1

When wine has been poured as a libation to a false divinity,1 it is forbidden to benefit from it. A person who drinks even the smallest quantity2 of [such wine] is liable for lashes according to Scriptural Law. Similarly, anyone who partakes of the smallest quantity of something offered to a false deity, e.g., meat or fruit, even water or salt, is worthy of lashes, as [implied by Deuteronomy 32:38]: "The fat of whose offerings they would eat; they would drink the wine of their libations. Let them stand."3

א

יַיִן שֶׁנִּתְנַסֵּךְ לְעַכּוּ''ם אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה. וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא לוֹקֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְכֵן הָאוֹכֵל כָּל שֶׁהוּא מִתִּקְרֹבֶת עַכּוּ''ם מִבָּשָׂר אוֹ מִפֵּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ מַיִם וּמֶלַח הָאוֹכֵל מֵהֶן כָּל שֶׁהוּא לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לב לח) "אֲשֶׁר חֵלֶב זְבָחֵימוֹ יֹאכֵלוּ יִשְׁתּוּ יֵין נְסִיכָם יָקוּמוּ" וְגוֹ':

2

Wine poured as a libation to a false deity is like a sacrifice offered to it. Since this prohibition stems from [the prohibition against] the worship of false deities, there is no minimum measure involved, as stated with regard to the worship of false deities [ibid. 13:18]: "Let no trace of the condemned [entity] cling to your hand."4

ב

יַיִן שֶׁנִּתְנַסֵּךְ לָהּ כְּזֶבַח שֶׁקָּרֵב לָהּ וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאִסּוּר זֶה מִשּׁוּם עַכּוּ''ם הוּא אֵין לוֹ שִׁעוּר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּעֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים וּמַזָּלוֹת (דברים יג יח) "וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם":

3

When we do not know whether wine belonging to a gentile was used for a libation or not, it is called "ordinary [gentile] wine." It is forbidden to benefit from it, as it is forbidden to benefit from wine used as a libation. [This matter] is a Rabbinic decree.5 When a person drinks a revi'it6 of "ordinary [gentile] wine," he is liable for "stripes for rebellious conduct."7

ג

יֵין הָעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין אִם נִתְנַסֵּךְ אוֹ לֹא נִתְנַסֵּךְ וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא סְתַם יֵינָם אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה כְּמוֹ יַיִן שֶׁנִּתְנַסֵּךְ. וְדָבָר זֶה מִגְּזֵרוֹת סוֹפְרִים הוּא. וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מִסְּתַם יֵינָם רְבִיעִית מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

4

It is forbidden [to benefit from] any wine that a gentile touches;8for perhaps he poured it as a libation. For the thought of a gentile is focused on the worship of false deities.9 From this, we learn that it is forbidden to benefit [even from] wine belonging to a Jew which was touched by a gentile; it is governed by the laws that apply to ordinary gentile wine.

ד

וְכָל יַיִן שֶׁיִּגַּע בּוֹ הָעַכּוּ''ם הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שֶׁמָּא נִסֵּךְ אוֹתוֹ שֶׁמַּחְשֶׁבֶת הָעַכּוּ''ם לַעֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים. הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁיֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ הָעַכּוּ''ם דִּינוֹ כִּסְתַם יֵינָם שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה:

5

When a gentile touches wine unintentionally10 and similarly, when a gentile child11 touches wine, it is forbidden to drink it,12 but it is permitted to benefit from it.

When one purchases servants from a gentile and they were circumcised and immersed [in the mikveh] immediately,13 they no longer pour libations to false deities.14 It is permitted to drink wine which they touch even though they have yet to conduct themselves according to the Jewish faith and they still speak of idolatry.

ה

עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנָּגַע בְּיַיִן שֶׁלֹּא בְּכַוָּנָה וְכֵן תִּינוֹק עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנָּגַע בְּיַיִן אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה. הַלּוֹקֵחַ עֲבָדִים מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם וּמָלוּ וְטָבְלוּ מִיָּד אֵין מְנַסְּכִין וְיַיִן שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בּוֹ מֻתָּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נָהֲגוּ בְּדָתֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא פָּסְקָה עַכּוּ''ם מִפִּיהֶם:

6

[With regard to] the children of gentile maidservants that were born in a Jewish domain15 and circumcised, but were not immersed yet:16 The older ones cause wine that they touch to become forbidden. The younger ones17 do not cause it to become forbidden.18

ו

בְּנֵי הַשְּׁפָחוֹת הָעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ בִּרְשׁוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמָלוּ וַעֲדַיִן לֹא טָבְלוּ הַגְּדוֹלִים אוֹסְרִין הַיַּיִן כְּשֶׁיִּגְּעוּ בּוֹ וְהַקְּטַנִּים אֵינָן אוֹסְרִין:

7

With regard to a resident alien, i.e., one who accepted the observance of the seven universal laws [commanded to Noah and his descendants],19 as we explained:20 It is forbidden to drink his wine, but it is permitted to benefit from it.21 We may deposit wine in his possession for a short time, but may not entrust it to him for a lengthy period.22

With regard to any gentile who does not serve false deities, e.g., the Arabs:23It is forbidden to drink his wine, but it is permitted to benefit from it. The Geonim rule in this manner. With regard to those who worship false deities,24 by contrast, it is forbidden to benefit from their ordinary wine.

ז

גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב וְהוּא שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו שֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ יֵינוֹ אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה. וּמְיַחֲדִין אֶצְלוֹ יַיִן וְאֵין מַפְקִידִין אֶצְלוֹ יַיִן. וְכֵן כָּל עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵד עַכּוּ''ם כְּגוֹן אֵלּוּ הַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים יֵינָן אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה. וְכֵן הוֹרוּ כָּל הַגְּאוֹנִים. אֲבָל אוֹתָם הָעוֹבְדִים עַכּוּ''ם סְתַם יֵינָם אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה:

8

Whenever it is stated that wine is forbidden in this context, if the gentile who causes the wine to be forbidden worships false deities, it is forbidden to benefit from it. If he does not worship false deities, it is merely forbidden to drink it. Whenever we refer to a gentile without any further description, we mean one who worships false deities.25

ח

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּעִנְיָן זֶה שֶׁהַיַּיִן אָסוּר אִם הָיָה עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר הַיַּיִן בִּגְלָלוֹ עוֹבֵד עַכּוּ''ם הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵד עַכּוּ''ם הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה בִּלְבַד. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עַכּוּ''ם סְתָם הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹבֵד עַכּוּ''ם:

9

Only wine that is fit to be offered on the altar is used for libations for false deities. Therefore when [our Sages] decreed against ordinary gentile wine, ordaining that it is forbidden to benefit from any wine touched by a gentile, their decree involved only wine that is fit to be used as a libation. Accordingly, wine that was boiled26 that was touched by a gentile is not forbidden. It is permitted to drink it together with a gentile27 in one cup. If, however, [a gentile] touches wine blended [with water] and wine that began to turn into vinegar,28 but can still be drunken is forbidden.

ט

אֵין מִתְנַסֵּךְ לְעַכּוּ''ם אֶלָּא יַיִן שֶׁרָאוּי לְהַקְרִיב עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה כְּשֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל סְתַם יֵינָם וְגָזְרוּ עַל כָּל יַיִן שֶׁיִּגַּע בּוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה לֹא גָּזְרוּ אֶלָּא עַל הַיַּיִן הָרָאוּי לְהִתְנַסֵּךְ. לְפִיכָךְ יַיִן מְבֻשָּׁל שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ הָעַכּוּ''ם אֵינוֹ אָסוּר וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת עִם הָעַכּוּ''ם בְּכוֹס אֶחָד. אֲבָל יַיִן מָזוּג וְיַיִן שֶׁהִתְחִיל לְהַחֲמִיץ וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה אִם נָגַע בּוֹ נֶאֱסַר:

10

The Geonim of the west ruled that if a small amount of a sweetener29 or yeast became mixed with Jewish wine, since it is no longer fit for the altar,30 it is considered as if were boiled or as if it were beer and will not be used as a libation. It is permitted to drink it together with a gentile.

י

הוֹרוּ גְּאוֹנֵי הַמַּעֲרָב שֶׁאִם נִתְעָרֵב בְּיֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל מְעַט דְּבַשׁ אוֹ מְעַט שְׂאוֹר הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְבֻשָּׁל אוֹ כְּשֵׁכָר וְאֵינוֹ מִתְנַסֵּךְ וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ עִם הָעַכּוּ''ם:

11

When does wine belonging to a gentile become forbidden? When the grapes have been crushed and the wine begins to flow,31 even though it has not descended into the cistern and is still in the wine press, it is forbidden. For this reason, we do not crush grapes together with a gentile in a wine press,32 lest he touch it with his hand33 and offer it as a libation. [This applies] even if he is bound. [Similarly,] we do not purchase a wine press [filled with] crushed [grapes] even if the wine is still mixed with the seeds and peels and has not descended into the cistern.

יא

מֵאֵימָתַי יֵאָסֵר יֵין הָעַכּוּ''ם מִשֶּׁיִּדְרֹךְ וְיִמָּשֵׁךְ הַיַּיִן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָרַד לַבּוֹר אֶלָּא עֲדַיִן הוּא בַּגַּת הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין דּוֹרְכִין עִם הָעַכּוּ''ם בַּגַּת שֶׁמָּא יִגַּע בְּיָדוֹ וִינַסֵּךְ. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כָּפוּת. וְאֵין לוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ גַּת דְּרוּכָה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן הַיַּיִן מְעֹרָב עִם הַחַרְצַנִּים וְזַגִּין וְלֹא יָרַד לַבּוֹר:

12

When a gentile crushes [grapes for] wine without touching it34 and a Jew is standing over him,35 and a Jew is the one who collects it in jugs, it is forbidden [only] to be drunken.36

יב

עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁדָּרַךְ הַיַּיִן וְלֹא נָגַע בּוֹ וַהֲרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבָּיו וְיִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא שֶׁכְּנָסוֹ בֶּחָבִית הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה:

13

It is forbidden to benefit from vinegar belonging to a gentile, because it became [forbidden like] wine offered as a libation before it became vinegar.37

When a gentile is crushing grapes in a barrel, we are not concerned that the wine [becomes forbidden] as wine used for a libation. If a gentile was eating from the baskets [of grapes brought to a winepress] and left over, a se'ah or two and threw them into the winepress, he does not cause the wine [to become forbidden] as wine used for a libation, even though it spatters over the grapes.38

יג

הַחֹמֶץ שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה יֵין נֶסֶךְ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּחְמִיץ. עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהָיָה דּוֹרֵס עֲנָבִים בְּחָבִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיַּיִן צָף עַל גַּבֵּי יָדָיו אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין מִשּׁוּם יֵין נֶסֶךְ. הָיָה אוֹכֵל מִן הַסַּלִּים וְהוֹתִיר כִּסְאָה וּכְסָאתַיִם וּזְרָקָן בַּגַּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיַּיִן מִגִּתּוֹ עַל הָעֲנָבִים אֵין עוֹשֶׂה יֵין נֶסֶךְ:

14

Grape seeds and peels belonging to a gentile are forbidden39 for twelve months. After twelve months, they have already dried out, they contain no moisture and they are permitted to be eaten. Similarly, the dregs of wine that have dried out are permitted to be eaten after twelve months.40 [The rationale is that] no trace of wine remains; they are just like dust or earth.

יד

הַחַרְצַנִּים וְהַזַּגִּין שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם אֲסוּרִים כָּל י''ב חֹדֶשׁ. וּלְאַחַר י''ב חֹדֶשׁ כְּבָר יָבְשׁוּ וְלֹא נִשְׁאֲרָה בָּהֶן לַחְלוּחִית וּמֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה. וְכֵן שְׁמָרִים שֶׁל יַיִן שֶׁיָּבְשׁוּ לְאַחַר שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ מֻתָּרִין שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִשְׁאַר בָּהֶן רֵיחַ יַיִן וַהֲרֵי הֵן כֶּעָפָר וְכַאֲדָמָה:

15

It is forbidden to put wine in wineskins or barrels in which gentiles had kept wine41 until:

a) they are allowed to dry for twelve months;42

b) they are placed in a fire until their pitch becomes soft or they become hot;43

c) water is placed in them for three days for a full 24 hour period; [one places water in them], pours it out after 24 hours, and puts other water in. [This should be done] three times in three days.

[This applies] whether the containers belong to them or they belonged to a Jew from whom they borrowed them and then placed their wine into them. If one put wine in them before purifying them, it is forbidden to drink [that wine].44

טו

נֹאדוֹת הָעַכּוּ''ם וְקַנְקְנֵיהֶן שֶׁהִכְנִיסוּ בָּהֶן הָעַכּוּ''ם יֵינָם אָסוּר לִתֵּן לְתוֹכָן יַיִן עַד שֶׁיְּיַשְּׁנָן שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ אוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזִירָן לָאוּר עַד שֶׁיִּתְרַפֶּה הַזֶּפֶת שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן אוֹ שֶׁיֵּחַמּוּ אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן לְתוֹכָן מַיִם שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים מֵעֵת לְעֵת וּמְעָרֶה הַמַּיִם וּמַחֲלִיף מַיִם אֲחֵרִים כָּל מֵעֵת לְעֵת שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בִּשְׁלֹשֶׁת הַיָּמִים. בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ הַכֵּלִים שֶׁלָּהֶן בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתָן וְהִכְנִיסוּ בָּהֶן יֵינָם. וְאִם נָתַן לְתוֹכָם יַיִן קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּטַהֵר אוֹתָן הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה:

16

It is permitted to place beer, fish brine, or fish oil in these containers immediately.45 None of these [purging processes] are necessary. After one placed fish brine or fish oil in them, one may place wine in them, for the salt [in the fish brine or fat] will burn out [any residue of wine].

טז

וּמֻתָּר לִתֵּן לְתוֹכָן שֵׁכָר אוֹ צִיר אוֹ מוּרְיָס מִיָּד וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִכְלוּם. וּמֻתָּר לִתֵּן הַיַּיִן לְתוֹכָן אַחַר שֶׁנּוֹתֵן הַצִּיר אוֹ הַמּוּרְיָס שֶׁהַמֶּלַח שׂוֹרְפָן:

17

When a person purchases new utensils that were not covered with pitch from a gentile, he may place wine in them immediately, he need not worry that gentile wine had been placed in them. If they were covered with pitch, he should wash them thoroughly even though they are new.46

Similarly, [any] utensil in which gentile wine was placed, but was not stored there for an extensive period, e.g., a bucket used to draw wine from a cistern, a funnel, or the like, should be swashed in water. That is sufficient for it.47

יז

הַלּוֹקֵחַ כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים שֶׁאֵינָם מְזֻפָּתִים מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם נוֹתֵן לְתוֹכָן יַיִן מִיָּד וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא נָתְנוּ בָּהֶן יֵין נֶסֶךְ. וְאִם הָיוּ מְזֻפָּתִין מְדִיחָן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן חֲדָשִׁים. וְכֵן כְּלִי שֶׁנָּתְנוּ בּוֹ יֵין נֶסֶךְ וְאֵין מַכְנִיסוֹ לְקִיּוּם כְּגוֹן כְּלִי שֶׁחוֹשֵׂף בּוֹ אוֹ הַמַּשְׁפֵּךְ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ מְשַׁכְשְׁכוֹ בְּמַיִם וְדַיּוֹ:

18

Similarly, it is forbidden to drink from an earthenware cup that a gentile had drunken from. If one washed it thoroughly three times, it is permitted, for all traces of wine have been washed away.48 This applies provided it is glazed with lead as potters do or covered with pitch. If, however, it is of earthenware, washing it thoroughly [once] is [all that is] required.49

יח

וְכֵן כּוֹס שֶׁל חֶרֶס שֶׁשָּׁתָה בּוֹ הָעַכּוּ''ם אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת בּוֹ. הֱדִיחוֹ פַּעַם רִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁנִיָּה וּשְׁלִישִׁית מֻתָּר שֶׁכְּבָר הָלְכוּ צִחְצוּחֵי הַיַּיִן שֶׁבּוֹ. וְהוּא שֶׁהָיָה מְצֻפֶּה בַּאֲבָר כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהַיּוֹצְרִין עוֹשִׂין אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְזֻפָּת. אֲבָל שֶׁל חֶרֶס צָרִיךְ הֲדָחָה:

19

When earthenware utensils that are glazed with lead50 are used for gentile wine, they are permitted51 if they are white, red, or black. If they are green, they are forbidden, because they absorb.52 If they have a portion where the earthenware is revealed,53 they are forbidden54 whether they are white or green, because they absorb.

It appears to me that this ruling applies only when wine was placed in them for long term storage.55 If, however, it was not placed in them for long term storage, [it is necessary merely to] wash them.56 They are then permitted, even if they are earthenware.57

יט

כְּלֵי חֶרֶס הַשּׁוֹעִים בַּאֲבָר שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהֶן בְּיֵין נֶסֶךְ אִם הָיוּ לְבָנִים אוֹ אֲדֻמִּים אוֹ שְׁחוֹרִים מֻתָּרִין. וְאִם הָיוּ יְרֻקִּין אֲסוּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בּוֹלְעִים. וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם מָקוֹם מְגֻלֶּה שֶׁל חֶרֶס בֵּין לְבָנִים בֵּין יְרֻקִּים אֲסוּרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם בּוֹלְעִין. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁכָּנְסוּ בָּהֶם לְקִיּוּם. אֲבָל לֹא כָּנְסוּ בָּהֶם לְקִיּוּם מְדִיחָן וּמֻתָּרִין וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם שֶׁל חֶרֶס:

20

When a gentile treads on grapes in a winepress of stone or of wood58 or a gentile applied pitch to a winepress of stone59 even though he did not tread the grapes there, one must wash [the press] thoroughly with water and ashes60 four times. Afterwards, one may tread grapes there. If [the press] is still moist, one should place the ashes in before the water. If it is not moist, one should place the water in first.

כ

גַּת שֶׁל אֶבֶן וְשֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁדָּרַךְ בָּהֶן הָעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ גַּת שֶׁל אֶבֶן שֶׁזִּפְּתָהּ הָעַכּוּ''ם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא דָּרַךְ בָּהּ מְדִיחָן בְּמַיִם וּבְאֵפֶר אַרְבַּע פְּעָמִים וְדוֹרֵךְ בָּהֶן. וְאִם הָיְתָה בָּהֶם לַחְלוּחִית מַקְדִּים הָאֵפֶר לַמַּיִם. וְאִם לָאו מַקְדִּים הַמַּיִם:

21

When a gentile treaded [grapes] in a stone winepress covered with pitch or [applied] pitch to a wooden winepress61 even though he did not tread grapes there, one must peel the pitch.62 If one left it for twelve months or placed water in it for three days, it is not necessary to peel [the pitch off].63 [The laws applying to] a winepress need not be more stringent than those applying to barrels.64 [The option of] peeling was given only to allow [the winepress to be used] immediately.65

כא

גַּת שֶׁל אֶבֶן מְזֻפֶּפֶת שֶׁדָּרַךְ בָּהּ הָעַכּוּ''ם. אוֹ גַּת שֶׁל עֵץ זְפוּתָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא דָּרַךְ בָּהּ צָרִיךְ לִקְלֹף אֶת הַזֶּפֶת. וְאִם יִשְּׁנָהּ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ אוֹ נָתַן בָּהּ מַיִם שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים מֵעֵת לְעֵת אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִקְלֹף. לֹא תִּהְיֶה הַגַּת חֲמוּרָה יֶתֶר מִן הַקַּנְקַנִּים. לֹא נֶאֱמַר יִקְלֹף אֶלָּא לְהַתִּירָהּ מִיָּד:

22

An earthenware winepress [is governed by more stringent rules].66Even if one peels the pitch, it is forbidden to tread grapes in it immediately. [Instead, one must] heat it with fire until the pitch softens. If, however, one leaves it for twelve months or places water in it for three successive days, it is permitted,67as we explained.68

כב

גַּת שֶׁל חֶרֶס אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּלַף אֶת הַזֶּפֶת אָסוּר לִדְרֹךְ בָּהּ מִיָּד עַד שֶׁיָּחֵם אוֹתָהּ בְּאֵשׁ עַד שֶׁיִּרְפֶּה הַזֶּפֶת. וְאִם יִשְּׁנָהּ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ אוֹ נָתַן בָּהּ מַיִם שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים מֻתֶּרֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

23

[The following laws apply to] a filter that had been used for wine belonging to a gentile. If it is made of hair, it should be washed thoroughly69 and then it may be used as a filter. If it is made from wool, it should be washed thoroughly four times with water and ashes and then left it70 until it dries. If it was from flax,71 it should be left for twelve months. If it has knots, they should be untied [before the filter is washed out].72

Similar [laws apply with regard to] utensils from reeds,73 from date bast, or similar utensils like wicker baskets that are used to tread grapes. If they were sewed with ropes, they should be washed thoroughly. If they are tangled together with snarls that are difficult to undo, they should be washed four times with ashes and with water. [After] they are dried, they may be used. If they are sewed with flax, they should be left unused for twelve months. If they have knots, they should be untied.74

כג

מְשַׁמֶּרֶת שֶׁל יַיִן שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם אִם הָיְתָה שֶׁל שֵׂעָר מְדִיחָהּ וּמְשַׁמֵּר בָּהּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה שֶׁל צֶמֶר מְדִיחָהּ בְּמַיִם וּבְאֵפֶר אַרְבַּע פְּעָמִים וּמְדִיחָהּ עַד שֶׁתִּנָּגֵב וּמְשַׁמֵּר בָּהּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה שֶׁל שֵׁשׁ מְיַשְּׁנָהּ י''ב חֹדֶשׁ. וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן קְשָׁרִים מַתִּירָן. וְכֵן כְּלֵי חֵלֶף וְהוּצִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִכְּפִיפוֹת שֶׁדּוֹרְכִין בָּהֶן יַיִן אִם הָיוּ תְּפוּרִין בַּחֲבָלִים מְדִיחָן. וְאִם הָיוּ אֲחוּזוֹת זוֹ בְּסִבּוּךְ קָשֶׁה מְדִיחָן בְּאֵפֶר וּבְמַיִם אַרְבַּע פְּעָמִים וּמְנַגְּבָן וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן. וְאִם הָיוּ תְּפוּרוֹת בְּפִשְׁתָּן מְיַשְּׁנָן שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן קְשָׁרִים מַתִּירָן:

24

How can the utensils of a winepress used by a gentile for gentile wine be purified so that a Jew may use them? The boards,75 the balls of clay,76and the palm branches77 should be washed thoroughly. The restraints78 of wood and of canvas should be dried out.79 Those from water grasses and from bullrushes should be left unused for twelve months.

If he desires to purify them immediately, he should place them in boiling water,80 seal them with water used to cook olives,81 or place them under a drain through which water flows continually or in a stream of running water for twelve hours.82 Afterwards, they are permitted.

כד

כְּלֵי הַגַּת שֶׁדָּרַךְ בָּהֶן הָעַכּוּ''ם יֵין נֶסֶךְ כֵּיצַד מְטַהֲרִין אוֹתָן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּדְרֹךְ בָּהֶן הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל. הַדַּפִּין וְהָעֲדָשִׁים וְהַלּוּלָבִין מְדִיחָן. הָעֲקָלִין. שֶׁל נְסָרִין וְשֶׁל בִּצְבּוּץ מְנַגְּבָן. שֶׁל שִׁיפָה וְשֶׁל גֶּמִי מְיַשְּׁנָן שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. וְאִם רָצָה לְטַהֲרָן מִיָּד מַגְעִילָן בְּרוֹתְחִין אוֹ חוֹלְטָן בְּמֵי זֵיתִים אוֹ מַנִּיחָן תַּחַת צִנּוֹר שֶׁמֵּימָיו מְקֻלָּחִין אוֹ בְּמַעְיָן שֶׁמֵּימָיו רוֹדְפִין שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁעוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֻתְּרוּ:

25

In the era when the land of Israel was entirely within the possession of the Jewish people, it was permitted to purchase wine from any Jewish person without holding anyone in suspicion.83 In the Diaspora, they would only purchase [wine] from a person whose reputation [for observance] has been established. In the present age, in every place, we only purchase wine from a person whose reputation for observance has been established.84These laws also apply to meat, cheese, and a cut of fish that does not have a sign as we explained.85

כה

בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָיְתָה אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל כֻּלָּהּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הָיוּ לוֹקְחִין הַיַּיִן מִכָּל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לוֹ. וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ לֹא הָיוּ לוֹקְחִין אֶלָּא מֵאָדָם שֶׁהֻחְזַק בְּכַשְׁרוּת. וּבַזְּמַן הַזֶּה אֵין לוֹקְחִין יַיִן בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֶלָּא מֵאָדָם שֶׁהֻחְזַק בְּכַשְׁרוּת. וְכֵן הַבָּשָׂר וְהַגְּבִינָה וַחֲתִיכַת דָּג שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ סִימָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

26

When a person enjoys the hospitality of a homeowner in any place and at any time and that homeowner brings him wine, meat, cheese, or a piece of fish, it is permitted. There is no need to inquire concerning it.86 [This law applies] even if he does not know him at all; all that he knows is that he is Jewish.

If [the host] has an established reputation for non-observance and for not paying attention to these matters, it is forbidden to accept his hospitality. If one transgresses and accepts his hospitality, it is forbidden to eat meat and drink wine [despite] his assurances unless a person who has an established reputation for observance testifies [to their acceptability].

כו

הַמִּתְאָרֵחַ אֵצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת בְּכָל מָקוֹם וּבְכָל זְמַן וְהֵבִיא לוֹ יַיִן אוֹ בָּשָׂר אוֹ גְּבִינָה וַחֲתִיכַת דָּג הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִשְׁאל עָלָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַכִּירוֹ אֶלָּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא יְהוּדִי בִּלְבַד. וְאִם הֻחְזַק שֶׁאֵינוֹ כָּשֵׁר וְלֹא מְדַקְדֵּק בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ אָסוּר לְהִתְאָרֵחַ אֶצְלוֹ. וְאִם עָבַר וְנִתְאָרֵחַ אֶצְלוֹ אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל בָּשָׂר וְלֹא שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן עַל פִּיו עַד שֶׁיָּעִיד לוֹ אָדָם כָּשֵׁר עֲלֵיהֶם: