married to an Israelite or disqualified [from partaking of terumah for other reasons] partook of terumah, she must make restitution for the principal, but she is not required to add a fifth.46

When a woman47 was partaking of terumah and she was told: "Your husband died," or "...divorced you," she is required to pay only the principal.48 If the terumah was chametz on the day preceding Pesach, she is exempt from making restitution. [The rationale is that then] the time is pressing and she hurried to eat without investigating.49

[These same laws apply] when a servant was partaking [of terumah] and he was told: "Your master died and left an heir who does not entitle you to eat,"50 "...sold you to an Israelite," "...gave you to him as a present," or "...freed you," and when a priest was partaking [of terumah] and he discovered that he is the son of a divorcee or a woman who underwent chalitzah.51 In all of these instances, if these individuals had terumah in their mouths when they discovered that they were forbidden to partake of it, they should spit it out.52


בַּת כֹּהֵן שֶׁהָיְתָה נְשׂוּאָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ שֶׁנִּפְסְלָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ אָכְלָה תְּרוּמָה מְשַׁלֶּמֶת אֶת הַקֶּרֶן וְלֹא אֶת הַחֹמֶשׁ. הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹכֶלֶת בִּתְרוּמָה וְאָמְרוּ לָהּ מֵת בַּעְלִיךְ אוֹ גֵּרְשֵׁךְ. וְכֵן הָעֶבֶד שֶׁהָיָה אוֹכֵל וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ מֵת רַבְּךָ וְהִנִּיחַ יוֹרֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲכִיל אוֹ שֶׁמְּכָרְךָ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ נְתָנְךָ לוֹ אוֹ שִׁחְרֶרְךָ. וְכֵן כֹּהֵן שֶׁהָיָה אוֹכֵל וְנוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁהוּא בֶּן גְּרוּשָׁה אוֹ בֶּן חֲלוּצָה. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְשַׁלְּמִין הַקֶּרֶן בִּלְבַד. וְאִם הָיְתָה תְּרוּמַת חָמֵץ וְהָיָה עֶרֶב הַפֶּסַח הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִין מִלְּשַׁלֵּם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזְּמַנָּהּ בָּהוּל נֶחְפְּזוּ לֶאֱכל וְלֹא בָּדְקוּ. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁהָיְתָה לָהֶן תְּרוּמָה בְּתוֹךְ פִּיהֶן כְּשֶׁיָּדְעוּ שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין לֶאֱכל הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יִפְלֹטוּ:


[Similarly, when a priest] was partaking [of terumah] and he was told: "You became impure," "The terumah became impure,"53 "You were impure," or "the terumah was impure,"54 he should spit it out. [The same ruling applies] if he discovered that [the terumah] was tevel, the first tithe from which terumat ma'aser had not been separated,55 or ma'aser sheni56 or consecrated property that was not redeemed, or [when partaking of the terumah,] he tasted a bug.57


הָיָה אוֹכֵל וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ נִטְמֵאתָ. אוֹ נִטְמֵאת הַתְּרוּמָה. טָמֵא הָיִיתָ. אוֹ טְמֵאָה הָיְתָה הַתְּרוּמָה. אוֹ נוֹדַע שֶׁהוּא טֶבֶל אוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ. אוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ. אוֹ שֶׁטָּעַם טַעַם פִּשְׁפֵּשׁ לְתוֹךְ פִּיו. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יִפְלֹטוּ:


When there are two containers, one of terumah and one of ordinary produce, and terumah fell into one of them, but it is not known which one, we operate under the supposition that it fell into the one which [contained] terumah.58

If it is not known which one is terumah and a non-priest partakes of one of them, he is not liable for payment.59 [The rationale is that when a person seeks] to expropriate money from a colleague, the burden of proof is on him.60 He must treat the other one as if it were terumah. If another person partakes of the other one, however, he is also exempt.61 If, however, one person eats them both, he must make restitution for the smaller one.62 If he did so intentionally, he is required to make restitution for the principal. If he did so unknowingly, he is required to make restitution for the principal, plus a fifth.


שְׁתֵּי קֻפּוֹת אַחַת שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וְאַחַת שֶׁל חֻלִּין וְנָפְלָה תְּרוּמָה לְתוֹךְ אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ לְאֵי זוֹ נָפְלָה הֲרֵינִי אוֹמֵר לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה נָפְלָה. אֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ הִיא שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אָכַל זָר אַחַת מֵהֶן הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין שֶׁהַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה נוֹהֵג בָּהּ כִּתְרוּמָה. אָכַל אַחֵר אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה אַף הוּא פָּטוּר. אָכַל אֶחָד אֶת שְׁתֵּיהֶן מְשַׁלֵּם כַּקְּטַנָּה שֶׁבִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן. אִם מֵזִיד קֶרֶן. וְאִם שׁוֹגֵג קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ:


When a person eats the additional fifth unknowingly, he must [make restitution for it and] add another fifth.63 For the fifth is considered as the principal with regard to all matters.64 Similarly, he continues to add a fifth for every fifth forever.65

Whenever a person makes restitution for the principal and the additional fifth, [the grain] he gives is terumah with regard to all matters66 [with one exception]. If they were sown, the grain that grows is ordinary produce.67 If the priest wishes to forgo [the payment], he cannot.68 Whenever, [by contrast,] a person makes restitution only for the principal,69 [the grain] he gives is ordinary grain70 and if the priest desires to forgo payment, he may.


הָאוֹכֵל אֶת הַחֹמֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֻמְשׁוֹ. שֶׁהַחֹמֶשׁ כְּקֶרֶן לְכָל דָּבָר. וְכֵן מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ עַל חֹמֶשׁ לְעוֹלָם. כָּל הַמְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ הֲרֵי הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין כִּתְרוּמָה לְכָל דָּבָר. אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם נִזְרְעוּ גִּדּוּלֵיהֶן חֻלִּין. וְאִם רָצָה הַכֹּהֵן לִמְחל אֵינוֹ מוֹחֵל. וְכָל הַמְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַקֶּרֶן בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין חֻלִּין וְאִם רָצָה הַכֹּהֵן לִמְחל מוֹחֵל:


[The following laws apply if] a daughter of an Israelite partakes of terumah and then marries a priest. If [she partook] of terumah that had not been acquired by a priest,71 she may make restitution of the principal and the additional fifth to herself.72 If she partook of terumah that a priest had acquired, she is required to make restitution of the principal to its owner,73 but she may keep the additional fifth as her own. For whenever a person makes restitution and pays an additional fifth, he may give the additional fifth to whichever priest he desires.


בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאָכְלָה תְּרוּמָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִשֵּׂאת לְכֹהֵן. אִם תְּרוּמָה שֶׁלֹּא זָכָה בָּהּ כֹּהֵן אָכְלָה מְשַׁלֶּמֶת קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ לְעַצְמָהּ. וְאִם תְּרוּמָה שֶׁזָּכָה בָּהּ כֹּהֵן אָכְלָה מְשַׁלֶּמֶת קֶרֶן לַבְּעָלִים וְחֹמֶשׁ לְעַצְמָהּ. שֶׁכָּל הַמְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ מְשַׁלֵּם הַקֶּרֶן לַבְּעָלִים וְהַחֹמֶשׁ לְכָל כֹּהֵן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה:


If she was not able to make restitution before she was divorced,74 she can no longer make restitution to herself and she is like a person who never married a priest at all.


לֹא הִסְפִּיקָה לְשַׁלֵּם עַד שֶׁנִּתְגָּרְשָׁה בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ אֵינָהּ מְשַׁלֶּמֶת לְעַצְמָהּ וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּמִי שֶׁלֹּא נִשֵּׂאת לְכֹהֵן מֵעוֹלָם:


Whenever a person partakes of terumah whether unknowingly or intentionally, he may make restitution only from ordinary produce from which the terumot and the tithes have been separated. Restitution may be made from leket, shichichah, pe'ah,75 ownerless grain,76 and grain from the first tithe after terumat ma'aser was separated i.e., even if the great terumah from that crop had not been separated, for the person separated the tithes before the terumah.77

One may make restitution from the second tithes and consecrated property that were redeemed, even though they were not redeemed in an appropriate manner.78 And one may make restitution using new grain79 for old grain. One may not, however, make restitution from one type [of grain] for another type [of grain]. [This is derived from Leviticus 22:14:] "And he shall give the priest the sanctified [food]." [Implied is that it must be the same] as the sanctified food he ate.


כָּל הָאוֹכֵל תְּרוּמָה בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא מִן הַחֻלִּין הַמְתֻקָּנִים שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ מֵהֶן תְּרוּמוֹת וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת. וּמְשַׁלְּמִין מִן הַלֶּקֶט וּמִן הַשִּׁכְחָה וּמִן הַפֵּאָה וּמִן הַהֶפְקֵר וּמִמַּעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִּטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִטְּלָה תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אִם הִקְדִּים הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לַתְּרוּמָה. וּמְשַׁלְּמִין מִמַּעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנִּפְדּוּ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּפְדּוּ שֶׁלֹּא כַּהֲלָכָה. וּמִן הֶחָדָשׁ עַל הַיָּשָׁן אֲבָל לֹא מִמִּין עַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב יד) "וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ". כַּקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁאָכַל:


When a person eats zucchini from the sixth year,80 he should wait until [he acquires] the zucchini of the eighth year to make restitution from them. For he cannot pay his debt from the crops of the seventh year, as will be explained in that place.81


הָאוֹכֵל קִשּׁוּאִין שֶׁל עֶרֶב שְׁבִיעִית יַמְתִּין לַקִּשּׁוּאִין שֶׁל מוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית וִישַׁלֵּם מֵהֶן. שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְשַׁלֵּם חוֹבוֹ מִפֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:


When a person ate terumah that was ritually impure, he makes restitution from ordinary produce, whether pure or impure.82 If he partook of terumah that was ritually pure, he should make restitution with ordinary grain that is pure.83 If he made restitution from ordinary grain that was impure whether intentionally or unknowingly, the restitution he made is accepted, but he must make restitution again from ritually pure grain.


אָכַל תְּרוּמָה טְמֵאָה מְשַׁלֵּם חֻלִּין בֵּין טְמֵאִין בֵּין טְהוֹרִין. אָכַל תְּרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה מְשַׁלֵּם חֻלִּין טְהוֹרִין וְאִם שִׁלֵּם חֻלִּין טְמֵאִין בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד תַּשְׁלוּמָיו תַּשְׁלוּמִין וְיַחֲזֹר וִישַׁלֵּם מִן הַטְּהוֹרִין:


When a person partook of terumah belonging to a chaver,84 he should make restitution to him. If he partook of terumah belonging to a common person,85 he should make restitution to a chaver,86 and take its worth from him and give it to the common person whose terumah he ate.87 For we do not give articles that require ritually purity to a common person.


אָכַל תְּרוּמַת חָבֵר מְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ. אָכַל תְּרוּמַת עַם הָאָרֶץ מְשַׁלֵּם לֶחָבֵר וְנוֹטֵל דָּמֶיהָ מִמֶּנּוּ וְנוֹתֵן לְעַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁאָכַל תְּרוּמָתוֹ שֶׁאֵין מוֹסְרִין טָהֳרוֹת לְעַם הָאָרֶץ:


When [an Israelite] stole terumah from his maternal grandfather who was a priest and consumed it [unknowingly], and afterwards, his maternal grandfather died, he may not make restitution to himself,88 but rather to another heir89 from [the priestly] tribe. Similarly, if he inherited terumah from his maternal grandfather and partook of it, a creditor collected terumah [as payment] for a debt and he partook of it or a woman [received it as part of the money due her by virtue of] her ketubah and she partook of it, they must make restitution for the principal and the additional fifth90 to a priest who is a chaver and that chaver gives them the monetary equivalent of the terumah at the time they partook of it.91


גָּזַל תְּרוּמָה מֵאֲבִי אִמּוֹ כֹּהֵן וַאֲכָלָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת אֲבִי אִמּוֹ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם לְעַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא לְיוֹרֵשׁ אַחֵר מִשְּׁאָר הַשֵּׁבֶט. וְכֵן אִם נָפְלָה לוֹ תְּרוּמָה מֵאֲבִי אִמּוֹ וַאֲכָלָהּ. וּבַעַל חוֹב שֶׁגָּבָה תְּרוּמָה בְּחוֹבוֹ וְהָאִשָּׁה בִּכְתֻבָּתָהּ וַאֲכָלוּהָ מְשַׁלְּמִין קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ לְכֹהֵן חָבֵר וְהֶחָבֵר נוֹתֵן לָהֶם דָּמִים שֶׁהָיוּ מוֹכְרִין בָּהּ אוֹתָהּ הַתְּרוּמָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָכְלוּ:


When a person steals terumah but does not consume it, he should pay twice its worth92 to the owners.93 He may make this payment according to the worth of terumah.94 If he stole it and ate it, he must pay twice the principal and a fifth of the principal: i.e., the principal and an additional fifth from ordinary grain,95 and the principal according to the worth of terumah.96


הַגּוֹנֵב תְּרוּמָה וְלֹא אֲכָלָהּ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל לַבְּעָלִים. וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְשַׁלֵּם מִדְּמֵי תְּרוּמָה. גְּנָבָהּ וַאֲכָלָהּ מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנֵי קְרָנִין וְחֹמֶשׁ. קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ מִן הַחֻלִּין. וְקֶרֶן אֲפִלּוּ מִדְּמֵי תְּרוּמָה:


When a person steals terumah that is consecrated to the Temple treasury97 and eats it, he is not required to pay a double amount, for a double amount is not paid to the Temple treasury, as explained in the appropriate place.98 He must, however, make restitution for the principal and add two fifths, one fifth [to atone] for partaking of terumah and one fifth [to atone] for benefiting from consecrated property.99

To whom does he make restitution? If [the terumah] was the size of an olive100 and it was not worth a p'rutah,101 he should make restitution to the priests. If it is worth a p'rutah - whether or not it is the size of an olive - he should pay the Temple treasury.


הָיְתָה הַתְּרוּמָה הֶקְדֵּשׁ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת וּגְנָבָהּ וַאֲכָלָהּ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל. שֶׁאֵין תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל בְּהֶקְדֵּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. אֲבָל מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וּשְׁנֵי חֳמָשִׁים. חֹמֶשׁ מִשּׁוּם אוֹכֵל תְּרוּמָה. וְחֹמֶשׁ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. וּלְמִי מְשַׁלֵּם. אִם הָיָה בָּהּ כְּזַיִת וְאֵין בָּהּ שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה מְשַׁלֵּם לַכֹּהֲנִים. וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ כְּזַיִת בֵּין שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ כְּזַיִת מְשַׁלֵּם לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ:


Why does the prohibition against benefiting from consecrated property fall [on this grain when it is already forbidden because of] the prohibition against terumah?102 Because the terumah was forbidden to a non-priest and permitted to a priest. Once he consecrated it, it became forbidden to a priest. Therefore a prohibition was added to it even for an Israelite in the manner explained in the laws of forbidden relationships and forbidden foods.103


וּמִפְּנֵי מָה חָל אִסּוּר הֶקְדֵּשׁ עַל אִסּוּר הַתְּרוּמָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַתְּרוּמָה אֲסוּרָה לְזָר וּמֻתֶּרֶת לַכֹּהֵן. הִקְדִּישָׁהּ נֶאֶסְרָה עַל הַכֹּהֵן. לְפִיכָךְ נוֹסָף בָּהּ אִסּוּר אַף עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת בִּיאוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת וְאִסּוּרֵי מַאֲכָלוֹת:


When a person obtains terumah by robbery,104 he must make restitution for the principal and add one fifth.105 [The rationale is that] the fifth that he is liable for [to atone for partaking of] terumah fulfills his obligation for robbery,106 as [implied by Leviticus 22:14:] "And you shall give the priest the sacred [food]." He is liable only for the fifth [associated with atonement for] the sacred [food]. If he obtains terumah through robbery and feeds it to another person, that person must make restitution for the principal and add a fifth.107

Whenever we have said that a person must make restitution for the principal and add a fifth, [the intent is that] if he ate grain worth four [zuz], he must pay five108 from the type of grain from which he partook. Whenever we mentioned [payment of] the principal and two fifths, [the intent is that] if he ate grain worth four [zuz], he must pay six. Whenever we mentioned [payment of] two principals and one fifth, [the intent is that] if he ate grain worth four [zuz], he must pay nine.

Whenever he makes restitution, he must pay for the worth of the grain at the time he partook of it whether its value depreciated at the time he made restitution or appreciated.109


הַגּוֹזֵל תְּרוּמָה וַאֲכָלָהּ מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ אֶחָד. שֶׁהַחֹמֶשׁ שֶׁחַיָּב בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם תְּרוּמָה יָצָא בּוֹ יְדֵי גְּזֵלוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב יד) "וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ" אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא בְּחֹמֶשׁ שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ בִּלְבַד. גְּזָלָהּ וְהֶאֱכִילָהּ לְאַחֵר. הָאוֹכֵל מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ אִם אָכַל שְׁוֵה אַרְבָּעָה מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁוֵה חֲמִשָּׁה מִמִּין שֶׁאָכַל. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וּשְׁנֵי חֳמָשִׁין אָכַל שְׁוֵה אַרְבָּעָה מְשַׁלֵּם שִׁשָּׁה. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנֵי קְרָנִין וְחֹמֶשׁ אֶחָד אָכַל שְׁוֵה אַרְבָּעָה מְשַׁלֵּם דְּמֵי תִּשְׁעָה. וּלְעוֹלָם אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא לְפִי דָּמִים שֶׁהָיְתָה שָׁוָה בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָה בֵּין שֶׁהוּזְלָה בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁלוּמִין בֵּין שֶׁהוּקְרָה: