1

All the above measures given by our Sages with regard to a forbidden substance being mixed with a permitted substance of the same type apply when the forbidden substance is not a leavening agent, a spice, or an important entity that is discrete and is not mixed together with or blended with the permitted substance.1If, however, [the forbidden substance] is a leavening agent, a spice, or an important entity, even the slightest amount of it causes [the entire mixture] to be forbidden.2

א

כָּל הַשִּׁעוּרִים הָאֵלּוּ שְׁנָּתְנוּ חֲכָמִים לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמִינוֹ הַמֻּתָּר בְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַדָּבָר הָאָסוּר מְחַמֵּץ אוֹ מְתַבֵּל. אוֹ דָּבָר חָשׁוּב שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא וְלֹא נִתְעָרֵב וְנִדְמָע בְּדָבָר הַמֻּתָּר. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מְחַמֵּץ אוֹ מְתַבֵּל אוֹ דָּבָר חָשׁוּב אוֹסֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:

2

What is implied? When yeast from wheat that is terumah falls into a dough of ordinary wheat [flour] and it is of sufficient quantity3 to cause the dough to leaven, the entire dough is considered as having been mixed with terumah.4 Similarly, if spices that are terumah fall into a pot of ordinary food [containing] the same substance,5 when [the forbidden spices] are of sufficient quantity to season [the dish], the entire [dish] is considered as having been mixed with terumah. This applies even if the ration between the yeast and the spices [to the permitted substances] is 1:1000.

Similarly, if yeast from mixed species grown in a vineyard fall into a dough or spices of orlah fall into a pot, it is forbidden to benefit from the entire [mixture].

ב

כֵּיצַד. שְׂאוֹר שֶׁל חִטִּין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ עִסַּת חִטִּין שֶׁל חֻלִּין וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּץ הֲרֵי הָעִסָּה כֻּלָּהּ מְדֻמָּע. וְכֵן תַּבְלִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לִקְדֵרַת חֻלִּין וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן כְּדֵי לְתַבֵּל וְהֵן מִמִּין הַחֻלִּין הַכּל מְדֻמָּע. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשְּׂאוֹר אוֹ הַתַּבְלִין אֶחָד מֵאֶלֶף. וְכֵן שְׂאוֹר שֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה אוֹ תַּבְלִין שֶׁל עָרְלָה לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה הַכּל אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה:

3

Even the smallest amount of an important entity [that is forbidden] can cause a mixture of its own type to become forbidden. The seven entities that follow are considered as important: nuts from Perach,6 pomegranates from Baden, sealed barrels,7 beet shoots, cabbage heads, Greek squash, and loaves baked by a private person.8

ג

דָּבָר חָשׁוּב שֶׁהוּא אוֹסֵר בְּמִינוֹ בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. אֱגוֹזֵי פֶּרֶךְ. וְרִמּוֹנֵי בְּדַן. וְחָבִיּוֹת סְתוּמוֹת. וַחֲלַפוֹת תְּרָדִין. וְקִלְחֵי כְּרוּב. וּדְלַעַת יְוָנִית. וְכִכָּרוֹת שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת:

4

What is implied? If one pomegranate from Baden that was orlah became mixed with several thousand other pomegranates, it is forbidden to benefit from the entire mixture.9 Similarly, if a sealed barrel of wine that is orlah or that is a product of mixed species from a vineyard that became mixed with several thousand sealed barrels, it is forbidden to benefit from the entire quantity.

ד

כֵּיצַד. רִמּוֹן אֶחָד מֵרִמּוֹנֵי בְּדַן שֶׁהָיָה עָרְלָה וְנִתְעָרֵב בְּכַמָּה אֲלָפִים רִמּוֹנִים הַכּל אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה. וְכֵן חָבִית סְתוּמָה שֶׁל יֵין עָרְלָה אוֹ שֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּכַמָּה אֲלָפִים חָבִיּוֹת סְתוּמוֹת הַכּל אֲסוּרִים בַּהֲנָיָה. וְכֵן שְׁאָר הַשִּׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים:

5

Similarly, when a piece of meat from a nevelah or from a non-kosher species of animal, beast, fowl, or fish become mixed with several thousand other pieces of meat, the entire mixture is forbidden until one separates that piece of meat and makes certain that there is sixty times its measure.10 For if one does not separate [the forbidden piece of meat], it will continue to be present and it will not have changed.11 And this piece of meat is important to him, for he receives honor [by serving it] to guests.12

ה

וְכֵן חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל נְבֵלָה אוֹ שֶׁל בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה אוֹ חַיָּה אוֹ עוֹף אוֹ דָּג הַטְּמֵאִין שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּכַמָּה אֲלָפִים חֲתִיכוֹת הַכּל אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ אוֹתָהּ חֲתִיכָה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְשַׁעֵר הַשְּׁאָר בְּשִׁשִּׁים. שֶׁאִם לֹא הִגְבִּיהָהּ הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר הָאָסוּר עוֹמֵד וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּנָּה וְהַחֲתִיכָה חֲשׁוּבָה אֶצְלוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי מִתְכַּבֵּד בָּהּ לִפְנֵי הָאוֹרְחִין:

6

The same laws apply with regard to a piece of meat [cooked] with milk13 or an ordinary animal that was slaughtered in the Temple courtyard, for it is forbidden to benefit from [the latter] according to Rabbinic decree,14 as will be explained in Hilchot Shechitah.15 Even the slightest amount of them causes [a mixture] to become forbidden until they are removed.

Similarly, when a gid hanesheh was cooked with other similar tissue or with meat, when it can be recognized, it should be removed and the remainder is permitted. For giddim do not impart flavor.16 If one cannot recognize it, the entire mixture is forbidden. For [the gid hanesheh is considered as a created being in its own right.17 Hence, it is significant; no matter how small it is, it causes [a mixture] to become forbidden.18

ו

וְהוּא הַדִּין בַּחֲתִיכָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב אוֹ שֶׁל חֻלִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטוּ בָּעֲזָרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרִים מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן בַּהֲנָיָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁחִיטָה אוֹסְרִין בְּכָל שֶׁהֵן עַד שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ אוֹתָן. וְכֵן גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל עִם הַגִּידִין אוֹ עִם הַבָּשָׂר בִּזְמַן שֶׁמַּכִּירוֹ מַגְבִּיהוֹ וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר שֶׁאֵין בַּגִּידִים בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַכִּירוֹ הַכּל אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּרִיָּה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא חָשׁוּב וְאוֹסֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:

7

Similarly, all living animals are significant and they never become nullified. Therefore, if an ox sentenced to be stoned to death19 becomes intermingled with 1000 oxen, a calf whose neck is to be broken20 becomes intermingled with 1000 calves, a dove selected for a metzora21 becomes intermingled with 1000 doves, or a firstborn donkey22 becomes intermingled with 1000 donkeys, it is forbidden to benefit from any of them.23With regard to other entities, even though it is customary to [sell] them by number,24 they can be nullified according to the ordinary measures.

ז

וְכֵן כָּל בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים חֲשׁוּבִין הֵן וְאֵינָם בְּטֵלִין. לְפִיכָךְ שׁוֹר הַנִּסְקָל שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּאֶלֶף שְׁוָרִים וְעֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה בְּאֶלֶף עֶגְלוֹת. אוֹ צִפּוֹר מְצֹרָע הַשְּׁחוּטָה בְּאֶלֶף צִפֳּרִים אוֹ פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר בְּאֶלֶף חֲמוֹרִים כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָיָה. אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לִמָּנוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ עוֹלִין בְּשִׁעוּרָן:

8

What is implied?25 When a bundle of vegetables that come from mixed species grown in a vineyard are mixed with 200 bundles or an esrog which is orlah is mixed with 200 esrogim, the entire quantity is permitted. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ח

כֵּיצַד. אֲגֻדָּה שֶׁל יָרָק מִכִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּמָאתַיִם אֲגֻדּוֹת. אוֹ אֶתְרוֹג שֶׁל עָרְלָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמָאתַיִם אֶתְרוֹגִים. הַכּל מֻתָּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

9

It appears to me that every article that is significant to the inhabitants of a given place as nuts from Perach and pomegranates from Baden were significant in Eretz Yisrael in [the Talmudic] era causes a mixture to be forbidden if even the slightest amount becomes mixed in because of its importance in that time and in that era. The particular entities [referred to above] were mentioned because the slightest amount of them causes a mixture to be forbidden in every place. The same laws apply to articles similar to them in other places. It is clear that all of these prohibitions stem from Rabbinic decree.26

ט

יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּב אֵצֶל בְּנֵי מָקוֹם מִן הַמְּקוֹמוֹת. כְּגוֹן אֱגוֹזֵי פֶּרֶךְ וְרִמּוֹנֵי בְּדַן בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאוֹתָן הַזְּמַנִּים. שֶׁהוּא אוֹסֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא לְפִי חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם וּבְאוֹתוֹ זְמַן. וְלֹא הֻזְכְּרוּ אֵלּוּ אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁהֵן אוֹסְרִין כָּל שֶׁהֵן בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בִּשְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת. וְדָבָר בָּרוּר הוּא שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּרִין הָאֵלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם:

10

If one pomegranate from a mixture [of pomegranates including a forbidden pomegranate from Baden] falls into two other [permitted] pomegranates from Baden and then one of these three pomegranates fell into other pomegranates, the latter mixture is permitted. [The rationale is that the presence of] the pomegranate from the first mixture [which fell into the second mixture] is nullified because of the majority of permitted substances.27 If, however, [a pomegranate] from the first mixture falls into 1000 pomegranates, they are all forbidden.28 [The concept that the presence of the forbidden pomegranate] was nullified because of the majority of permitted substances only when there is a multiple doubt involved:29i.e., that if one of the second mixture will fall into another place, it does not cause [that third mixture] to become forbidden. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

י

נָפַל רִמּוֹן אֶחָד מִן הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת הַזֹּאת לִשְׁנֵי רִמּוֹנִים אֲחֵרִים מֵרִמּוֹנֵי בְּדַן. וְנָפַל מִן הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה רִמּוֹן אֶחָד לְרִמּוֹנִים אֲחֵרִים. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ הָאֲחֵרִים מֻתָּרִין שֶׁהֲרֵי הָרִמּוֹן שֶׁל תַּעֲרֹבֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה בָּטֵל בְּרֹב. וְאִם נָפַל מִן הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה רִמּוֹן לְאֶלֶף כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרִין. לֹא נֶאֱמַר בָּטֵל בְּרֹב אֶלָּא לְהַתִּיר סְפֵק סְפֵקָן שֶׁאִם יִפּל מִן הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

11

If the nuts that were forbidden because of the nut that was orlah intermingled with them were cracked open, the pomegranates were taken apart, the barrels were opened, the squash was cut, or the bread was sliced after they became forbidden, [the presence of the forbidden entity] can be nullified if there is 201 times its volume.30 This law also applies with regard to a piece of forbidden meat31 that is minced together with other pieces and they are all [minced] in the same way, [the presence of the forbidden entity] can be nullified if there is 60 times its volume.

יא

נִתְפַּצְּעוּ אֱגוֹזִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרוּ כֻּלָּן מִפְּנֵי אֱגוֹז עָרְלָה שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן אוֹ נִתְפָּרְרוּ הָרִמּוֹנִים וְנִתְפַּתְּחוּ הֶחָבִיּוֹת וְנִתְחַתְּכוּ הַדְּלוּעִין וְנִתְפָּרְסוּ הַכִּכָּרוֹת אַחַר שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יַעֲלוּ בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם. וְהוּא הַדִּין לַחֲתִיכַת נְבֵלָה שֶׁנִּדּוֹכָה בְּכָל הַחֲתִיכוֹת וְנַעֲשָׂה הַכּל כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא עוֹלֶה בְּשִׁשִּׁים:

12

It is, however, forbidden to crack the nuts, take apart the pomegranates, open the barrels after they have become forbidden so that [the presence of the forbidden entity] can be nullified if there is 201 times its volume. For, as an initial and preferred measure, we do not nullify the presence of an entity.32 If one does so, we penalize him and forbid [the entity] to him, as explained.33

יב

וְאָסוּר לִפְצֹעַ הָאֱגוֹזִים וּלְפָרֵר הָרִמּוֹנִים וְלִפְתֹּחַ הֶחָבִיּוֹת אַחַר שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרוּ כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם שֶׁאֵין מְבַטְּלִין אִסּוּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְאִם עָשָׂה כֵּן קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹסְרִין עָלָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

13

[The following rule applies when] yeast that comes from mixed species in a vineyard and from terumah falls into dough and there is not enough of either of [the forbidden substances] alone to cause the dough to rise, but when the two are combined, there is enough to cause the dough to rise. This dough is forbidden to an Israelite, but permitted to the priests.34

Similarly, when spices that come from terumah and from mixed species in a vineyard fall into a pot and there is not enough of either of [the forbidden substances] to spice the pot, but together there is enough of both of them to spice the pot, that pot is forbidden to an Israelite - for an entity forbidden to him spice it - and permitted to the priests.

יג

שְׂאוֹר שֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם וְשֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה לֹא בָּזֶה כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּץ וְלֹא בָּזֶה כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּץ וּבִשְׁנֵיהֶם כְּשֶׁיִּצְטָרְפוּ יֵשׁ בָּהֶם כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּץ. אוֹתָהּ עִסָּה אֲסוּרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֻתֶּרֶת לַכֹּהֲנִים. וְכֵן תַּבְלִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וְשֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה. וְלֹא בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן כְּדֵי לְתַבֵּל וּבִשְׁנֵיהֶם כְּדֵי לְתַבֵּל. אוֹתָהּ קְדֵרָה אֲסוּרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהֲרֵי דָּבָר הָאָסוּר לָהֶם תִּבְּלָה. וּמֻתֶּרֶת לַכֹּהֲנִים:

14

When there are two or three types of the same species of spice or three species of the same type, they can be combined to cause a pot to be forbidden when they spice it or when [a similar type mixture] causes dough to leaven.

What is implied? Yeast from wheat and yeast from barley are not considered as being two separate substances. Instead, since the category yeast is the same, they are considered as one substance and they can be combined to measure to see if they are sufficient to cause a dough of wheat to leaven if their combined flavor is that of wheat35 or to cause a dough of barley to leaven if their combined flavor is that of barley.

יד

תַּבְלִין שֶׁהֵם שְׁנַיִם אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה שֵׁמוֹת מִמִּין אֶחָד אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינִין מִשֵּׁם אֶחָד מִצְטָרְפִין לְתַבֵּל וְלֶאֱסֹר וְכֵן לְחַמֵּץ. כֵּיצַד. שְׂאוֹר שֶׁל חִטִּין וּשְׂאוֹר שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים הוֹאִיל וְשֵׁם שְׂאוֹר אֶחָד הוּא אֵינָן כְּמִין וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ. אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמִין אֶחָד וּמִצְטָרֵף לְשַׁעֵר בָּהֶן כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּץ בְּעִסָּה שֶׁל חִטִּין אִם הָיָה טַעַם שְׁנֵיהֶם טַעַם חִטִּין. אוֹ כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּץ בְּעִסָּה שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִין אִם הָיָה טַעַם שְׁנֵיהֶם טַעַם שְׂעוֹרִים:

15

What is meant by three species of the same type? For example, river parsley, parsley that grows in meadows, and parsley that grows in gardens. Although each of them has a distinct name, since they are of one type, they can be combined to [cause a dish to be forbidden if they] spice [it].

טו

שְׁלֹשָׁה שֵׁמוֹת מִמִּין אֶחָד כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן כַּרְפַּס שֶׁל נְהָרוֹת וְכַרְפַּס שֶׁל אֲפָר וְכַרְפַּס שֶׁל גִּנָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ הוֹאִיל וְהֵם מִין אֶחָד מִצְטָרְפִין לְתַבֵּל:

16

[The following rules apply when] yeast that is terumah or from mixed species from a vineyard falls into dough that is already leavened or spices that are terumah or from mixed species from a vineyard fall into a pot that has already been spiced. If there is enough [of the forbidden] yeast to cause the dough to leaven if it had been unleavened or there is enough of the spices to spice the pot had it been unspiced, the entire mixture is forbidden.36 If they are of sufficient size to spice [the pot] or cause [the dough] to leaven, their presence can be nullified according to the required measure: terumah when [the mixture] is 101 times [the size of the forbidden substance] and mixed species in a vineyard when [the mixture] is 201 times [the size of the forbidden substance].

טז

עִסָּה מְחֻמֶּצֶת שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכָהּ שְׂאוֹר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אוֹ שְׂאוֹר שֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם. וְכֵן קְדֵרָה מְתֻבֶּלֶת שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתוֹכָהּ תַּבְלִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אוֹ שֶׁל עָרְלָה וְשֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם. אִם יֵשׁ בַּשְּׂאוֹר כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּץ אִלּוּ הָיְתָה הָעִסָּה מַצָּה. וּבַתַּבְלִין כְּדֵי לְתַבֵּל הַקְּדֵרָה אִלּוּ הָיְתָה תְּפֵלָה הֲרֵי הַכּל אָסוּר. וְאִם אֵין בָּהֶם כְּדֵי לְתַבֵּל וּלְחַמֵּץ יַעֲלוּ בְּשִׁעוּרָן. תְּרוּמָה בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה וְעָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם:

17

Terumah can [help] cause orlah and mixed species from a vineyard to be nullified.

What is implied? When a se'ah of terumah falls into 99 [se'ah of] ordinary produce and afterwards, a half se'ah of orlah or mixed species from a vineyard falls into the entire mixture, the prohibition against orlah or mixed species in a vineyard does not apply.37For it is nullified because of the presence of 201 times [the size of the forbidden substance] even though a portion of the 201 is terumah.38

יז

הַתְּרוּמָה מַעְלָה אֶת הָעָרְלָה וְאֶת כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם. כֵּיצַד. סְאָה תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתִשְׁעָה וְתִשְׁעִים חֻלִּין וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָפַל לְכָל חֲצִי סְאָה שֶׁל עָרְלָה אוֹ שֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם אֵין כָּאן אִסּוּר עָרְלָה וְלֹא אִסּוּר כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם. שֶׁהֲרֵי עָלָה בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּקְצָת הַמָּאתַיִם תְּרוּמָה:

18

Similarly, orlah and mixed species from a vineyard can [help] cause terumah to be nullified.

What is implied? When 100 se'ah of orlah or mixed species from a vineyard fall into 20,000 se'ah of ordinary produce, the entire mixture is thus 20,100 se'ah.39 Afterwards, a se'ah of terumah fell into every 100 se'ah, the entire [mixture] is permitted and the presence of the terumah is nullified because of the presence of 101 times [the original amount of terumah].40 [This applies] even though part of the 100 that nullify its presence are orlah or mixed species from a vineyard.

יח

וְכֵן הָעָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם מַעֲלִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. כֵּיצַד. מֵאָה סְאָה שֶׁל עָרְלָה אוֹ שֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתוֹךְ עֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף שֶׁל חֻלִּין נַעֲשֵׂית כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת עֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף וּמֵאָה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָפַל לְכָל מֵאָה סְאָה סְאָה שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הַכּל מֻתָּר וְתַעֲלֶה הַתְּרוּמָה בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּקְצָת הַמֵּאָה הַמַּעֲלִין אוֹתָהּ עָרְלָה אוֹ כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם:

19

Similarly, orlah may [help] nullify mixed species from a vineyard and mixed species from a vineyard may [help] nullify orlah. Mixed species from a vineyard may [help] nullify [the presence of other] mixed species from a vineyard and orlah may [help] nullify [the presence of other] orlah.

What is implied? 200 se'ah of orlah or mixed species from a vineyard fall into 40,000 se'ah of ordinary produce.41 Afterwards,42 a se'ah of orlah or mixed species from a vineyard fell into each of the 200 se'ah of orlah or mixed species from a vineyard, the entire mixture is permitted. Since the presence of the forbidden substance that fell into [the mixture] originally was nullified, the entire [mixture] is considered as ordinary produce that is permitted.43

יט

וְכֵן הָעָרְלָה מַעֲלָה אֶת כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם. וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם אֶת הָעָרְלָה. וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם אֶת כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם. וְהָעָרְלָה אֶת הָעָרְלָה. כֵּיצַד. מָאתַיִם סְאָה שֶׁל עָרְלָה אוֹ שֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְאַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף חֻלִּין. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָפַל לְכָל מָאתַיִם סְאָה וּסְאָה שֶׁל עָרְלָה אוֹ שֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם הַכּל מֻתָּר. שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּטֵל הָאִסּוּר שֶׁנָּפַל תְּחִלָּה נַעֲשָׂה הַכּל כְּחֻלִּין הַמֻּתָּרִין:

20

A garment that was dyed with shells of orlah44 should be burnt.45 If it became intermingled with others, [its presence] may be nullified when there are 201 times the original amount.46 Similarly, when a dish was cooked or a loaf of bread baked with the shells of orlah or mixed species from a vineyard, the dish or the bread must be burnt, for the benefit [from the forbidden substance] is evident.47 If it became intermingled with others, [its presence] may be nullified when there are 201 times the original amount.

כ

בֶּגֶד שֶׁצְּבָעוֹ בִּקְלִפֵּי עָרְלָה יִשָּׂרֵף. נִתְעָרֵב בַּאֲחֵרִים יַעֲלֶה בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם. וְכֵן תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ בִּקְלִפֵּי עָרְלָה וּפַת שֶׁאֲפָאָהּ בִּקְלִפֵּי עָרְלָה אוֹ בְּכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם יִשָּׂרֵף הַתַּבְשִׁיל וְהַפַּת. שֶׁהֲרֵי הֲנָיָתוֹ נִכֶּרֶת בָּהֶן. נִתְעָרְבוּ בַּאֲחֵרִים יַעֲלוּ בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם:

21

Similarly, when milo hasit48 of a garment was dyed with [a dye that is] orlah, and [that garment] cannot be identified, [its presence] may be nullified when there are 201 times the original amount.49 If powdered dye that is orlah becomes mixed with powdered dye that is permitted, [its presence] may be nullified when there are 201 times the original amount. When liquid dye that is orlah becomes mixed with liquid dye that is permitted, its presence is nullified when there is a majority [of the permitted substance].50

כא

וְכֵן בֶּגֶד שֶׁאָרַג בּוֹ מְלֹא הַסִּיט שֶׁצְּבָעוֹ בָּעָרְלָה וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זֶה הוּא יַעֲלֶה בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם. נִתְעָרְבוּ סַמָּנֵי עָרְלָה בְּסַמָּנֵי הֶתֵּר יַעֲלוּ בְּאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם. מֵי צֶבַע בְּמֵי צֶבַע יִבָּטֵל בְּרֹב:

22

When an oven has been heated with shells of orlah or mixed species from a vineyard, it must be cooled off [before cooking in it]. [This applies] to both a new and an old [oven]. Afterwards, one should heat [the oven] with permitted wood.51 If one cooked in it before it was cooled, whether bread or food, it is forbidden to benefit from it. [The rationale is that] the forbidden wood increased the value of the bread or the food.52

If one removed the entire fire53 and then cooked or baked with the heat of the oven [that remained], it is permitted, for the forbidden wood is no longer present.54

כב

תַּנּוּר שֶׁהִסִּיקוֹ בִּקְלִפֵּי עָרְלָה וּבְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם בֵּין חָדָשׁ בֵּין יָשָׁן יוּצַן. וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָחֵם אוֹתוֹ בַּעֲצֵי הֶתֵּר. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל בּוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיּוּצַן בֵּין פַּת בֵּין תַּבְשִׁיל הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה. יֵשׁ שֶׁבַח עֲצֵי אִסּוּר בְּפַת אוֹ בְּתַבְשִׁיל. גָּרַף אֶת כָּל הָאֵשׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ בִּשֵּׁל אוֹ אָפָה בְּחֻמּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר שֶׁהֲרֵי עֲצֵי אִסּוּר הָלְכוּ לָהֶן:

23

It is forbidden to benefit from plates, cups, pots, and bottles that were fired by a potter with shells of orlah. [The rationale is] they are made new by an object from which it is forbidden to benefit.55

כג

קְעָרוֹת וְכוֹסוֹת וּקְדֵרוֹת וּצְלוֹחִיּוֹת שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָן הַיּוֹצֵר בִּקְלִפֵּי עָרְלָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי דָּבָר הָאָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה עָשָׂה אוֹתָן חָדָשׁ:

24

When bread was baked on coals from wood56 that is orlah, it is permitted. Once [the wood] becomes coals, the forbidden dimension is no longer present, even though they are still glowing.57

When a pot was cooked with shells from orlah or mixed species from a vineyard together with permitted wood,58 the food [cooked in it] is forbidden, even though [it was cooked by two factors, one forbidden and one permitted]. [The rationale is] that at the time it was cooked with the forbidden wood, the permitted wood had not been introduced. Thus part of the cooking process was performed with permitted wood and part with forbidden wood.59

כד

פַּת שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי גֶּחָלִים שֶׁל עֲצֵי עָרְלָה מֻתֶּרֶת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ גֶּחָלִים הָלַךְ אִסּוּרָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן בּוֹעֲרוֹת. קְדֵרָה שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל אוֹתָהּ בִּקְלִפֵּי עָרְלָה אוֹ בְּכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם וּבַעֲצֵי הֶתֵּר הֲרֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּר. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה וְזֶה גּוֹרֵם. שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה מֵחֲמַת עֲצֵי אִסּוּר עֲדַיִן לֹא בָּאוּ עֲצֵי הַהֶתֵּר וְנִמְצָא מִקְצָת הַבִּשּׁוּל בַּעֲצֵי הֶתֵּר וּמִקְצָתוֹ בְּאִסּוּר:

25

When a plant that is orlah becomes mixed together with other plants or a row of mixed species from a vineyard became mixed with other rows,60 at the outset, one should gather all [the produce].61 If [the ratio of] permitted plants to forbidden plants was 200:1 or the ratio of forbidden rows to permitted ones is 200:1, everything that was gathered is permitted. If the ratio was less than this, all that was gathered is forbidden.

[One might ask:] Why is one permitted to gather [the produce] at the outset? Seemingly, the law should require that everything be forbidden for him until he undertakes the difficulty of removing the forbidden plant or row.62 [It can be explained that that] a person will not cause his vineyard to be forbidden because of one plant.63 Were he to be able to identify it, he would remove it.64

כה

נְטִיעָה שֶׁל עָרְלָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בִּנְטִיעוֹת. וְכֵן עֲרוּגָה שֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם בַּעֲרוּגוֹת. הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֵט לְכַתְּחִלָּה מִן הַכּל. וְאִם הָיְתָה נְטִיעָה בְּמָאתַיִם נְטִיעוֹת וַעֲרוּגָה בְּמָאתַיִם עֲרוּגוֹת הֲרֵי כָּל הַנִּלְקָט מֻתָּר. וְאִם הָיוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִזֶּה כָּל הַנִּלְקָט אָסוּר. וְלָמָּה הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לִלְקֹט לְכַתְּחִלָּה וְהָיָה מִן הַדִּין שֶׁאוֹסְרִין לוֹ הַכּל עַד שֶׁיִּטְרַח וְיוֹצִיא הַנְּטִיעָה וְהָעֲרוּגָה הָאֲסוּרָה. שֶׁהַדָּבָר חֲזָקָה שֶׁאֵין אָדָם אוֹסֵר כַּרְמוֹ בִּנְטִיעָה אַחַת וְאִלּוּ הָיָה יוֹדְעָהּ הָיָה מוֹצִיאָהּ:

26

It is forbidden to benefit from cheese that is made to harden using the syrup of orlah fruit that has not ripened,65 the stomach66 of an animal offered as a sacrifice to false divinities, or vinegar made from the wine of a false divinity. Although the forbidden entity is being mixed with a substance of another type and a very small amount is used, [the cheese] is forbidden for [the effect of] the forbidden entity is obvious, for it [caused the milk] to harden into cheese.67

כו

הַמַּעֲמִיד גְּבִינָה בִּשְׂרַף פַּגֵּי עָרְלָה. אוֹ בְּקֵיבַת תִּקְרֹבֶת עַכּוּ''ם. אוֹ בְּחֹמֶץ יַיִן שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם. הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה בַּהֲנָיָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִין בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא כָּל שֶׁהוּא. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַדָּבָר הָאָסוּר הוּא הַנִּכָּר וְהוּא שֶׁעָשָׂה אוֹתָהּ גְּבִינָה:

27

The law is that fruit that is orlah or from mixed species from a vineyard should be burnt.68 Liquids from [that fruit] should be buried, because it is impossible to burn liquids.

כז

הָעָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם דִּין הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן שֶׁיִּשָּׂרְפוּ. וְהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁלָּהֶן יִקָּבְרוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׂרֹף הַמַּשְׁקִין:

28

When wine that was poured as a libation to idols is mixed with [other] wine, it is forbidden to benefit from the entire mixture regardless of how small [the amount of forbidden wine], as we explained.69

When does the above apply? When the permitted wine is poured onto a drop of wine that had been poured as a libation.70 If, however, one poured wine that had been pour as a libation from a small bottle71 into a cistern of wine, its presence is nullified. Even if one poured the entire day, each individual drop becomes nullified, drop after drop.72

If one pours from a jug,73 the entire quantity is forbidden. [This applies] whether one pours permitted wine into forbidden wine or forbidden wine into permitted wine. [This stringency is enforced,] because the column of wine which descends from the large jug [creates a connection].

כח

יַיִן שֶׁנִּתְנַסֵּךְ לְעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב עִם הַיַּיִן הַכּל אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהוּרַק הַיַּיִן הַמֻּתָּר עַל טִפָּה שֶׁל יֵין נֶסֶךְ. אֲבָל אִם עֵרָה יֵין נֶסֶךְ מִצִּלְצוּל קָטָן לְתוֹךְ הַבּוֹר שֶׁל יַיִן. אֲפִלּוּ עֵרָה כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ רִאשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן בָּטֵל. עֵרָה מִן הֶחָבִית בֵּין שֶׁעֵרָה מִן הַמֻּתָּר לָאָסוּר אוֹ מִן הָאָסוּר לַמֻּתָּר הַכּל אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעַמּוּד הַיּוֹרֵד מִפִּי הֶחָבִית גָּדוֹל:

29

When even the smallest amount of ordinary [gentile] wine is mixed with [Jewish] wine, it is forbidden to drink [the entire mixture].74 Instead, it should be sold to a gentile in its entirety. The money [paid] for the forbidden wine should be cast into the Dead Sea.75 One may, however, benefit from the remainder of the money.76

Similarly, if a jug of wine poured as a libation had become intermingled with jugs of [kosher] wine, it is forbidden to drink the entire mixture.77 One may, however, benefit from it, selling the entire mixture to a gentile and casting the money for the [forbidden] jug into the Dead Sea. The same applies with regard to a jug of ordinary [gentile] wine.78

כט

נִתְעָרֵב סְתָם יֵינָם בַּיַּיִן הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא בִּשְׁתִיָּה וְיִמָּכֵר כֻּלּוֹ לְעַכּוּ''ם. וְלוֹקֵחַ דְּמֵי הַיַּיִן הָאָסוּר שֶׁבּוֹ וּמַשְׁלִיכוֹ לְיָם הַמֶּלַח וְיֵהָנֶה בִּשְׁאָר הַמָּעוֹת. וְכֵן אִם נִתְעָרְבָה חָבִית שֶׁל יֵין נֶסֶךְ בֵּין הֶחָבִיּוֹת הַכּל אֲסוּרִין בִּשְׁתִיָּה וּמֻתָּרִין בַּהֲנָיָה. וְיוֹלִיךְ דְּמֵי אוֹתָהּ חָבִית לְיָם הַמֶּלַח כְּשֶׁיִּמְכֹּר הַכּל לְעַכּוּ''ם. וְכֵן בְּחָבִית שֶׁל סְתָם יֵינָם:

30

When water is mixed into wine or wine is mixed into water, [the forbidden entity causes the mixture to be prohibited] if its flavor can be detected, because they are two different types of substances.79

When does the above apply? When the permitted liquid falls into the forbidden liquid. If, however, the forbidden liquid fell into the permitted liquid, the presence of it is nullified, drop after drop, provided it fell from a from a small bottle.80

How is it possible for water to be forbidden? If it was worshipped or if it was offered to a false divinity.

ל

מַיִם שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בְּיַיִן אוֹ יַיִן בְּמַיִם בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מִין בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁנָּפַל הַמַּשְׁקֶה הַמֻּתָּר לְתוֹךְ הַמַּשְׁקֶה הָאָסוּר. אֲבָל אִם נָפַל הַמַּשְׁקֶה הָאָסוּר לְתוֹךְ הַמַּשְׁקֶה הַמֻּתָּר רִאשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן בָּטֵל. וְהוּא שֶׁיּוּרַק מִצִּלְצוּל קָטָן שֶׁהָיָה מֵרִיק וְיוֹרֵד מְעַט מְעַט. וְהֵיאַךְ יִהְיוּ הַמַּיִם אֲסוּרִים כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ נֶעֱבָדִין אוֹ תִּקְרֹבֶת עַכּוּ''ם:

31

[The following law applies when] a pitcher of water fell into a cistern of wine and afterwards,81 wine that was poured as a libation fell into it. [Initially,] we consider the permitted wine as if it did not exist,82 We measure the water in relation to the wine poured as a libation. If it83 is [of sufficient volume] to nullify the taste of the wine poured as a libation, the water is more abundant than it and it nullifies [the forbidden wine] and the entire [mixture] is permitted.

לא

בּוֹר שֶׁל יַיִן שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכוֹ קִיתוֹן שֶׁל מַיִם תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ יֵין נֶסֶךְ. רוֹאִים אֶת יֵין הַהֶתֵּר כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ מְשַׁעֲרִין בָּהֶן עִם יֵין נֶסֶךְ. אִם רְאוּיִין לְבַטֵּל טַעַם אוֹתוֹ יֵין נֶסֶךְ הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם רָבִין עָלָיו וּמְבַטְּלִין אוֹתוֹ וְיִהְיֶה הַכּל מֻתָּר:

32

When wine poured as a libation falls on grapes, one should wash them. They are permitted to be eaten.84 If the grapes have split open,85 when the wine imparts its flavor to them, it is forbidden to benefit from them.86If not, it is permitted to partake of them. [This applies] whether the wine is aged or fresh.87

לב

יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁנָּפַל עַל הָעֲנָבִים יְדִיחֵם וְהֵן מֻתָּרוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה. וְאִם הָיוּ מְבֻקָּעוֹת בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה הַיַּיִן יָשָׁן בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה חָדָשׁ אִם נוֹתֵן טַעַם בָּעֲנָבִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרוֹת בַּהֲנָיָה. וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה:

33

When [forbidden wine] falls on figs, they are permitted, because wine impairs the flavor of figs.88

לג

נָפַל עַל גַּבֵּי תְּאֵנִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַיַּיִן פּוֹגֵם בְּטַעַם הַתְּאֵנִים:

34

When wine poured as a libation falls on wheat, [the wheat] is forbidden to be eaten, but it is permitted to benefit from it. One should not sell it to a gentile, lest he sell it again to a Jew. What should be done instead? He should grind [the wheat] into flour, make it into bread, and sell it to a gentile outside the presence of a Jew.89 [In this way,] a Jew will not repurchase it from the gentile,90 for the bread of a gentile is forbidden, as will be explained.91

Why do we not check the wheat to see if [the wine imparted] its flavor? Because [the wheat] draws out the wine92 and it becomes absorbed within it.93

לד

יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁנָּפַל עַל הַחִטִּים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה וּמֻתָּרוֹת בַּהֲנָיָה. וְלֹא יִמְכְּרֵם לְעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזֹר וְיִמְכְּרֵם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. טוֹחֵן אוֹתָן וְעוֹשֶׂה מֵהֶן פַּת וּמוֹכְרָהּ לְעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקְּחוּ אוֹתָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהֲרֵי פַּת עַכּוּ''ם אֲסוּרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. וְלָמָּה אֵין בּוֹדְקִין אֶת הַחִטִּים בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן שׁוֹאֲבוֹת וְהַיַּיִן נִבְלָע בָּהֶן:

35

When wine poured as a libation becomes vinegar94 and falls into vinegar that comes from beer, even the slightest amount causes it to become forbidden. [The rationale is that] it is considered to have become mixed with the same type of substance, because they are both vinegar.95

When wine becomes mixed with vinegar, we see if [the forbidden entity] imparts its flavor.96 [This applies] whether [forbidden] vinegar falls into wine97 or [forbidden] wine falls into vinegar.

לה

יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁהֶחֱמִיץ וְנָפַל לְתוֹךְ חֹמֶץ שֵׁכָר אוֹסֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּמִינוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן חֹמֶץ הֵן. וְיַיִן שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב עִם הַחֹמֶץ בֵּין שֶׁנָּפַל חֹמֶץ לַיַּיִן בֵּין שֶׁנָּפַל יַיִן לַחֹמֶץ מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם: