How do we define the term touch when we say that a gentile1 who touches wine causes it to be forbidden? Touching the wine itself whether with his hands2 or with any of his other limbs with which it is customary to pour a libation3 and shook the wine.4

If, however, he extended his hand to a barrel, but his hand was grabbed before he could remove [any wine] or shake it, [there is room for leniency]. If the barrel was opened from below and the wine was allowed to flow out to the extent that it reached below his hand, the wine is not forbidden.5

Similarly, if he held an open container6 of wine and shaked it, the wine becomes forbidden even though he did not lift up the container or touch the wine.7


כֵּיצַד הִיא הַנְּגִיעָה שִׁאוֹסֵר בָּהּ הָעַכּוּ''ם הַיַּיִן. הוּא שֶׁיִּגַּע בַּיַּיִן עַצְמוֹ בֵּין בְּיָדוֹ בֵּין בִּשְׁאָר אֵיבָרָיו שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְנַסֵּךְ בָּהֶן וִישַׁכְשֵׁךְ. אֲבָל אִם פָּשַׁט יָדוֹ לְחָבִית וְתָפְסוּ אֶת יָדוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיּוֹצִיאָהּ וְלֹא יְנִידָהּ וּפָתְחוּ הֶחָבִית מִלְּמַטָּה עַד שֶׁיָּצָא הַיַּיִן וְיָרַד לְמַטָּה מִיָּדוֹ לֹא נֶאֱסַר הַיַּיִן. וְכֵן אִם אָחַז כְּלִי פָּתוּחַ שֶׁל יַיִן וְשִׁכְשְׁכוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִגְבִּיהַּ הַכְּלִי וְלֹא נָגַע בַּיַּיִן נֶאֱסַר הַיַּיִן:


If he took an [open]8 container of wine, lifted it up, and poured it out, the wine becomes forbidden,9 even though he did not shake it. For the wine moved as a result of his power. If he lifted the container up, but did not shake it or touch it, it is permitted.10


נָטַל כְּלִי שֶׁל יַיִן וְהִגְבִּיהוֹ וְיָצַק הַיַּיִן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שִׁכְשֵׁךְ נֶאֱסַר שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּא הַיַּיִן מִכֹּחוֹ. הִגְבִּיהַּ וְלֹא שִׁכְשֵׁךְ וְלֹא נָגַע מֻתָּר:


When a gentile was holding a container on the ground and a Jew poured wine into it, the wine is permitted.11 If the gentile shakes the container, the wine becomes forbidden.


עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהָיָה אוֹחֵז הַכְּלִי בַּקַּרְקַע וְיִשְׂרָאֵל יָצַק לְתוֹכוֹ יַיִן הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר. וְאִם נִדְנֵד הָעַכּוּ''ם הַכְּלִי נֶאֱסַר הַיַּיִן:


It is permitted to have a gentile move a closed [container of wine] from one place to another even though the wine moves. For this is not the manner in which a libation is made.12

When [a gentile] moves a wineskin containing wine from one place to another while [a Jew]13 was holding the opening of the wineskin with his hand, it is permitted.14 [This applies] whether the wineskin was entirely full or not and [applies] even though the wine moves.

[When a gentile] transfers15 an open earthenware16 vessel that is filled with wine, it is prohibited,17 for perhaps he touched it.18 If it was only partially full, [the wine] is permitted unless he shook it.19


כְּלִי סָתוּם מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ הָעַכּוּ''ם מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיַּיִן מִתְנַדְנֵד שֶׁאֵין זֶה דֶּרֶךְ הַנִּסּוּךְ. הֶעֱבִיר נוֹד שֶׁל יַיִן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וְהוּא אוֹחֵז פִּי הַנּוֹד בְּיָדוֹ. בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה הַנּוֹד מָלֵא אוֹ חָסֵר מֻתָּר. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיַּיִן מִתְנַדְנֵד. הֶעֱבִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס פָּתוּחַ מָלֵא יַיִן אָסוּר שֶׁמָּא נָגַע בּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה חָסֵר מֻתָּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שִׁכְשְׁכוֹ:


When a gentile touches wine without intending to, it is permitted only to benefit from the wine.20 What is implied? He fell on an [open]21 wineskin or stretched his hand out to a barrel under the impression that it contained oil and it actually contained wine.


עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנָּגַע בְּיַיִן וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לָזֶה הֲרֵי הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה בִּלְבַד. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּפַל עַל נוֹד שֶׁל יַיִן אוֹ שֶׁהוֹשִׁיט יָדוֹ לְחָבִית עַל מְנָת שֶׁהִיא שֶׁמֶן וְנִמְצֵאת יַיִן:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


If wine moves because of a gentile's power although he did not intend to do so, since he did not touch the wine, it is permitted to drink it.22 What is implied? If he lifted up a container of wine and poured it into another container while thinking that it was beer or oil, [the wine] is permitted.


בָּא הַיַּיִן מִכֹּחוֹ שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נָגַע בַּיַּיִן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִגְבִּיהַּ כְּלִי שֶׁל יַיִן וְיָצַק לִכְלִי אַחֵר וְהוּא מְדַמֶּה שֶׁהוּא שֵׁכָר אוֹ שֶׁמֶן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:


If a gentile entered a house or a store seeking wine and extended his hand to search for it and touched wine,23 [the wine] is forbidden. [The rationale is that] he was intending [to touch] wine. This is not considered as touching without intent.


נִכְנַס הָעַכּוּ''ם לְבַיִת אוֹ לַחֲנוּת לְבַקֵּשׁ יַיִן וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְחַפֵּשׂ וְנָגַע בַּיַּיִן אָסוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי לְיַיִן נִתְכַּוֵּן וְאֵין זֶה נוֹגֵעַ בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה:


When a barrel is split lengthwise and a gentile comes and embraces it so that the halves will not separate24 it is permitted to benefit from [the wine].25 If, however, it split widthwise and he grabbed the upper half so that it will not fall, it is permitted to drink [the wine]. For the wine is not affected by the gentile's power.


חָבִית שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה לְאָרְכָּהּ וְקָדַם הָעַכּוּ''ם וְחִבְּקָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפָּרְדוּ הַחֲרָסִים הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה. אֲבָל אִם נִסְדְּקָה לְרָחְבָּהּ וְתָפַס בַּסֶּדֶק הָעֶלְיוֹן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפּל הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַיַּיִן עַל כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם:


When a gentile fell into a cistern of wine and was hoisted up dead,26 measured a cistern containing wine with a reed, swatted away a fly or a hornet from it with a reed,27 patted a boiling bottle of wine so that the boiling would cease28 or took a barrel and threw it into the cistern in anger,29 it is merely permitted to benefit from the wine. If, [in the first instance,] the gentile was raised [from the cistern] alive, it is forbidden to benefit from the wine.30


עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנָּפַל לְבוֹר שֶׁל יַיִן וְהֶעֱלוּהוּ מִשָּׁם מֵת. אוֹ שֶׁמָּדַד הַבּוֹר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ הַיַּיִן בְּקָנֶה. אוֹ שֶׁהִתִּיז אֶת הַזְּבוּב וְהַצִּרְעָה מֵעָלָיו בְּקָנֶה. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְטַפֵּחַ עַל פִּי הֶחָבִית הָרוֹתַחַת כְּדֵי שֶׁתָּנוּחַ הָרְתִיחָה. אוֹ שֶׁנָּטַל חָבִית וּזְרָקָהּ בַּחֲמָתוֹ לַבּוֹר. הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה בִּלְבַד. וְאִם עָלָה הָעַכּוּ''ם חַי הַיַּיִן אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה:


When there is a hole on the side of a barrel, the stopper slips away from the hole, and a gentile places his finger over the hole so that the wine will not flow out, all of the wine from the top of the barrel until the hole is forbidden.31 It is, however, permitted to drink the wine beneath the hole.32


חָבִית שֶׁהָיָה נֶקֶב בְּצִדָּהּ וְנִשְׁמַט הַפְּקָק מִן הַנֶּקֶב וְהִנִּיחַ הָעַכּוּ''ם אֶצְבָּעוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הַנֶּקֶב כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא הַיַּיִן כָּל הַיַּיִן שֶׁמֵּרֹאשׁ הֶחָבִית עַד הַנֶּקֶב אָסוּר. וְשֶׁתַּחַת הַנֶּקֶב מֻתָּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה:


[The following rules apply when] one end of a bent outflow pipe made from metal, glass, or the like is placed in wine and the other end extends out of the barrel. If one sucked on the wine and the wine began flowing out as is always done, and a gentile came and placed his finger at the end of the outflow pipe and prevented the wine from flowing outward, all of the wine in the barrel is forbidden.33 [The rationale is that] were it not for his hand, everything [in the barrel] would have flowed out. Thus all the wine is affected by his power.


מֵינֶקֶת כְּפוּפָה שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתָהּ מִמַּתֶּכֶת אוֹ מִזְּכוּכִית וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם. שֶׁהִנִּיחַ רֹאשָׁהּ לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן שֶׁבֶּחָבִית וְהָרֹאשׁ הָאַחֵר חוּץ לֶחָבִית וּמָצַץ הַיַּיִן וְהִתְחִיל הַיַּיִן לֵירֵד כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין תָּמִיד. וּבָא הָעַכּוּ''ם וְהִנִּיחַ אֶצְבָּעוֹ עַל פִּי הַמֵּינֶקֶת וּמָנַע הַיַּיִן מִלֵּירֵד נֶאֱסַר כָּל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבֶּחָבִית. שֶׁהַכּל הָיָה יוֹצֵא וְנִגְרָר לוּלֵי יָדוֹ וְנִמְצָא הַכּל כְּבָא מִכֹּחוֹ:


When a person pours wine into a receptacle containing gentile wine, all of the wine in the upper container is forbidden.34 [The rationale is that] the column of wine being poured connects35 between the wine in the upper container and the wine in the lower container. Therefore when a person is measuring wine for a gentile into a container in the latter's hands, he should interrupt [the column of wine before it reaches the utensil] or throw the wine so that [the column of wine] being poured will not establish a connection and cause the wine remaining in the upper container to become forbidden.


הַמְעָרֶה יַיִן לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ יֵין עַכּוּ''ם נֶאֱסַר כָּל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבַּכְּלִי הָעֶלְיוֹן. שֶׁהֲרֵי הָעַמּוּד הַנִּצֹּק מְחַבֵּר בֵּין הַיַּיִן שֶׁבַּכְּלִי הָעֶלְיוֹן וּבֵין הַיַּיִן שֶׁבַּכְּלִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן. לְפִיכָךְ הַמּוֹדֵד לְעַכּוּ''ם לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ יְנַפֵּץ נְפִיצָה אוֹ יִזְרֹק זְרִיקָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה נִצֹּק חִבּוּר וְיֶאֱסֹר עָלָיו מַה שֶּׁיִּשָּׁאֵר בַּכְּלִי הָעֶלְיוֹן:


When a funnel that was used to measure wine for a gentile has an obstruction that prevents wine [from flowing] the funnel should not be used to measure wine for a Jew36 until it was washed thoroughly and dried.37 If he did not wash it thoroughly,38 [the Jew's wine] is forbidden.39


מַשְׁפֵּךְ שֶׁמָּדַד בּוֹ לְעַכּוּ''ם אִם יֵשׁ בִּקְצֵה הַמַּשְׁפֵּךְ עֲכָּבַת יַיִן לֹא יִמְדֹּד בּוֹ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַד שֶׁיְּדִיחֶנּוּ וִינַגֵּב. וְאִם לֹא הֵדִיחַ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר:


[The following rules apply with regard to] a container possessed by a Jew that has two "nostrils,"40 that emerge from it, like containers that are used to wash hands, and is filled with wine. If a Jew is sucking and drinking from one nostril and a gentile is sucking and drinking from the other nostril, this is permitted,41 provided the Jew begins [drinking] and concludes while the gentile is still drinking. When the gentile stops drinking, all the wine that was in the nostril will return to the container and cause all the wine in it to be forbidden. [The rationale is that] the wine [in the nostril] was moved by [the gentile's] power.42


כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין יוֹצְאִין מִמֶּנּוּ כְּמוֹ הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין בָּהֶם לַיָּדַיִם שֶׁהָיָה מָלֵא יַיִן בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיָה יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹצֵץ וְשׁוֹתֶה מֵחֹטֶם זֶה וְהָעַכּוּ''ם מוֹצֵץ וְשׁוֹתֶה מִן הַחֹטֶם הַשֵּׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּקְדִּים הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִי וְיִפְסֹק וַעֲדַיִן הָעַכּוּ''ם שׁוֹתֶה. שֶׁמִּשֶּׁיִּפְסֹק הָעַכּוּ''ם יַחֲזֹר הַיַּיִן שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר בַּחֹטֶם לַכְּלִי וְיֶאֱסֹר כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּשָּׁאֵר בּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּא הַיַּיִן מִכֹּחוֹ:


When a gentile sucks wine from a container with an outflow pipe, all the wine in the container becomes forbidden.43 For when he ceases [sucking], all of the wine that entered the outflow pipe through his sucking will return to the barrel and cause it to become forbidden.


עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁמָּצַץ הַיַּיִן מִן הֶחָבִית בְּמֵינֶקֶת אָסַר כָּל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבָּהּ. שֶׁכְּשֶׁיִּפָּסֵק יַחֲזֹר הַיַּיִן שֶׁעָלָה בַּמֵּינֶקֶת בִּמְצִיצָתוֹ וְיִפּל לֶחָבִית וְיֶאֱסֹר הַכּל:


When a gentile is transferring barrels of wine from one place to another together with a Jew and [the Jew] is walking after them to protect them, they are permitted even if he separates from him for a mil.44 [The rationale is] that he is afraid of him and will say: "He will suddenly appear before us and observe us."

[More stringent rules apply if the Jew] tells [gentile porters]: "Proceed and I will follow after you."45 If they pass beyond his sight to the extent that [they have time] to uncover the opening of the barrel, seal it again, and [allow it] to dry out,46 it is forbidden to drink all of the wine.47 If for a lesser [time], [the wine] is permitted.48


עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהָיָה מַעֲבִיר עִם יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּדֵּי יַיִן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וְהוּא הוֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֵיהֶן לְשָׁמְרָן אֲפִלּוּ הִפְלִיגוּ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּדֵי מִיל הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת. שֶׁאֵימָתוֹ עֲלֵיהֶן וְאוֹמֵר עַתָּה יֵצֵא לְפָנֵינוּ וְיִרְאֶה אוֹתָנוּ. וְאִם אָמַר לָהֶם לְכוּ וַאֲנִי אָבוֹא אַחֲרֵיכֶם אִם נִתְעַלְּמוּ מֵעֵינָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתְּחוּ פִּי הַכַּד וְיַחְזְרוּ וְיָגִיפוּ אוֹתָהּ וְתִיגוֹב הֲרֵי הַיַּיִן כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה. אִם פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן מֻתָּר:


Similarly, if a Jew leaves a gentile in his store, even though he departs and enters, [going back and forth] the entire day, the wine is permitted.49 If he informs him that he is departing for a significant period, should he wait long enough [to enable the gentile] to open the barrel, seal it again, and [allow it] to dry out, it is forbidden to drink the wine.50

Similarly, if a person left his wine in a wagon or a ship51 with a gentile and enters a city to tend to his needs, the wine is permitted.52 If he informs him that he is departing for a significant period, should he wait long enough [to enable the gentile] to open the barrel, seal it again, and [allow it] to dry out, it is forbidden to drink the wine.

All of the above rulings apply with regard to closed barrels. If they are open,53 even if he did not wait, since he told him that he was departing for a significant period, the wine is forbidden.54


וְכֵן הַמֵּנִיחַ עַכּוּ''ם בַּחֲנוּתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא וְנִכְנַס כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר. וְאִם מוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַפְלִיג וְשָׁהָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתַּח וְיִגֹּף וְתִיגוֹב הַיַּיִן אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה. וְכֵן הַמֵּנִיחַ יֵינוֹ בְּקָרוֹן אוֹ בִּסְפִינָה עִם הָעַכּוּ''ם וְנִכְנַס לָעִיר לַעֲשׂוֹת צְרָכָיו הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר. וְאִם הוֹדִיעָן שֶׁהוּא מַפְלִיג וְשָׁהָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתַּח וְיִגֹּף וְתִיגוֹב הַיַּיִן אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה. וְכָל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ בְּחָבִיּוֹת סְתוּמוֹת. אֲבָל בִּפְתוּחוֹת אֲפִלּוּ לֹא שָׁהָה מֵאַחַר שֶׁהוֹדִיעָן שֶׁהוּא מַפְלִיג הַיַּיִן אָסוּר:


When a Jew was eating together with a gentile, left wine open on the table and on the counter, and departed, the wine on the table is forbidden, while that on the counter is permitted.55 If [the Jew] told him: "Mix [the wine] and drink," all the open wine in the house is forbidden.56


יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיָה אוֹכֵל עִם הָעַכּוּ''ם וְהִנִּיחַ יַיִן פָּתוּחַ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְיַיִן פָּתוּחַ עַל הַדֻּלְפְּקִי וְיָצָא. שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אָסוּר וְשֶׁעַל הַדֻּלְפְּקִי מֻתָּר. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ מְזֹג וּשְׁתֵה כָּל הַיַּיִן הַפָּתוּחַ שֶׁבַּבַּיִת אָסוּר:


When [a Jew] was drinking together with a gentile and he heard the sound of prayer in the synagogue and departed, even the open wine is permitted. For the gentile will say: "Soon he will remember the wine, come hurriedly and see me touching his wine." Therefore [we do not suspect that] the gentile will move from his place. Hence only the wine that is before him57 becomes forbidden.58


הָיָה שׁוֹתֶה עִם הָעַכּוּ''ם וְשָׁמַע קוֹל תְּפִלָּה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְיָצָא אַף הַיַּיִן הַפָּתוּחַ מֻתָּר. שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אוֹמֵר עַתָּה יִזְכֹּר הַיַּיִן וְיָבוֹא בִּמְהֵרָה וְיִמְצָא אוֹתִי נוֹגֵעַ בְּיֵינוֹ וּלְפִי זֶה אֵינוֹ זָז מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וְאֵין נֶאֱסַר אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁלְּפָנָיו בִּלְבַד:


[The following rules apply when] a gentile and a Jew are living together in one courtyard59 and they both left in agitation60 to see a bridegroom or a funeral. If the gentile returns and closes the entrance and the Jew comes later, the open wine in the Jew's home remains permitted. [We assume that] the gentile closed [the entrance] with the assumption that the Jew had already entered his home and no one remained outside; [i.e.,] he thought that the Jew came before him.


עַכּוּ''ם וְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיוּ דָּרִין בֶּחָצֵר אַחַת וְיָצְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּבֶהָלָה לִרְאוֹת חָתָן אוֹ הֶסְפֵּד. וְחָזַר הָעַכּוּ''ם וְסָגַר הַפֶּתַח וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲרֵי הַיַּיִן הַפָּתוּחַ שֶׁבְּבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהֶתֵּרוֹ. שֶׁלֹּא סָגַר הָעַכּוּ''ם אֶלָּא עַל דַּעַת שֶׁכְּבָר נִכְנַס הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִי לְבֵיתוֹ וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר אָדָם בַּחוּץ וְכִמְדֻמֶּה לוֹ שֶׁהוּא קְדָמוֹ:


[The following rules apply when] wine belonging to both a Jew and a gentile [is being stored] in one building and [the Jew's] barrels were open. If the gentile entered the building and locked the door behind him,61 all the wine is forbidden.62 If there is a window in the door that enables a person standing behind the door to see in front of him, all of the barrels that are opposite the window are permitted. Those on the sides are forbidden. [The leniency is granted,] because the gentile will fear from those who can see him.


יַיִן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם בְּבַיִת אֶחָד וְהָיוּ חָבִיּוֹת פְּתוּחוֹת וְנִכְנַס הָעַכּוּ''ם לַבַּיִת וְנָעַל הַדֶּלֶת בַּעֲדוֹ נֶאֱסַר כָּל הַיַּיִן. וְאִם יֵשׁ חַלּוֹן בַּדֶּלֶת שֶׁמִּסְתַּכֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ הָעוֹמֵד אֲחוֹרֵי הַפֶּתַח וְרוֹאֶה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ כָּל הֶחָבִיּוֹת שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד הַחַלּוֹן מֻתָּרוֹת. וְשֶׁמִּן הַצְּדָדִין אֲסוּרוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי מְפַחֵד מִן הָרוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ:


Similarly, if a lion roared or the like and the gentile fled and hid among the open barrels, the wine is permitted. For he will say, "Perhaps another Jew also hid here and will see me if I touch [the wine]."


וְכֵן אִם שָׁאַג אֲרִי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ וּבָרַח הָעַכּוּ''ם וְנֶחְבָּא בֵּין הֶחָבִיּוֹת הַפְּתוּחוֹת הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר שֶׁמָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר נֶחְבָּא כָּאן וְהוּא רוֹאֶה אוֹתִי כְּשֶׁאֶגַּע:


[The following laws apply with regard to] a wine cellar whose barrels were open, a gentile also stored wine in that inn,63 and the gentile was discovered standing among the open barrels belonging to the Jew. If he was frightened when discovered and it would be considered as if he was a thief,64 it is permitted to drink the wine. For because of his fear and dread, he will not have the opportunity to pour a libation. If he would not be considered as a thief, but instead, he feels secure there, the wine is forbidden.65

When a [gentile] young child is discovered among the barrels, regardless of whether he would be considered like a thief or not, all of the wine is permitted.66


אוֹצָר שֶׁל יַיִן שֶׁהָיוּ חָבִיּוֹתָיו פְּתוּחוֹת וְיֵשׁ לְעַכּוּ''ם חָבִיּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת בְּאוֹתוֹ הַפֻּנְדָּק. וְנִמְצָא הָעַכּוּ''ם עוֹמֵד בֵּין חָבִיּוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל הַפְּתוּחוֹת. אִם נִבְהַל כְּשֶׁנִּמְצָא וְנִתְפַּשׂ עָלָיו כְּגַנָּב הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה שֶׁמִּפַּחְדּוֹ וְיִרְאָתוֹ אֵין לוֹ פְּנַאי לְנַסֵּךְ. וְאִם לֹא נִתְפַּשׂ כְּגַנָּב אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא בּוֹטֵחַ שָׁם הַיַּיִן אָסוּר. וְתִינוֹק הַנִּמְצָא בֵּין הֶחָבִיּוֹת בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ כָּל הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר:


When a battalion [of soldiers] enter a country with an approach of peace, all of the open barrels [of wine] in the stores are forbidden.67 The closed ones, by contrast, are permitted.68 At a time of war, however, if a battalion spread through a city and moved on, both are permitted,69 because they do not have time to make libations.


גְּדוּד שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַמְּדִינָה דֶּרֶךְ שָׁלוֹם כָּל הֶחָבִיּוֹת הַפְּתוּחוֹת שֶׁבַּחֲנוּיוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת וּסְתוּמוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת. וּבִשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה אִם פָּשַׁט הַגְּדוּד בַּמְּדִינָה וְעָבַר אֵלּוּ וְאֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת שֶׁאֵין פְּנַאי לְנַסֵּךְ:


[The following laws apply when] a gentile is discovered standing next to a cistern of wine [belonging to a Jew]. If [the Jew] owes him a debt for which this wine serves is collateral, [the wine] is forbidden.70 Since he feels privileged, he will extend his hand and make a libation. If it is not collateral for a debt, it is permitted to drink the wine.71


עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנִּמְצָא עוֹמֵד בְּצַד הַבּוֹר שֶׁל יַיִן אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מִלְוֶה עַל אוֹתוֹ הַיַּיִן הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלִּבּוֹ גַּס בּוֹ שׁוֹלֵחַ יָדוֹ וּמְנַסֵּךְ. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ עָלָיו מִלְוֶה הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה:


When a gentile harlot is present at a Jewish feast, the wine is permitted. For she is in dread of them and will not touch [the wine].72 When, however, a Jewish harlot is present at a gentile feast, her wine73 that is before her in her utensils is forbidden, for [the gentiles] will touch it without her consent.74


זוֹנָה עַכּוּ''ם בִּמְסִבָּה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר שֶׁאֵימָתָן עָלֶיהָ וְלֹא תִּגַּע. אֲבָל זוֹנָה יִשְׂרְאֵלִית בִּמְסִבַּת עַכּוּ''ם יֵינָהּ שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ בְּכֵלֶיהָ אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נוֹגְעִין בּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתָּהּ:


[The following laws apply when] a gentile is discovered in a winepress:75 If there is enough moisture from wine that when one places his hand in it, [the hand] will become moist to the extent that if it touches his other hand, that hand will become moist,76 it is necessary to wash out the winepress thoroughly and dry it out.77 If this amount is not present, all that is necessary is to wash it out thoroughly. This is an extra measure of stringency.78


עַכּוּ''ם הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית הַגַּת אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם לַחְלוּחִית יַיִן כְּדֵי לִבְלל הַכַּף עַד שֶׁתִּבְלל הַכַּף לְכַף שְׁנִיָּה צָרִיךְ לְהָדִיחַ כָּל בֵּית הַגַּת וִינַגֵּב. וְאִם לָאו מֵדִיחַ בִּלְבַד וְזוֹ הַרְחָקָה יְתֵרָה:


[The following rules apply with regard to] a barrel floating in the river. If it was found near a city populated primarily by Jews, we are permitted to benefit from it.79 Near a city populated primarily by gentiles, it is forbidden.


חָבִית שֶׁצָּפָה בַּנָּהָר אִם נִמְצֵאת כְּנֶגֶד עִיר שֶׁרֻבָּהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתֶּרֶת בַּהֲנָיָה. כְּנֶגֶד עִיר שֶׁרֻבָּהּ עַכּוּ''ם אֲסוּרָה:


In a place where most of the wine merchants are Jewish, if one discovers large containers that are generally used only by wine merchants to store wine and which are filled with wine, it is permitted to benefit from [the wine].80

When a barrel has been opened by thieves, if most of the local thieves are Jewish, it is permitted to drink the wine. If not, it is forbidden.


מָקוֹם שֶׁהָיוּ רֹב מוֹכְרֵי הַיַּיִן בּוֹ יִשְׂרְאֵלִים וְנִמְצְאוּ בּוֹ כֵּלִים גְּדוֹלִים מְלֵאִים יַיִן וְהֵם כֵּלִים שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַמּוֹכְרִין לְבַדָּם לִכְנֹס בָּהֶם הַיַּיִן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין בַּהֲנָיָה. חָבִית שֶׁפְּתָחוּהָ גַּנָּבִים אִם רֹב גַּנָּבֵי הָעִיר יִשְׂרָאֵל הַיַּיִן מֻתָּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה וְאִם לָאו אָסוּר: