1

The minimum measure for which one is liable for partaking of any of the forbidden foods in the Torah is [the size of] an average olive.1 [This applies] whether for lashes, kerait, 2 or death at the hand of heaven.3We already explained4 that anyone who is liable for kerait or death at the hand of heaven for [partaking of] forbidden food, should receive lashes.

א

כָּל אִסּוּרֵי מַאֲכָלוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה שִׁעוּרָן בִּכְזַיִת בֵּינוֹנִי בֵּין לְמַלְקוֹת בֵּין לְכָרֵת בֵּין לְמִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל הַמְחֻיָּב כָּרֵת אוֹ מִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם עַל מַאֲכָל לוֹקֶה:

2

This measure, as all the other measurements, is a halachah conveyed by Moses from Sinai. It is forbidden by Scriptural Law to eat even the slightest amount of a forbidden substance. Nevertheless, one receives lashes only for an olive-sized portion. If one partakes of any amount less than this measure, he is given stripes for rebellious conduct.5

ב

וְשִׁעוּר זֶה עִם כָּל הַשִּׁעוּרִין הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי הֵם. וְאָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה לֶאֱכל כָּל שֶׁהוּא מִדָּבָר הָאָסוּר. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֶלָּא עַל כְּזַיִת. וְאִם אָכַל כָּל שֶׁהוּא פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

3

The measure of "the size of an olive" that we mentioned does not include what is between one's teeth.6 What is between one's gums,7 however, is included in what one swallows, for his palate benefited from an olive-sized portion of food.

Even if one ate half of an olive-sized portion, vomited it, and then ate the same portion that was half the size of an olive that he vomited, he is liable.8 For the liability is for the benefit one's palate receives from a forbidden substance.

ג

כְּזַיִת שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ חוּץ מִשֶּׁל בֵּין הַשִּׁנַּיִם. אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁל בֵּין הַחֲנִיכַיִם מִצְטָרֵף לְמַה שֶּׁבָּלַע שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶהֱנָה גְּרוֹנוֹ מִכְּזַיִת. אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל כַּחֲצִי זַיִת וֶהֱקִיאוֹ וְחָזַר וְאָכַל אוֹתוֹ חֲצִי זַיִת עַצְמוֹ שֶׁהֵקִיא חַיָּב. שֶׁאֵין הַחִיּוּב אֶלָּא עַל הֲנָאַת הַגָּרוֹן בִּכְזַיִת מִדָּבָר הָאָסוּר:

4

When an olive-sized portion of forbidden fat, a nevelah, piggul,9notar,10 or the like was left in the sun and was reduced in volume, one who eats it is not liable.11

If, afterwards, one left it in the rain and it expanded, one is liable for either kerait or lashes.12 If, originally, it was smaller than an olive-sized portion and then expanded to the size of an olive, it is forbidden to partake of it, but one is not liable for lashes for it.13

ד

כְּזַיִת חֵלֶב אוֹ נְבֵלָה אוֹ פִּגּוּל אוֹ נוֹתָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ בַּחַמָּה וְנִתְמַעֵט. הָאוֹכְלוֹ פָּטוּר. חָזַר וְהִנִּיחוֹ בַּגְּשָׁמִים וְנִתְפַּח חַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת אוֹ מַלְקוֹת. הָיָה פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת מִבַּתְּחִלָּה וְנִתְפַּח וְעָמַד עַל כְּזַיִת אָסוּר וְאֵין לוֹקִין עָלָיו:

5

We already explained14 that all of the forbidden substances in the Torah are not combined with each other to reach the minimum measure of the size of an olive with the exception of the meat of a nevelah and the meat of a trefe15 and the prohibitions involving a nazirite,16 as explained in the appropriate places. The five types of grain,17 their flour, and the dough made from them all can be combined with each other to reach the minimum measure of the size of an olive with regard to the prohibition against leaven on Pesach, the prohibition against partaking of chadash before the offering of the omer,18 and the prohibitions involving the second tithe and the terumot.

ה

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּרִין שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לִכְזַיִת. חוּץ מִבְּשַׂר נְבֵלָה עִם בְּשַׂר טְרֵפָה וְאִסּוּרֵי נָזִיר שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֲרוּ בִּמְקוֹמָן. וַחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי תְּבוּאָה וּקְמָחִין שֶׁלָּהֶן וְהַבְּצֵקוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן הַכּל מִצְטָרְפִים לִכְזַיִת בֵּין לְאִסּוּר חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח. בֵּין לְאִסּוּר חָדָשׁ מִלִּפְנֵי הָעֹמֶר. בֵּין לְאִסּוּרֵי מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וּתְרוּמוֹת:

6

It appears to me that all [produce] from which we are required to separate terumah and tithes can be combined to reach the minimum measure of the size of an olive with regard to [the prohibition against] tevel because a single prohibition is involved. To what can the matter be compared? To [meat from] the corpse of an ox, the corpse of a sheep, and the corpse of a deer which can be combined to reach the minimum measure of the size of an olive as we explained.19

ו

יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁכָּל הַחַיָּב בִּתְרוּמָה וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת מִצְטָרֵף לִכְזַיִת בְּטֶבֶל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שֵׁם אֶחָד. הָא לְמַה זֶּה דּוֹמֶה לְנִבְלַת הַשּׁוֹר וְנִבְלַת הַשֶּׂה וְנִבְלַת הַצְּבִי שֶׁהֵן מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְזַיִת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

7

When a person partakes of a large amount of food from a forbidden substance, he is not liable for lashes or kerait for every olive-sized portion he eats. Instead, he is liable once for all he ate.20 If, however, the witness gave him a warning for every olive-sized portion, he is liable for every warning even though he ate it in one sitting, without interruption.21

ז

הָאוֹכֵל אֲכִילָה גְּדוֹלָה מִדָּבָר אָסוּר אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ מַלְקוֹת אוֹ כָּרֵת עַל כָּל כְּזַיִת וּכְזַיִת אֶלָּא חִיּוּב אֶחָד לְכָל הָאֲכִילָה. וְאִם הָיוּ הָעֵדִים מַתְרִים בּוֹ בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָה עַל כָּל כְּזַיִת וּכְזַיִת חַיָּב עַל כָּל הַתְרָאָה וְהַתְרָאָה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא אֲכִילָה אַחַת וְלֹא הִפְסִיק:

8

[The following rules apply when] a person partakes of a barley-corn or mustard-seed-sized portion of any forbidden food, waits, and then partakes of another mustard-seed-sized portion whether inadvertently or intentionally. If he waited from the beginning to the end the time it takes to eat a portion of bread with relish the size of three eggs22 [or less], everything [he ate] is combined.23 He is liable for kerait, lashes, or a sacrifice as if he ate an olive-sized portion at one time. If he waits a longer time from the beginning to the end, [the small portions] are not combined. Since he completed the olive-sized portion only in a longer time than k'dei achilat p'ras, he is not liable even if he did not wait at all, but continued eating mustard-seed-sized portion after mustard-seed-sized portion.

ח

הָאוֹכֵל כִּשְׂעוֹרָה אוֹ כְּחַרְדָּל מֵאֶחָד מִכָּל מַאֲכָלוֹת הָאֲסוּרִים וְשָׁהָה מְעַט וְחָזַר וְאָכַל כְּחַרְדָּל. וְכֵן עַד שֶׁהִשְׁלִים כְּזַיִת. בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד. אִם שָׁהָה מִתְּחִלָּה וְעַד סוֹף כְּדֵי אֲכִילַת שָׁלֹשׁ בֵּיצִים יִצְטָרֵף הַכּל וַהֲרֵי הוּא חַיָּב כָּרֵת אוֹ מַלְקוֹת אוֹ קָרְבָּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָכַל כְּזַיִת בְּבַת אַחַת. וְאִם שָׁהָה יֶתֶר מִזֶּה מִתְּחִלָּה וְעַד סוֹף אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהָה בֵּינֵיהֶן אֶלָּא אָכַל כְּחַרְדָּל אַחַר כְּחַרְדָּל הוֹאִיל וְלֹא הִשְׁלִים כְּזַיִת אֶלָּא בְּיֶתֶר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין וּפָטוּר:

9

Similar [laws apply when] a person who drinks a revi'it24of ordinary gentile wine little by little, swallows liquefied leaven on Pesach or fat little by little, or drinks blood25 little by little. If he waits from the beginning until the end the time it takes to drink a revi'it, [all of the sipping] is combined.26 If not, it is not combined.27

ט

וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹתֶה רְבִיעִית שֶׁל סְתָם יֵינָם מְעַט מְעַט. אוֹ שֶׁהִמְחָה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אוֹ אֶת הַחֵלֶב וּגְמָעוֹ מְעַט מְעַט. אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁתָה מִן הַדָּם מְעַט מְעַט. אִם שָׁהָה מִתְּחִלָּה וְעַד סוֹף כְּדֵי שְׁתִיַּת רְבִיעִית מִצְטָרְפִין. וְאִם לָאו אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין:

10

One is not liable for partaking of any of the prohibited foods unless one partakes of them in a manner in which one derives satisfaction with the exception of a mixture of meat and milk and mixed species grown in a vineyard. [The rationale is that with regard to these prohibitions, the Torah] does not use the term "eating,"28but instead conveys the prohibition against partaking of them in other terms. [With regard to meat and milk, it uses] the term "cooking" and [with regard to mixed species grown in a vineyard, it uses the term] "become hallowed."29 [This implies] that they are forbidden even when one does not derive satisfaction.

י

כָּל הָאֳכָלִין הָאֲסוּרִין אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עֲלֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל אוֹתָן דֶּרֶךְ הֲנָאָה חוּץ מִבָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶן אֲכִילָה אֶלָּא הוֹצִיא אִסּוּר אֲכִילָתָן בְּלָשׁוֹן אַחֶרֶת בִּלְשׁוֹן בִּשּׁוּל וּבִלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ לֶאֱסוֹר אוֹתָן וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא כְּדֶרֶךְ הֲנָיָה:

11

What is implied? When one liquefied fat and swallowed it when it was so hot that his throat was burned from it, he eat raw fat,30 mixed bitter substances like gall or wormwood into wine31 or into a pot [where meat from] a nevelah [is cooking] and he partook of it while they were bitter,32 or he ate a forbidden foot after it became decayed, spoiled, and unfit for human consumption, he is not liable.33 If, by contrast, he mixed a bitter substance into a a pot [where meat and milk are cooking] or into wine from a vineyard where mixed species are growing and partook of it, he is liable.

יא

כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁהִמְחָה אֶת הַחֵלֶב וּגְמָעוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא חַם עַד שֶׁנִּכְוָה גְּרוֹנוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל חֵלֶב חַי. אוֹ שֶׁעֵרֵב דְּבָרִים מָרִים כְּגוֹן רֹאשׁ וְלַעֲנָה לְתוֹךְ יֵין נֶסֶךְ אוֹ לְתוֹךְ קְדֵרָה שֶׁל נְבֵלָה וַאֲכָלָן כְּשֶׁהֵן מָרִין. אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל אֹכֶל הָאָסוּר אַחַר שֶׁהִסְרִיחַ וְהִבְאִישׁ וּבָטַל מֵאֹכֶל אָדָם הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. וְאִם עֵרֵב דָּבָר מַר בְּתוֹךְ קְדֵרָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב אוֹ בְּיֵין כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם וַאֲכָלוֹ חַיָּב:

12

When a person partakes of one of the forbidden food in a frivolous manner or as one who is acting purposelessly, he is liable. Even though he did not intend to actually partake of the food, since he derived pleasure, it is considered as if he intended to actually partake of the food.34 When, [by contrast,] a person is forced to derive [forbidden] pleasure, if he focuses his intent on it, he is liable. If he does not, it is permitted.35

יב

הָאוֹכֵל מַאֲכָל מִמַּאֲכָלוֹת הָאֲסוּרוֹת דֶּרֶךְ שְׂחוֹק אוֹ כְּמִתְעַסֵּק. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְגוּף הָאֲכִילָה. הוֹאִיל וְנֶהֱנָה חַיָּב כְּמִי שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְעַצְמָהּ שֶׁל אֲכִילָה. וַהֲנָיָה הַבָּאָה לוֹ לְאָדָם בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ בְּאִסּוּר מִכָּל הָאִסּוּרִין אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן אָסוּר וְאִם לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן מֻתָּר:

13

When a person partakes of a forbidden food because of desire or because of hunger, he is liable.36 If he was wandering in the desert and he has nothing to eat but a forbidden substance, it is permitted, because of the danger to his life.37

יג

הָאוֹכֵל מַאֲכָל אָסוּר לְתֵאָבוֹן אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָב חַיָּב. וְאִם הָיָה תּוֹעֶה בַּמִּדְבָּר וְאֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל אֶלָּא דְּבַר אִסּוּר הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר מִפְּנֵי סַכָּנַת נְפָשׁוֹת:

14

When a pregnant woman smells a forbidden food [and is overcome by desire for it],38 e.g., consecrated meat or ham, she should be given some of the gravy. If her mind becomes settled, that is commendable. If not, we feed her less than the forbidden measure39 [of the meat itself]. If her mind does not become settled, we feed her until her mind becomes settled.

יד

עֻבָּרָה שֶׁהֵרִיחָה מַאֲכָל אָסוּר כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ אוֹ בְּשַׂר חֲזִיר. מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ מִן הַמָּרָק. אִם נִתְיַשְּׁבָה דַּעְתָּהּ מוּטָב. וְאִם לָאו מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר. וְאִם לֹא נִתְיַשְּׁבָה דַּעְתָּהּ מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ עַד שֶׁתִּתְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתָּהּ:

15

Similarly, when a sick person smells food that contains vinegar or the like, [i.e.,] substances that arouse a soul's [desire], he is governed by the same laws that apply to a pregnant woman.40

טו

וְכֵן הַחוֹלֶה שֶׁהֵרִיחַ דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חֹמֶץ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁמְּעַרְעֲרִין אֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ דִּינוֹ כְּעֻבָּרָה:

16

When a person is overcome by severe hunger,41 he may be fed forbidden food immediately until his eyesight clears. We do not seek permitted food. Instead, we hurry to feed him what is available.42

We feed him substances bound by more lenient prohibitions first. If his sight clears, that is sufficient. If not, we feed him the substances bound by the more severe prohibitions.

טז

מִי שֶׁאָחֲזוֹ בֻּלְמוֹס מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ דְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים מִיָּד עַד שֶׁיֵּאוֹרוּ עֵינָיו. וְאֵין מְחַזְּרִין עַל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר אֶלָּא מְמַהֲרִין בַּנִּמְצָא. וּמַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ הַקַּל הַקַּל תְּחִלָּה. אִם הֵאִירוּ עֵינָיו דַּיּוֹ. וְאִם לָאו מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ הֶחָמוּר:

17

What is implied? If there is tevel43 and a nevelah, we feed him the nevelah first. {The rationale is] that [partaking of] tevel is punishable by death [at the hand of heaven].44If [the choice is between] a nevelah and produce that grows on its own during the Sabbatical year, we feed him the produce, for it is forbidden [only] by Rabbinic decree, as will be explained in Hilchot Shemitah.45

If [the choice is between] tevel and produce grown during the Sabbatical year,46 we feed him the produce grown during the Sabbatical year.47 If [the choice is between] tevel and terumah, if it is impossible to make the tevel acceptable,48 we feed him the tevel. [The rationale is] that it is not sanctified as terumah is. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

יז

כֵּיצַד. הָיוּ לְפָנֵינוּ טֶבֶל וּנְבֵלָה מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ נְבֵלָה תְּחִלָּה שֶׁהַטֶּבֶל בְּמִיתָה. נְבֵלָה וּסְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית שֶׁאֲסוּרִין מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁמִטָּה. טֶבֶל וּשְׁבִיעִית מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ שְׁבִיעִית. טֶבֶל וּתְרוּמָה אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְתַקֵּן הַטֶּבֶל מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ טֶבֶל שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָדוֹשׁ כִּתְרוּמָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

18

We have already explained49 that one prohibition does not take effect when another prohibition is in effect unless both of the prohibitions take effect at the same time,50 the latter prohibition forbids additional entities,51 or the [latter] prohibition encompasses other entities.52

Accordingly, [it is possible] for there to be a person who eats one olive-sized portion of forbidden food and yet, he will be liable for five [sets of] lashes for it, provided he was warned for all five prohibitions that accumulated.

What is implied? For example, on Yom Kippur, a person who was ritually impure ate an olive-sized portion of forbidden fat from a consecrated animal that remained after its prescribed time.53He is liable for lashes because he partook of forbidden fat, notar, because he ate on Yom Kippur,54 because he partook of consecrated food while ritually impure, and because he derived benefit from consecrated food, thus [violating the prohibition of] me'ilah.

יח

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר חָל עַל אִסּוּר אֶלָּא אִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵי הָאִסּוּרִין בָּאִין כְּאַחַת אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אִסּוּר מוֹסִיף אוֹ אִסּוּר כּוֹלֵל. לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ אוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת אֶחָד וְלוֹקֶה עָלָיו חָמֵשׁ מַלְקִיּוֹת. וְהוּא שֶׁהִתְרוּ בּוֹ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה אִסּוּרִין שֶׁנִּתְקַבְּצוּ בּוֹ. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן טָמֵא שֶׁאָכַל כְּזַיִת חֵלֶב שֶׁנּוֹתַר מִן הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁים בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לוֹקֶה מִשּׁוּם אוֹכֵל חֵלֶב. וּמִשּׁוּם אוֹכֵל נוֹתָר. וּמִשּׁוּם אוֹכֵל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. וּמִשּׁוּם טָמֵא שֶׁאָכַל קֹדֶשׁ. וּמִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה מִן הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּמָעַל:

19

Why do these prohibitions fall on each other? Because although it was forbidden to partake of the fat of this animal, it was permitted to benefit from it. Once he consecrated it, it became forbidden to benefit from the fat. Since the prohibition to benefit from it was added to it, the prohibition against [benefiting from] consecrated articles became added to it.

Although this fat was forbidden to an ordinary person, it was still permitted to be offered to the One on High. When it became notar, since it became forbidden to the One on High, [that] prohibition was added to an ordinary person.

This person was permitted to partake of the meat of the animal,55 although he was forbidden to partake of its fat. When he became impure, since its meat became forbidden an additional prohibition was added to its fat. When Yom Kippur commenced, all food became included [in the prohibition], since this prohibition affects non-consecrated food, it adds a prohibition to this fat. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

יט

וְלָמָּה חָל כָּאן אִסּוּר עַל אִסּוּר. שֶׁבְּהֵמָה זוֹ הָיָה חֶלְבָּהּ אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה. הִקְדִּישָׁהּ נֶאֱסַר חֶלְבָּהּ בַּהֲנָיָה וּמִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנּוֹסַף בּוֹ אִסּוּר הֲנָיָה נוֹסַף עָלָיו אִסּוּר קָדָשִׁים. וַעֲדַיִן הָיָה חֵלֶב זֶה מֻתָּר לְגָבוֹהַּ וְאָסוּר לְהֶדְיוֹט. נַעֲשָׂה נוֹתָר מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנּוֹסַף בּוֹ אִסּוּר לְגָבוֹהַּ נֶאֱסַר לְהֶדְיוֹט. וְהָאוֹכֵל הַזֶּה הָיָה מֻתָּר בִּבְשַׂר הַבְּהֵמָה וְאָסוּר בְּחֶלְבָּהּ. נִטְמָא נֶאֱסַר אַף בִּבְשָׂרָהּ נוֹסַף לוֹ אִסּוּר עַל הַחֵלֶב. בָּא יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כָּלַל כָּל הָאֳכָלִין. וּמִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר אַף בְּחֻלִּין נוֹסַף אִסּוּרוֹ בְּחֵלֶב זֶה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה: