When the meat of a nevelah or a crawling animal or teeming animal was cooked in an earthenware pot,1 one should not cook the meat of a ritually slaughtered animal in that pot on that same day. If he cooked a type of meat [in the pot that day], the dish is forbidden.2 If he cooked another substance in it, [it is forbidden if] its flavor can be detected.3


קְדֵרָה שֶׁל חֶרֶס שֶׁנּתִבַּשֵּׁל בָּהּ בְּשַׂר נְבֵלָה אוֹ בְּשַׂר שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל בָּהּ בְּשַׂר שְׁחוּטָה בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל בָּהּ מִין בָּשָׂר הַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּר. בִּשֵּׁל בָּהּ מִין אַחֵר בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם:


The Torah forbade only [the use of] a pot that was [cooked with the forbidden substance] on that day.4 For [in that time,] the flavor of the fat absorbed in the pot had not been impaired.5

According to Rabbinic Law, one should never cook in it again.6 For this reason, one should never purchase used earthenware utensils from gentiles to use them for hot foods, e.g., pots and plates. This applies even when they are coated with lead. If one purchased such a utensil and cooked in it from the second day onward, the food is permitted.7


וְלֹא אָסְרָה תּוֹרָה אֶלָּא קְדֵרָה בַּת יוֹמָהּ בִּלְבַד הוֹאִיל וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נִפְגַּם הַשֻּׁמָּן שֶׁנִּבְלָע בַּקְּדֵרָה. וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל בָּהּ לְעוֹלָם. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לוֹקְחִין כְּלֵי חֶרֶס יְשָׁנִים מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהֶן בְּחַמִּין כְּגוֹן קְדֵרוֹת וּקְעָרוֹת לְעוֹלָם. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ שׁוֹעִין בַּאֲבָר. וְאִם לָקַח וּבִשֵּׁל בָּהֶן מִיּוֹם שֵׁנִי וָהָלְאָה הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֻתָּר:


[The following rules apply when] a person purchases metal or glass dinnerware from a gentile. Utensils that [the gentile] did not use at all should be immersed in the waters of a mikveh. Afterwards, it is permitted to eat and drink with them.8

Utensils that he used for cold [food and drink], e.g., cups, flasks, and pitchers, he should wash them thoroughly9 and immerse them. [Afterwards,] they are permitted. Utensils that he used for hot food: large pots, kettles, and pots used to heat food, should be purged through hagaalah,10 and immersed in the mikveh.11 Afterwards, they are permitted. Utensils that he used by exposing them to fire, e.g., spits and grills, should be exposed to fire12 until they become white-hot and their outer surface falls off.13 They may then be immersed and become permitted for use.


הַלּוֹקֵחַ כְּלֵי תַּשְׁמִישׁ סְעֻדָּה מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם מִכְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת וּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית. דְּבָרִים שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן כָּל עִקָּר מַטְבִּילָן בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִהְיוּ מֻתָּרִין לֶאֱכל בָּהֶן וְלִשְׁתּוֹת. וּדְבָרִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי צוֹנֵן כְּגוֹן כּוֹסוֹת וּצְלוֹחִיּוֹת וְקִיתוֹנִיּוֹת מְדִיחָן וּמַטְבִּילָן וְהֵן מֻתָּרוֹת. וּדְבָרִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי חַמִּין כְּגוֹן יוֹרוֹת וְקֻמְקְמוֹסִין וּמְחַמְּמֵי חַמִּין מַגְעִילָן וּמַטְבִּילָן וְהֵן מֻתָּרִין. וּדְבָרִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר כְּגוֹן שִׁפּוּדִין וְאַסְכְּלָאוֹת מְלַבְּנָן בָּאוּר עַד שֶׁתִּנְשַׁר קְלִפָּתָן וּמַטְבִּילָן וְהֵן מֻתָּרִין:


How is [the purging process of] hagaalah achieved? A small pot is placed into a large pot and they are filled with water until the smaller one is submerged.14 Then one must boil it very thoroughly.15

If a large pot was [forbidden],16 one should place dough or mud along its edge [so that] he could fill it with water so that it will flow over its edge.17He [then] boils it.

In all instances, if he used them before boiling [water in them for hagaalah], washing them thoroughly, making them white hot, or immersing them, [the food] is kosher. For any fat [absorbed] in them imparts an unpleasant flavor, as explained.18


כֵּיצַד מַגְעִילָן. נוֹתֵן יוֹרָה קְטַנָּה לְתוֹךְ יוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה וּמְמַלֵּא עָלֶיהָ מַיִם עַד שֶׁיָּצוּפוּ עַל הַקְּטַנָּה וּמַרְתִּיחָהּ יָפֶה יָפֶה. וְאִם הָיְתָה יוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה מַקִּיף עַל שְׂפָתָהּ בָּצֵק אוֹ טִיט וּמְמַלֵּא מַיִם עַד שֶׁיָּצוּפוּ הַמַּיִם עַל שְׂפָתָהּ וּמַרְתִּיחַ. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִרְתִּיחַ אוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵדִיחַ וְעַד שֶׁלֹּא הִלְבִּין וְעַד שֶׁלֹּא הִטְבִּיל מֻתָּר. שֶׁכָּל הַשֻּׁמָּן שֶׁבָּהֶן נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם הוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


The immersion of the dinnerware that is purchased from gentiles to allow it to be used for eating and drinking is not associated with ritual purity and impurity. Instead, it is a Rabbinic decree.19

There is an allusion20 to this [in Numbers 31:23 that describes Moses' instructions with regard to the spoils taken from Midian:] "Everything that can be passed through fire, you shall pass through fire and it will become pure." According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that the verse is speaking only about purifying [the utensils] from gentile cooking, not from ritual impurity. For there is no ritually impurity that is dispelled by fire. All those who are impure ascend from their impurity through immersion and the impurity stemming from [contact with] a human corpse is [dispelled] through the sprinkling [of water and the ashes of the red heifer]. There is no concept of fire [employed in this context], rather [it is employed] with regard to purification from gentile cooking. Since the verse states "and it will become pure," our Sages said: "Add to it another dimension of purity after passing it through fire to cause it to be permitted because [of its contact] with gentile cooking."21


טְבִילָה זוֹ שֶׁמַּטְבִּילִין כְּלֵי הַסְּעֻדָּה הַנִּלְקָחִים מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֻתְּרוּ לַאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה אֵינָן לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה וְטָהֳרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְרֶמֶז לָהּ (במדבר לא כג) "כָּל דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יָבֹא בָאֵשׁ תַּעֲבִירוּ בָאֵשׁ וְטָהֵר" וּמִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בְּטָהֳרָתָן מִידֵי גִּעוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם לֹא מִידֵי טֻמְאָה. שֶׁאֵין לְךָ טֻמְאָה עוֹלָה עַל יְדֵי הָאֵשׁ וְכָל הַטְּמֵאִים בִּטְבִילָה עוֹלִין מִטֻּמְאָתָן. וְטֻמְאַת מֵת בְּהַזָּאָה וּטְבִילָה וְאֵין שָׁם אֵשׁ כְּלָל. אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן גִּעוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁכָּתוּב וְטָהֵר אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים הוֹסֵיף לוֹ טָהֳרָה אַחַר עֲבִירָתוֹ בָּאֵשׁ לְהַתִּירוֹ מִגִּעוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


[Our Sages] obligate this immersion only for metal22 dinnerware utensils23 that were purchased from a gentile. When, however, a person borrows [such utensils] from a gentile or a gentile left him such utensils as security, it is only necessary to wash them thoroughly, boil them, or expose them to fire. He does not have to immerse [them].24 Similarly, if one purchased wooden or stone utensils, it is only necessary to wash them thoroughly, boil them, or expose them to fire. Similarly, earthenware utensils need not be immersed.25 If, however, they are coated with lead, they are considered as metal utensils and require immersion.26


לֹא חִיְּבוּ בִּטְבִילָה זוֹ אֶלָּא כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁל סְעֻדָּה הַנִּלְקָחִין מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם. אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹאֵל מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם. אוֹ שֶׁמִּשְׁכֵּן הָעַכּוּ''ם אֶצְלוֹ כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת. מֵדִיחַ אוֹ מַרְתִּיחַ אוֹ מְלַבֵּן וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַטְבִּיל. וְכֵן אִם לָקַח כְּלֵי עֵץ אוֹ כְּלֵי אֲבָנִים מֵדִיחַ אוֹ מַרְתִּיחַ וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַטְבִּיל. וְכֵן כְּלֵי חָרָשִׁים אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַטְבִּיל. אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹעִין בַּאֲבָר הֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת וּצְרִיכִין טְבִילָה:


When a person purchases a knife from a gentile, he must expose it to fire until it become white hot or have it honed in its sharpener.27 If it was a perfectly [smooth] knife without any blemishes, it is sufficient to insert it in hard earth ten times.28 [Afterwards,] one may eat cold food with it.29 If it had blemishes or it was perfectly [smooth], but one desired to use it to eat hot food or to slaughter with it, he should expose it to fire until it becomes white hot or hone it in its entirety.30 If he slaughtered [an animal] with such a knife before purifying it, he should wash thoroughly the place of slaughter.31 If he removes the surface [of the meat around the place of slaughter], it is praiseworthy.32


הַלּוֹקֵחַ סַכִּין מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם מְלַבְּנָהּ בָּאֵשׁ אוֹ מַשְׁחִיזָהּ בָּרֵחַיִם שֶׁלָּהּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה סַכִּין יָפָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ פְּגִימוֹת דַּי לוֹ אִם נְעָצָהּ בְּקַרְקַע קָשָׁה עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים וְאוֹכֵל בָּהּ צוֹנֵן. וְאִם הָיוּ בָּהּ פְּגִימוֹת אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה יָפָה וְרָצָה לֶאֱכל בָּהּ חַמִּין אוֹ לִשְׁחֹט בָּהּ מְלַבְּנָהּ אוֹ מַשְׁחִיזָהּ כֻּלָּהּ. שָׁחַט בָּהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּטַהֲרֶנָּה מֵדִיחַ מְקוֹם הַשְּׁחִיטָה. וְאִם קִלֵּף הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח:


When a knife was used to slaughter an animal that was trefe, one should not slaughter with it [again] until it is washed thoroughly, even with cold water or wiped clean with worn-out clothes.33


סַכִּין שֶׁשָּׁחַט בָּהּ טְרֵפָה לֹא יִשְׁחֹט בָּהּ עַד שֶׁיְּדִיחָהּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן אוֹ מְקַנְּחָהּ בִּבְלָיוֹת שֶׁל בְּגָדִים:


There are other substances which are forbidden by the Sages. Even though there is not a basis for their prohibition in Scriptural Law, they decreed against their use34 to separate from the gentiles so that Jews will not intermingle with them and intermarry. They are: It is forbidden to drink [alcoholic beverages] with them35 even in a place where there was no suspicion that the wine was poured as a libation. And they forbade eating from their bread or cooked dishes36 even in a place where there is no suspicion that the food was forbidden.37


וְיֵשׁ שָׁם דְּבָרִים אֲחֵרִים אָסְרוּ אוֹתָן חֲכָמִים וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לְאִסּוּרָן עִקָּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן כְּדֵי לְהִתְרַחֵק מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעָרְבוּ בָּהֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי חַתְנוּת. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. אָסְרוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת עִמָּהֶן וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְיֵין נֶסֶךְ. וְאָסְרוּ לֶאֱכל פִּתָּן אוֹ בִּשּׁוּלֵיהֶן וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְגִעוּלֵיהֶן:


A person should not drink at a party of gentiles even though boiled wine which is not forbidden38 [is being served] or he is drinking from his own utensils. If the majority of the attendants of the party are Jewish, it is permitted.39 We may not drink the beer that they make from dates, figs, or the like. [This is forbidden] only in the place where they are sold.40 If, however, one brought the beer home and drank it there, it is permitted. For the fundamental point of the decree is that one should not feast with [a gentile].


כֵּיצַד. לֹא יִשְׁתֶּה אָדָם בִּמְסִבָּה שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יַיִן מְבֻשָּׁל שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱסָר. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹתֶה מִכֵּלָיו לְבַדּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה רֹב הַמְּסִבָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר. וְאֵין שׁוֹתִין שֵׁכָר שֶׁלָּהֶן שֶׁעוֹשִׂין מִן הַתְּמָרִים וְהַתְּאֵנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְאֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם מְכִירָתוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הֵבִיא הַשֵּׁכָר לְבֵיתוֹ וְשָׁתָהוּ שָׁם מֻתָּר שֶׁעִקַּר הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְעֹד אֶצְלוֹ:


It is permitted to drink wine from apples, pomegranates, and the like in every place. [Our Sages] did not institute a decree in an uncommon situation. Raisin wine is like ordinary wine and is used for libations.41


יֵין תַּפּוּחִים וְיֵין רִמּוֹנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתָן בְּכָל מָקוֹם. דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי לֹא גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו. יֵין צִמּוּקִים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּיַיִן וּמִתְנַסֵּךְ:


Although [our Sages] forbade bread [baked] by gentiles, there are places where leniency is shown regarding this matter and bread baked by a gentile baker is purchased in a place where there is no Jewish baker and it is in a field, because this is a pressing situation.42 There is, by contrast, no one who will rule that leniency may be shown with regard to bread baked by a homeowner.43 For the primary reason for [our Sages'] decree was [to prevent] intermarriage. If one will eat the bread of a [gentile] homeowner, [it is likely that] he will feast with him.


אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסְרוּ פַּת עַכּוּ''ם. יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמְּקִלִּין בַּדָּבָר וְלוֹקְחִין פַּת הַנַּחְתּוֹם הָעַכּוּ''ם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם נַחְתּוֹם יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבַשָּׂדֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק. אֲבָל פַּת בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים אֵין שָׁם מִי שֶׁמּוֹרֶה בָּהּ לְהָקֵל שֶׁעִקַּר הַגְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם חַתְנוּת וְאִם יֹאכַל פַּת בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים יָבוֹא לִסְעֹד אֶצְלָן:


[The bread] is permitted [in the following situations]: A gentile lit the oven and a Jew baked within it, a Jew lit the oven and the gentile baked within it, the gentile both lit the oven and baked, but the Jew stirred the fire or reduced it, since he was involved in the baking tasks, [we rule leniently]. Even though he did not do more than throw one piece of wood into the oven, he caused all the bread in it to be permitted. [The rationale is that this requirement] is only to make a distinction that [a gentile's] bread is forbidden.44


הִדְלִיק הָעַכּוּ''ם אֶת הַתַּנּוּר וְאָפָה בּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל. אוֹ שֶׁהִדְלִיק יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָפָה עַכּוּ''ם. אוֹ שֶׁהִדְלִיק הָעַכּוּ''ם וְאָפָה הָעַכּוּ''ם וּבָא יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִעֵר הָאֵשׁ מְעַט אוֹ כְּבָשׁוֹ לָאֵשׁ הוֹאִיל וְנִשְׁתַּתֵּף בִּמְלֶאכֶת הַפַּת הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת. וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא זָרַק אֶלָּא עֵץ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר הִתִּיר כָּל הַפַּת שֶׁבּוֹ. שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר אֶלָּא לִהְיוֹת הֶכֵּר שֶׁהַפַּת שֶׁלָּהֶן אֲסוּרָה:


When a gentile cooks wine, milk, honey, quince,45 or the like, i.e., any entity that is usually eaten raw, it is permitted. [Our Sages] issued their decree only with regard to entities that are not eaten at all raw, e.g., meat, unsalted fish, an egg, and vegetables. If a gentile were to cook them from the beginning to the end without the Jew participating in the cooking at all, they are forbidden because they were cooked by gentiles.


עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל לָנוּ יַיִן אוֹ חָלָב אוֹ דְּבַשׁ אוֹ פְּרִישִׁין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ (מִכָּל) דָּבָר הַנֶּאֱכָל כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא חַי הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. וְלֹא גָּזְרוּ אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא חַי. כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וְדָג תָּפֵל וּבֵיצָה וִירָקוֹת. אִם בִּשְּׁלָן הָעַכּוּ''ם מִתְּחִלָּה וְעַד סוֹף וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּתֵּף יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ בְּבִשּׁוּלָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם:


When does the above apply? To [food] that would be served on the table of kings46 to be eaten together with bread,47 e.g., meat, eggs, fish, and the like. When, by contrast, [food] would not be served on the table of kings to be eaten together with bread, e.g., vetch48 cooked by gentiles, it is permitted despite the fact that it is not eaten uncooked. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. For the fundamental purpose of the decree was to prevent intermarriage, by [hindering] a gentile from inviting [the Jew] to a feast. And when [food] would not be served on the table of kings to be eaten together with bread, a person would not invite a friend [to share a meal] of it.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא עוֹלֶה עַל שֻׁלְחַן מְלָכִים לֶאֱכל בּוֹ אֶת הַפַּת. כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וּבֵיצִים וְדָגִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם. אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה עַל שֻׁלְחַן מְלָכִים לֶאֱכל בּוֹ אֶת הַפַּת כְּגוֹן תֻּרְמוֹסִין שֶׁשָּׁלְקוּ אוֹתָן עַכּוּ''ם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִין חַיִּין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. שֶׁעִקַּר הַגְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם חַתְנוּת שֶׁלֹּא יְזַמְּנוֹ הָעַכּוּ''ם אֶצְלוֹ בַּסְּעֻדָּה. וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה עַל שֻׁלְחַן מְלָכִים לֶאֱכל בּוֹ אֶת הַפַּת אֵין אָדָם מְזַמֵּן אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו:


When small fish were salted by a Jew or a gentile,49 it is as if they have undergone part of their cooking process. [Therefore] if a gentile roasted them afterwards, they are permitted.50 [Similarly,] whenever a Jew performs a small part of the cooking process, whether at the beginning or at the end, [the food] is permitted. Accordingly, if a gentile placed meat or a pot on the fire and the Jew turned over the meat or stirred the pot or, conversely, the Jew placed [the food on the fire] and the gentile completed [the cooking process], [the food] is permitted.51


וְדָגִים קְטַנִּים שֶׁמְּלָחָן יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ עַכּוּ''ם הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ מִקְצָת בִּשּׁוּל. וְאִם צְלָאָן עַכּוּ''ם אַחַר כֵּן מֻתָּרִין. וְכָל שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל מְעַט בִּשּׁוּלוֹ בֵּין בַּתְּחִלָּה בֵּין בַּסּוֹף מֻתָּר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִנִּיחַ הָעַכּוּ''ם בָּשָׂר אוֹ קְדֵרָה עַל גַּבֵּי הָאֵשׁ וְהָפַךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּבָּשָׂר וְהֵגִיס בַּקְּדֵרָה אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחַ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגָמַר הָעַכּוּ''ם הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:


When a gentile salts fish or smokes fruit and in this way prepares them to be eaten, they are permitted. With regard to this decree,52 salted food is not considered as if it were boiling hot, nor is smoking considered as cooking. Similarly, kernels of grain roasted by a gentile are permitted. They were not included in the decree, for a person will not invite a colleague53 to [come and eat] roasted kernels of grain.


דָּג שֶׁמְּלָחוֹ עַכּוּ''ם וּפֵרוֹת שֶׁעִשְּׁנָן עַד שֶׁהִכְשִׁירָן לַאֲכִילָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. מָלִיחַ אֵינוֹ כְּרוֹתֵחַ בִּגְזֵרָה זוֹ וְהַמְעֻשָּׁן אֵינוֹ כִּמְבֻשָּׁל. וְכֵן קְלָיוֹת שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם מֻתָּרִין וְלֹא גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מְזַמֵּן חֲבֵרוֹ עַל הַקְּלָיוֹת:


Beans, peas, lentils, and the like that have been cooked by gentiles and are sold are forbidden because of [the decree against] gentile cooking in places where they are served on the tables of kings54 as a relish. [They are also forbidden,] because of prohibited foods in all places for perhaps they were cooked together with meat55 or in a pot in which meat had been cooked.56 Similarly, doughnuts that are fried by gentiles in oil are forbidden because of prohibited foods.57


פּוֹלִין וַאֲפוּנִין וַעֲדָשִׁים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁשּׁוֹלְקִין אוֹתָן הָעַכּוּ''ם וּמוֹכְרִין אוֹתָן אֲסוּרִין מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁעוֹלִין עַל שֻׁלְחַן מְלָכִים מִשּׁוּם פַּרְפֶּרֶת. וּמִשּׁוּם גִּעוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁמָּא יְבַשְּׁלוּ אוֹתָן עִם הַבָּשָׂר אוֹ בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהּ בָּשָׂר. וְכֵן הַסֻּפְגָּנִין שֶׁקּוֹלִין אוֹתָן הָעַכּוּ''ם בְּשֶׁמֶן אֲסוּרִין אַף מִשּׁוּם גִּעוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם:


When a gentile cooked without intending to cook, [the product] is permitted.58 What is implied? A gentile lit a fire in a swamp to clean away the overgrowth and grasshoppers were roasted, it is permitted to eat them. [This applies] even in places where they are served on the tables of kings as a relish. Similarly, if he scorches a [kosher animal's] head to remove its hair, it is permitted to partake of the strings of meat and the tips of the ears that were roasted at the time of the scorching.


עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְבִשּׁוּל הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. כֵּיצַד. עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהִצִּית אוּר בַּאֲגַם כְּדֵי לְהַעֲבִיר הֶחָצִיר וְנִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בָּהּ חֲגָבִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהֵן עוֹלִין עַל שֻׁלְחַן מְלָכִים מִשּׁוּם פַּרְפֶּרֶת. וְכֵן אִם חָרַךְ הָרֹאשׁ לְהַעֲבִיר הַשֵּׂעָר מֻתָּר לֶאֱכל מִן הַדִּלְדּוּלִין וּמִן רֹאשׁ אָזְנַיִם שֶׁנִּצְּלוּ בִּשְׁעַת חֲרִיכָה:


[The following rules apply to] dates that were cooked by gentiles. If, initially, they were sweet, they are permitted.59 If they were bitter and the cooking sweetened them, they are forbidden. If they were of intermediate sweetness, they are forbidden.


תְּמָרִים שֶׁשָּׁלְקוּ אוֹתָן עַכּוּ''ם אִם הָיוּ מְתוּקִין מִתְּחִלָּתָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. וְאִם הָיוּ מָרִין וּמְתַקְּנִין הַבִּשּׁוּל הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין. הָיוּ בֵּינוֹנִיִּים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין:


Roasted lentils that were kneaded with water or with vinegar are forbidden.60 When, however, roasted kernels of wheat or barley are kneaded with water, they are permitted.


קָלִי שֶׁל עֲדָשִׁים שֶׁלָּשׁוֹ בֵּין בְּמַיִם בֵּין בְּחֹמֶץ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. אֲבָל קָלִי שֶׁל חִטִּים וּשְׂעוֹרִים שֶׁלָּשִׁין אוֹתָן בְּמַיִם הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:


The oil of gentiles is permitted. One who forbids it commits a great sin, for he rebels61 against [the teachings] of the [High] Court who permitted it.62 Even if the oil was cooked, it is permitted. It is not forbidden because of gentile cooking, because we partake of oil uncooked. Nor is it forbidden, because of prohibited foods,63 because meat impairs [the flavor of] oil and spoils it.


שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם מֻתָּר. וּמִי שֶׁאוֹסְרוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹמֵד בְּחֵטְא גָּדוֹל. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּמְרֶה עַל פִּי בֵּית דִּין שֶׁהִתִּירוּהוּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְבַּשֵּׁל הַשֶּׁמֶן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱסָר לֹא מִפְּנֵי בִּשּׁוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנֶּאֱכָל כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא חַי. וְלֹא מִפְּנֵי גִּעוּלֵי עַכּוּ''ם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר פּוֹגֵם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן וּמַסְרִיחוֹ:


Similarly, when gentile honey was cooked and sweets were made from it, it is permitted for the same reason.64


וְכֵן דְּבַשׁ שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל וְעָשׂוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מִינֵי מְתִיקָה מֻתָּר מִטַּעַם זֶה:


Date dregs65 of gentiles that were heated in hot water, whether in a large pot or a small pot, are permitted.66 For the [flavor of forbidden meat absorbed in the pot] impairs its flavor. Similarly, pickled foods to which it is not customary to add vinegar or wine or pickled olives or pickled grasshoppers that are brought from the storehouse are permitted.67 Nevertheless, grasshoppers and pickled foods over which wine is sprinkled are forbidden.68 Similarly, they are forbidden if vinegar - even vinegar made from beer - is sprinkled over them.69


כּוֹסְפָן שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהוּחַמּוּ חַמִּין בֵּין בְּיוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה בֵּין בְּיוֹרָה קְטַנָּה מֻתָּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנּוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם הוּא. וְכֵן כְּבָשִׁין שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּן לָתֵת לְתוֹכָן חֹמֶץ אוֹ יַיִן אוֹ זֵיתִים הַכְּבוּשִׁין וַחֲגָבִים הַכְּבוּשִׁין שֶׁבָּאִין מִן הָאוֹצָר מֻתָּרִין. אֲבָל חֲגָבִים וּכְבָשִׁים שֶׁמְּזַלְּפִין עֲלֵיהֶן יַיִן אֲסוּרִין. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ מְזַלְּפִין עֲלֵיהֶן חֹמֶץ וַאֲפִלּוּ חֹמֶץ שֵׁכָר אֲסוּרִין:


Why is gentile vinegar made from beer forbidden? Because they cast the dregs of wine into it. Therefore [vinegar] taken from a storage room is permitted.70


וּמִפְּנֵי מָה אָסְרוּ חֹמֶץ שֵׁכָר שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּשְׁלִיכִין לְתוֹכוֹ שִׁמְרֵי יַיִן. לְפִיכָךְ הַנִּלְקָח מִן הָאוֹצָר מֻתָּר:


[Gentile] fish brine, in places where it is customary to mix wine into it, is forbidden. If the wine is more expensive than the fish brine, it is permitted. We rule this way in all instances where we suspect that the gentiles mixed a forbidden substance [into a permitted substance]. For a person will not mix something expensive into something that is low-priced, for he will lose. He will, however, mix the low-priced into the expensive, for then he profits.


הַמּוּרְיָס בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לָתֵת לְתוֹכוֹ יַיִן אָסוּר. וְאִם הָיָה הַיַּיִן יָקָר מִן הַמּוּרְיָס מֻתָּר. וְכָזֶה מוֹרִין בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁין לוֹ שֶׁמָּא עֵרְבוּ בּוֹ הָעַכּוּ''ם דָּבָר אָסוּר. שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מְעָרֵב דָּבָר הַיָּקָר בְּזוֹל שֶׁהֲרֵי מַפְסִיד. אֲבָל מְעָרֵב הַזּוֹל בְּיָקָר כְּדֵי לְהִשְׂתַּכֵּר:


When a child eats forbidden foods or performs a forbidden labor on the Sabbath,71 the Jewish court is not commanded to make him cease, because he is not intellectually capable.72

When does the above apply? When he acts on his own initiative.73 It is, however, forbidden [for an adult] to give him [non-kosher food] by hand. [This applies even] to foods forbidden by Rabbinic decree. Similarly, it is forbidden to make him accustomed to desecrating the Sabbath and the festivals.74 [This applies] even to [performing] activities forbidden as a shvut.75


קָטָן שֶׁאָכַל אֶחָד מִמַּאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת. אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת. אֵין בֵּית דִּין מְצֻוִּין עָלָיו לְהַפְרִישׁוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בֶּן דַּעַת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁעָשָׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ. אֲבָל לְהַאֲכִילוֹ בְּיָדַיִם אָסוּר וַאֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאִסּוּרָן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהַרְגִּילוֹ בְּחִלּוּל שַׁבָּת וּמוֹעֵד וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁהֵן מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת:


Although the Jewish court is not commanded to separate a child from transgressions, his father is commanded to rebuke him so that he withdraws in order to train him in holy conduct, as [Proverbs 22:6] states: "Educate a child according to his way."76


אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בֵּית דִּין מְצֻוִּין לְהַפְרִישׁ אֶת הַקָּטָן. מִצְוָה עַל אָבִיו לִגְעֹר בּוֹ וּלְהַפְרִישׁוֹ כְּדֵי לְחַנְּכוֹ בִּקְדֻשָּׁה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי כב ו) "חֲנֹךְ לַנַּעַר עַל פִּי דַרְכּוֹ" וְגוֹ':


Our Sages77 forbade [a person from partaking of] food and drink from which the souls of most people are revolted, e.g., food and drink that were mixed with vomit, feces, foul discharges, or the like.78 Similarly, our Sages forbade eating and drinking from filthy utensils from which a person's soul languishes, e.g., the utensils of a lavatory, the glass79 utensils of medical attendants that are used to let blood, and the like.


אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים מַאֲכָלוֹת וּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁנֶּפֶשׁ רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם קִהָה מֵהֶן כְּגוֹן מַאֲכָלוֹת וּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בָּהֶן קִיא אוֹ צוֹאָה וְלֵחָה סְרוּחָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְכֵן אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לֶאֱכל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת בְּכֵלִים הַצּוֹאִים שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם מִתְאוֹנֶנֶת מֵהֶם. כְּגוֹן כְּלֵי בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא וּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית שֶׁל סַפָּרִין שֶׁגּוֹרְעִין בָּהֶם אֶת הַדָּם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:


Similarly, they forbade eating with unclean and soiled hands and with dirty utensils. All of these matters are included in the general [prohibition]: "Do not make your souls detestable." A person who partakes of these foods is given stripes for rebellious conduct.80


וְכֵן אָסְרוּ לֶאֱכל בְּיָדַיִם מְסֹאָבוֹת מְזֹהָמוֹת. וְעַל גַּבֵּי כֵּלִים מְלֻכְלָכִים. שֶׁכָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ בִּכְלַל (ויקרא יא מג) "אַל תְּשַׁקְּצוּ אֶת נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם". וְהָאוֹכֵל מַאֲכָלוֹת אֵלּוּ מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:


Similarly, it is forbidden for a person to delay relieving himself at all, whether through defecation or urination.81 Anyone who delays relieving himself is considered among those who make their souls detestable in addition to the severe illnesses he brings upon himself and becoming liable for his life. Instead, it is appropriate for a person to train himself [to eliminate] at specific times so that he will not have to separate himself in the presence of others and not have to make his soul detestable.


וְכֵן אָסוּר לְאָדָם שֶׁיַּשְׁהֶה אֶת נְקָבָיו כְּלָל בֵּין גְּדוֹלִים בֵּין קְטַנִּים. וְכָל הַמַּשְׁהֶה נְקָבָיו הֲרֵי זֶה בִּכְלַל מְשַׁקֵּץ נַפְשׁוֹ. יֶתֶר עַל חֳלָאִים רָעִים שֶׁיָּבִיא עַל עַצְמוֹ וְיִתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ. אֶלָּא רָאוּי לוֹ לְהַרְגִּיל עַצְמוֹ בְּעִתִּים מְזֻמָּנִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְרַחֵק בִּפְנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם וְלֹא יְשַׁקֵּץ נַפְשׁוֹ:


Whoever is careful concerning these matters82 brings an additional measure of holiness and purity to his soul and purges his soul for the sake of the Holy One, blessed be He, as [Leviticus 11:44] states: "And you shall sanctify yourselves and you will be holy, for I am holy."


וְכָל הַנִּזְהָר בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ מֵבִיא קְדֻשָּׁה וְטָהֳרָה יְתֵרָה לְנַפְשׁוֹ. וּמְמָרֵק נַפְשׁוֹ לְשֵׁם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא מד) "וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי":

Blessed be God who grants assistance.

בְּרִיךְ רַחֲמָנָא דְּסַיְּעָן