A sealed barrel [of wine that is terumah] makes a mixture miduma whatever the ratio [between it and the other barrels].

What is implied? When a sealed barrel [of wine] that is terumah becomes mixed with several thousand sealed barrels [of ordinary wine], the entire mixture becomes miduma.1 If the barrels are opened, [the presence of the terumah] is nullified when 101 times its contents are present.2


חָבִית סְתוּמָה מְדַמַּעַת בִּכָל שֶׁהוּא. כֵּיצַד. חָבִית סְתוּמָה שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּכַמָּה אֲלָפִים חָבִיּוֹת סְתוּמוֹת נִדְמַע הַכּל. נִפְתְּחוּ הֶחָבִיּוֹת תַּעֲלֶה בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה:


When a sealed barrel [that contains terumah] becomes mixed with 100 barrels and then one falls into the Mediterranean Sea, they are all permitted. We assume that it is the one that is terumah that fell in. This is not the case when a fig falls into 100 figs. In the latter instance, it is necessary to set aside one [fig].3 [The rationale for the distinction is] that a barrel that falls into the sea is noticeable. A fig and the like which fall are not noticeable.


חָבִית סְתוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בַּמֵּאָה חָבִיּוֹת וְנָפְלָה אַחַת מֵהֶם לַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל הֻתְּרוּ כֻּלָּן וְאוֹמְרִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הִיא שֶׁנָּפְלָה. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּתְאֵנָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמֵאָה וְנָפְלָה אַחַת מֵהֶן לַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ אַחַת. לְפִי שֶׁהֶחָבִית נְפִילָתָהּ נִכֶּרֶת וּתְאֵנָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ אֵין נְפִילָתָהּ נִכֶּרֶת:


When a sealed barrel [that contains terumah] becomes mixed with 100 barrels and one of them is opened,4 he should remove one hundredth of it,5 and then he may drink the barrel.6 The other barrels are, however, forbidden until they are opened. Whenever any one of them is opened, he should remove the percentage that causes the mixture to be miduma and drink the remaining hundred portions.

If a barrel [containing terumah] became mixed with 150 barrels and 100 of them were opened, one should remove the percentage that causes the mixture to be miduma, i.e., one barrel and drink [the remaining barrels]. The remaining 50 are still forbidden; we do not presume that the barrel that was terumah was among the majority [that were opened].7 Even if there are several thousand barrels, they are all considered miduma. Whenever any one is opened, he should remove one hundredth of it and then he may drink the remainder [of that barrel]. The other barrels, however, are miduma,


חָבִית סְתוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּמֵאָה חָבִיּוֹת וְנִפְתְּחָה אַחַת מֵהֶן נוֹטֵל מִמֶּנָּה אֶחָד מִמֵּאָה וְשׁוֹתֶה אוֹתָהּ הֶחָבִית. אֲבָל שְׁאָר הֶחָבִיּוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת עַד שֶׁיִּפָּתְחוּ. וְכָל אַחַת וְאַחַת שֶׁתִּפָּתַח מֵהֶן נוֹטֵל מִמֶּנָּה כְּדֵי דִּמּוּעָהּ וְשׁוֹתֶה הַמֵּאָה הַשְּׁאָר. נִתְעָרְבָה חָבִית בְּמֵאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים חָבִיּוֹת וְנִפְתְּחוּ מֵהֶם מֵאָה נוֹטֵל מֵהֶם כְּדֵי דִּמּוּעַ חָבִית אַחַת וְשׁוֹתֶה הַמֵּאָה וּשְׁאָר הַחֲמִשִּׁים אֲסוּרוֹת וְאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין לְאוֹתָהּ חָבִית שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁהִיא בְּרֹב אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ כַּמָּה אֲלָפִים חָבִיּוֹת כֻּלָּן מְדֻמָּע וְכָל מַה שֶּׁיִּפְתַּח נוֹטֵל הֵימֶנּוּ אֶחָד מִמֵּאָה וְהַשְּׁיָרִים שׁוֹתֶה וְהַשְּׁאָר מְדֻמָּע:


We have already explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot8 that a leavening agent or a spice9 causes a mixture to be forbidden regardless of how small the amount is mixed in.10 Therefore if a person pureed an apple that was terumah and put it in a dough and it caused [the dough] to leaven, the entire dough becomes miduma and is forbidden to non-priests.


כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת אִסּוּרֵי מַאֲכָלוֹת שֶׁהַמְחַמֵּץ וְהַמְתַבֵּל אוֹסֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. לְפִיכָךְ אִם רִסֵּק תַּפּוּחַ שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וּנְתָנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה וְהֶחְמִיצָה כָּל הָעִסָּה מְדֻמַּעַת וַאֲסוּרָה לְזָרִים:


When an egg, even its yolk,11 was flavored with spices that are terumah, it is forbidden, because it absorbs.


בֵּיצָה שֶׁנִּתְבְּלָה בְּתַבְלִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אֲפִלּוּ חֶלְמוֹן שֶׁלָּהּ אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בּוֹלֵעַ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When yeast that is terumah fell into a dough and it was removed and afterwards, the mixture became leavened, [the dough] is permitted.12


שְׂאוֹר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה וְהִגְבִּיהוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְחַמְּצָה הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת:


We have already explained13 that if terumah becomes mixed with a substance of a different type, [the mixture is forbidden if the terumah] imparts its flavor [to the mixture]. Therefore, [the following laws apply when] a diced onion is cooked together with other food. If the onion is terumah and the other food is ordinary produce and it is flavored by the onion, the other food is forbidden to non-priests. If the onion is ordinary produce and the cooked food is terumah and the flavor of the cooked food was imparted to the onion, the onion is forbidden [to non-priests].14


כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאִם נִתְעָרֵב (תְּרוּמָה) מִין בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם לְפִיכָךְ בָּצָל מְחֻתָּךְ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל עִם הַתַּבְשִׁיל אִם הַבָּצָל תְּרוּמָה וְהַתַּבְשִׁיל חֻלִּין וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם הַבָּצָל הֲרֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּר לְזָרִים. וְאִם הַבָּצָל חֻלִּין וְהַתַּבְשִׁיל תְּרוּמָה וְנִמְצָא טַעַם הַתַּבְשִׁיל בַּבָּצָל הֲרֵי הַבָּצָל אָסוּר:


[The following laws apply if] lentils were cooked and then a dry onion was placed among them: If the onion was whole, it is permitted.15 If it was diced, [the ruling depends on whether] its flavor was imparted.16 If he cooked the onion with the lentils, whether it is whole or diced, we estimate whether it imparted its flavor.17 With regard to the remainder of the cooked food,18 regardless of whether the onion was placed upon it after it was cooked or cooked with it, or whether it was whole or diced, we estimate whether it imparted its flavor.19

Why do we not estimate [whether flavor was imparted] when a whole onion was placed among cooked lentils? Because it does not absorb from them, for it is whole, nor does it impart [flavor] to them, because they have already been cooked. If the onions were soft,20 it is considered as if they were diced. Similarly, if its tip or its outer shell21 was removed or it was moist, it is considered as if it was diced. Wild onions, whether moist or dry, whether whole or diced, we see if they have imparted their flavor.


עֲדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִשְׁלִיךְ לְתוֹכָן בָּצָל יָבֵשׁ אִם הָיָה שָׁלֵם הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְאִם הָיָה מְחֻתָּךְ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל הַבָּצָל עִם הָעֲדָשִׁים בֵּין שָׁלֵם בֵּין מְחֻתָּךְ מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַתַּבְשִׁיל בֵּין שֶׁהִשְׁלִיךְ הַבָּצָל אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בֵּין שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ עִם הַתַּבְשִׁיל בֵּין שָׁלֵם בֵּין מְחֻתָּךְ מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה בָּצָל שָׁלֵם לְתוֹךְ עֲדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ אֵין מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹאֵב מֵהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא שָׁלֵם וְלֹא פּוֹלֵט לְתוֹכָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ. וְאִם הָיוּ בְּצָלִים רַכִּים הֲרֵי הֵן כִּמְחֻתָּךְ. וְכֵן אִם נוֹטֵל פִּטְמָתוֹ וּקְלִפָּתוֹ הַחִיצוֹנָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה לַח הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְחֻתָּךְ. וְהָקַפְלוּט בֵּין לַח בֵּין יָבֵשׁ בֵּין שָׁלֵם בֵּין מְחֻתָּךְ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם:


When one pickles vegetables that are ordinary produce with those of terumah, they are permitted to non-priests22 with the exception of onions, scallions, and garlic.23 [With regard to these species,] if one pickled vegetables that are ordinary produce with onions that are terumah or onions that are ordinary produce with onions that are terumah, they are forbidden to non-priests. If one pickled vegetables that are terumah with an onion that is ordinary produce, the onion is permitted to non-priests.24


הַכּוֹבֵשׁ יָרָק שֶׁל חֻלִּין עִם יָרָק שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְזָרִים. חוּץ מִמִּינֵי בְּצָלִים וְחָצִיר וְשׁוּמִים. שֶׁאִם כָּבַשׁ יָרָק שֶׁל חֻלִּין עִם בְּצָלִים שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אוֹ בְּצָלִים חֻלִּין עִם בְּצָלִים שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין. כָּבַשׁ יָרָק שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה עִם בָּצָל שֶׁל חֻלִּין הֲרֵי הַבָּצָל מֻתָּר לְזָרִים:


[The following rules apply when] olives that are ordinary produce were pickled together with olives that are terumah. If they were both crushed, or the ordinary olives were crushed, but those which were terumah were whole,25 or they were pickled in brine that was terumah, they are forbidden to non-priests.26 If, however, they were both whole or the olives that were terumah were crushed and those that were ordinary produce were whole, they are permitted, because those that are crushed absorb from those which are whole.


זֵיתֵי חֻלִּין שֶׁכְּבָשָׁן עִם זֵיתֵי תְּרוּמָה. אִם הָיוּ פְּצוּעִין אֵלּוּ וְאֵלּוּ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ חֻלִּין פְּצוּעִין וְשֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שְׁלֵמִין. אוֹ שֶׁכְּבָשָׁן בְּמֵי תְּרוּמָה. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן שְׁלֵמִין. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ זֵיתֵי תְּרוּמָה פְּצוּעִין וְזֵיתֵי הַחֻלִּין שְׁלֵמִין. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין לְפִי שֶׁהַפְּצוּעִין שׁוֹאֲבוֹת מִן הַשְּׁלֵמִין:


Water in which terumah was pickled or cooked is forbidden to non-priests.27


מֵי כְּבָשִׁים וּמֵי שְׁלָקוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרִין לְזָרִים:


The laws governing terumah apply to anise as long as it has not yet flavored a dish [of food].28 Once it has flavored a dish, the laws of terumah no longer apply.


הַשֶּׁבֶת עַד שֶׁלֹּא נָתְנָה טַעַם בַּקְּדֵרָה יֵשׁ בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם תְּרוּמָה. מִשֶּׁנָּתְנָה טַעַם בַּקְּדֵרָה אֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם תְּרוּמָה:


[The following laws apply when a person] removes a warm loaf of bread [from the oven] and places it over a barrel of wine that is terumah. If the loaf is from wheat, it is permitted.29 If it is from barley, it is forbidden, because it draws forth [the wine itself].30


הָרוֹדֶה פַּת חַמָּה וּנְתָנָהּ עַל פִּי חָבִית שֶׁל יֵין תְּרוּמָה. אִם הָיְתָה פַּת חִטִּים הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת. וְשֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים אֲסוּרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשּׁוֹאֲבוֹת:


When an oven has been heated with cumin that is terumah, the bread is permitted. For it does not have the flavor of the cumin, only its fragrance and fragrance does not create a prohibition.31


תַּנּוּר שֶׁהִסִּיקוֹ בְּכַמּוֹן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וְאָפָה בּוֹ אֶת הַפַּת הַפַּת מֻתֶּרֶת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ טַעַם כַּמּוֹן אֶלָּא רֵיחוֹ וְהָרֵיחַ אֵינוֹ אָסוּר:


When barley that is terumah falls into a cistern of water, the water is permitted even if [the barley] spoils the flavor of the water, for food that imparts an undesirable flavor does not bring about a prohibition.32


שְׂעוֹרִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְבוֹר שֶׁל מַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִבְאִישׁוּ מֵימָיו הֲרֵי הֵן מֻתָּרִין שֶׁאֵין נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם אוֹסֵר:


[The following law applies when] chilba33 that is terumah and its plant fall into a cistern of wine. If the chilba seed itself34 is of sufficient quantity to impart its flavor to the wine, the wine is forbidden to non-priests.


תִּלְתָּן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הוּא וְעֵצוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ בּוֹר שֶׁל יַיִן אִם יֵשׁ בְּזֶרַע הַתִּלְתָּן כְּדֵי לִתֵּן לְבַדּוֹ טַעַם בַּיַּיִן הֲרֵי הַיַּיִן אָסוּר לְזָרִים:


When there are two cups of wine: one of terumah and one of ordinary wine35 and they were each mixed with water and then combined, we consider it as if the ordinary wine was not present and as if the wine that was terumahwas mixed with the water alone, for water is not of its type. If that water is sufficient to nullify the taste of the terumah wine in the mixture, the entire mixture is permitted to non-priests. If not, it is forbidden, for as we have explained,36 water does not nullify wine.


שְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן אֶחָד תְּרוּמָה וְאֶחָד חֻלִּין מָזַג כָּל אֶחָד בְּמַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ עֵרְבָן. רוֹאִין אֶת יֵין הַחֻלִּין כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ וּכְאִלּוּ יֵין הַתְּרוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמַיִם שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מִינוֹ. אִם רָאוּי אוֹתוֹ הַמַּיִם לְבַטֵּל טַעַם יֵין הַתְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הַכּל מֻתָּר לְזָרִים. וְאִם לָאו אָסוּר. שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם מַעֲלִין אֶת הַיַּיִן:


When wine that is terumah falls on produce, one may wash the fruits and they are permitted.37 Similarly, when oil that is terumah falls on produce, one may wash the fruits and they are permitted.38

When oil [that is terumah] falls on [ordinary] wine, one should make it coagulate39 and the wine is then permitted to non-priests. If [oil that is terumah] mixes with brine, it should be made to coagulate, then the upper layer of the brine should be removed40 so that all the brine that has the taste of oil will be removed.


יַיִן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפַל עַל גַּבֵּי פֵּרוֹת יְדִיחֵם וְהֵם מֻתָּרוֹת. וְכֵן שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפַל עַל גַּבֵּי פֵּרוֹת יְדִיחֵם וְהֵם מֻתָּרוֹת. נָפַל הַשֶּׁמֶן עַל גַּבֵּי יַיִן יַקְפֶּה אוֹתוֹ וְהַיַּיִן מֻתָּר לְזָרִים. נָפַל עַל גַּבֵּי הַצִּיר יַקְפֶּה אוֹתוֹ וְיִטּל קְלִפָּה מֵעַל הַצִּיר כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּסִיר כָּל הַצִּיר שֶׁבּוֹ טַעַם הַשֶּׁמֶן:


A pot in which terumah was cooked should not be used to cook ordinary produce. If it was cooked in it, it causes it to be forbidden if its flavor is recognizable. If he washes out the pot with wine or with water, it is permitted to cook in it.41 If he cooked [terumah] in part of the pot, it is not necessary to wash out the entire pot, only the place where it was cooked.42


קְדֵרָה שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בָּהּ תְּרוּמָה לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל בָּהּ חֻלִּין. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וְאִם שָׁטַף הַקְּדֵרָה בְּמַיִם אוֹ בְּיַיִן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְבַשֵּׁל בָּהּ. בִּשֵּׁל בְּמִקְצָת הַכְּלִי אֵין צָרִיךְ לִשְׁטֹף אֶת כֻּלּוֹ אֶלָּא שׁוֹטֵף מְקוֹם הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּלְבַד:


The great terumah, terumat ma'aser, challah,43 and the first fruits are all referred to as terumah.44 With regard to terumat ma'aser, [Numbers 18:26] states: "And you shall remove the terumah of G‑d from it" and [ibid. 15:20] states that it should be "like the terumah of your grain heap."45

With regard to challah, [ibid.] states: "You shall separate challah as terumah." And [Deuteronomy 12:17]: "You may not eat in your gates the tithes of your grain, your wine, and your oil,... and the terumah of your hand." Now there are no substances that are required to be brought [to Jerusalem to be eaten] that are not explicitly mentioned in the verse except the first fruits. Thus the phrase "the terumah of your hand" can be applied to them. Thus we see that they are [also] called terumah.


תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְהַחַלָּה וְהַבִּכּוּרִים כֻּלָּן נִקְרְאוּ תְּרוּמָה. בִּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר נֶאֱמַר (במדבר יח כו) "וַהֲרֵמֹתֶם מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמַת ה'" וְאוֹמֵר (במדבר טו כ) "כִּתְרוּמַת גֹּרֶן". וּבְחַלָּה נֶאֱמַר (במדבר טו כ) "חַלָּה תָּרִימוּ תְרוּמָה". וְנֶאֱמַר (דברים יב יז) "לֹא תוּכַל לֶאֱכל בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ" וְגוֹ' (דברים יב יז) "וּתְרוּמַת יָדְךָ". וְאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר שֶׁטָּעוּן הֲבָאַת מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרְטוֹ בְּפָסוּק זֶה חוּץ מִן הַבִּכּוּרִים וּבָהֶן נֶאֱמַר וּתְרוּמַת יָדְךָ הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁהֵן קְרוּאִין תְּרוּמָה:


Therefore the laws regarding partaking of all four types of substances and mixtures of them and other substances are the same. All can be nullified in a mixture of 101 times the original substance. They are also all combined with each other.46 If they become impure, they should all be burnt. The laws that apply to terumat ma'aser that is demai,47 are the same that apply to terumat ma'aser separated from produce [from which the tithes were] definitely [not separated]. It is only that its violation is not punishable by lashes.


לְפִיכָךְ דִּין אַרְבַּעְתָּן לְעִנְיַן אֲכִילָה וְדִמּוּעַ אֶחָד הוּא כֻּלָּן עוֹלִין בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה וְאִם נִטְמְאוּ יִשָּׂרְפוּ. וְדִין תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל דְּמַאי בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַדְּרָכִים כִּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל וַדַּאי אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹקִין עַל אֲכִילָתָהּ:


Anyone who partakes of terumah should recite the blessing for that particular food and then recite the blessing:48 "[Blessed are You... who has sanctified us with the holiness of Aaron and commanded us to partake of terumah."49 We have received the tradition and observed that people would recite this blessing even when partaking of challah separated in the Diaspora.50 For even partaking of sacred foods from the boundaries [of our Holy Land] is like service [in the Temple],51 as [Numbers 18:7] states: "I have granted you your priestly service as a gift."


כָּל הָאוֹכֵל תְּרוּמָה מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת אוֹתוֹ מַאֲכָל וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבָרֵךְ אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בִּקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ שֶׁל אַהֲרֹן וְצִוָּנוּ לֶאֱכל תְּרוּמָה. וְכָךְ קִבַּלְנוּ וְרָאִינוּ אוֹתָם מְבָרְכִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַלַּת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ שֶׁגַּם אֲכִילַת קָדְשֵׁי הַגְּבוּל כַּעֲבוֹדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח ז) "עֲבוֹדַת מַתָּנָה אֶתֵּן אֶת כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם":

Blessed be God who grants assistance.

בְּרִיךְ רַחֲמָנָא דְּסַיְּעָן