1

It is forbidden to cook meat and milk together and to partake of them according to Scriptural Law.1 It is forbidden to benefit from [such a mixture]. It must be buried. Its ashes are forbidden like the ashes of all substances that must be buried.2

Whenever a person cooks an olive-sized portion of the two substances together,3 he is worthy of lashes, as [Exodus 23:19] states: "Do not cook a kid in its mother's milk." Similarly, a person who partakes of an olive-sized portion of the meat and milk that were cooked together4 is worthy of lashes even though he was not the one who cooked them.5

א

בָשָׂר בְּחָלָב אָסוּר לְבַשְּׁלוֹ וְאָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְאָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה. וְקוֹבְרִין אוֹתוֹ. וְאֶפְרוֹ אָסוּר כְּאֵפֶר כָּל הַנִּקְבָּרִין. וּמִי שֶׁיְּבַשֵּׁל מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם כְּזַיִת כְּאֶחָד לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יט) (שמות לד כו) (דברים יד כא) "לֹא תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ". וְכֵן הָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם מֵהַבָּשָׂר וְהֶחָלָב שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ כְּאֶחָד לוֹקֶה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא בִּשֵּׁל:

2

The Torah remained silent concerning the prohibition against partaking [of meat and milk]6 only because it forbade cooking them. This is as if to say: Even cooking it is forbidden, how much more so partaking of it.7 [To cite a parallel:] The Torah did not mention the prohibition against relations with one's daughter, because it forbade those with the daughter of one's daughter.8

ב

לֹא שָׁתַק הַכָּתוּב מִלֶּאֱסֹר הָאֲכִילָה אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסַר הַבִּשּׁוּל כְּלוֹמַר וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּשּׁוּלוֹ אָסוּר וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אֲכִילָתוֹ. כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁתַק מִלֶּאֱסֹר הַבַּת מֵאַחַר שֶׁאָסַר בַּת הַבַּת:

3

According to Scriptural Law, the prohibition involves only [a mixture of] meat from a kosher domesticated animal9 and milk from a kosher domesticated animal, as implied by the verse: "Do not cook a kid in its mother's milk."10 The term "a kid" includes the offspring of an ox, the offspring of a sheep, and the offspring of a goat unless the verse states explicitly, a goat-kid.11The term "a kid in its mother's milk" [does not exclude all other situations].12 Instead, the Torah is speaking regarding the commonplace circumstance.

With regard to the meat of a kosher animal which was cooked in the milk of a non-kosher animal or the meat of a non-kosher animal which was cooked in the milk of a kosher animal, by contrast, cooking is permitted, and deriving benefit is permitted. One is not liable for [transgressing the prohibition against partaking of] meat and milk if one partakes of it.13

ג

אֵין אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה בַּחֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יט) (שמות לד כו) (דברים יד כא) "לֹא תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ". וּגְדִי הוּא כּוֹלֵל וְלַד הַשּׁוֹר וְלַד הַשֶּׂה וְלַד הָעֵז עַד שֶׁיִּפְרֹט וְיֹאמַר גְּדִי עִזִּים וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁדִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב בַּהוֹוֶה. אֲבָל בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה (שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ) בַּחֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה. אוֹ בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה (שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ) בַּחֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה מֻתָּר לְבַשֵּׁל וּמֻתֶּרֶת בַּהֲנָיָה וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ מִשּׁוּם בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב:

4

Similarly, the meat of a wild beast and the meat of a fowl together with the milk of a wild beast or the milk of a domesticated animal is not forbidden according to Scriptural Law.14 Therefore it is permitted to cook it and it is permitted to benefit from it. It is forbidden to partake of it according to Rabbinic Law so that people at large will not be negligent and come to violate the Scriptural prohibition against milk and meat and partake of the meat of a kosher domesticated animal [cooked] in the milk of a kosher domesticated animal. For the literal meaning of the verse implies only the meat of a kid in the milk of its actual mother.15 Therefore, they forbade all meat in milk.

ד

וְכֵן בְּשַׂר חַיָּה וְעוֹף בֵּין בַּחֲלֵב חַיָּה בֵּין בַּחֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה אֵינוֹ אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְבַשְּׁלוֹ וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה. וְאָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפְשְׁעוּ הָעָם וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי אִסּוּר בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וְיֹאכְלוּ בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה בַּחֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין מַשְׁמַע הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ מַמָּשׁ. לְפִיכָךְ אָסְרוּ כָּל בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב:

5

It is permitted to partake of fish and locusts [cooked] in milk.16

When a person slaughters a fowl and finds eggs that are completed within it, it is permitted to partake of them together with milk.17

ה

דָּגִים וַחֲגָבִים מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָן בְּחָלָב. וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט עוֹף וְנִמְצָא בּוֹ בֵּיצִים גְּמוּרוֹת מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָן בְּחָלָב:

6

When [milk and meat] are smoked, cooked in the hot springs of Tiberias, or the like, one is not liable for lashes.18 Similarly, when meat is cooked in whey, milk from a dead animal,19 or milk from a male,20 or if blood is cooked with milk, one is absolved and is not liable for partaking [of the mixture] because of [the prohibition against partaking of] milk and meat.21

When, however, a person cooks the meat of a dead animal, forbidden fat, or the like in milk, he is liable for lashes for cooking.22 He is not liable for lashes for partaking [of the mixture] because of the prohibition against meat and milk.23For the prohibition against [mixtures of] meat and milk does not take effect with regard to [entities] prohibited as nevelah or forbidden fat, because we are not speaking about a more encompassing prohibition, a prohibition which adds a new dimension, or [two] prohibitions that take effect at the same time.24

ו

הַמְעֵשָּׁן וְהַמְבֻשָּׁל בְּחַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֵין לוֹקִין עָלָיו. וְכֵן הַמְבַשֵּׁל בָּשָׂר בְּמֵי חָלָב אוֹ בַּחֲלֵב מֵתָה אוֹ בַּחֲלֵב זָכָר אוֹ שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל דָּם בְּחָלָב פָּטוּר וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ מִשּׁוּם בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב. אֲבָל הַמְבַשֵּׁל בְּשַׂר מֵתָה אוֹ חֵלֶב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בְּחָלָב לוֹקֶה עַל בִּשּׁוּלוֹ וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ מִשּׁוּם בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב. שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב חָל עַל אִסּוּר נְבֵלָה אוֹ אִסּוּר חֵלֶב. שֶׁאֵין כָּאן לֹא אִסּוּר כּוֹלֵל וְלֹא אִסּוּר מוֹסִיף וְלֹא אִסּוּר בַּת אַחַת:

7

When a person cooks a fetus in milk, he is liable. Similarly, one who partakes of it is liable. When, however, one cooks a placenta, skin, sinews, bones, the roots of the horns, or the soft portion of the hoofs [cooked] in milk,25 he is not liable. Similarly, one who partakes [of such a mixture] is not liable.

ז

הַמְבַשֵּׁל שָׁלִיל בְּחָלָב חַיָּב וְכֵן הָאוֹכְלוֹ. אֲבָל הַמְבַשֵּׁל שִׁלְיָא אוֹ עוֹר וְגִידִין וַעֲצָמוֹת וְעִקְּרֵי קַרְנַיִם וּטְלָפַיִם הָרַכִּים בְּחָלָב פָּטוּר. וְכֵן הָאוֹכְלָן פָּטוּר:

8

When meat falls into milk or milk falls into meat and they are cooked together, the minimum measure [for which one is liable is] enough for one substance to impart its flavor to the other.

What is implied? When a piece of meat falls into a bubbling pot26 full of milk, a gentile should taste [the contents of] the pot.27 If it has the flavor of meat, it is forbidden. If not, it is permitted, but the piece of meat is forbidden.28

When does the above apply? When he hurried and removed the piece of meat before it discharged the milk that it absorbed. If he did not remove it [that quickly], we require 60 times its volume,29 because the milk that it absorbed became forbidden. It was discharged and then mixed together with the remainder of the milk.30

ח

בָּשָׂר שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ הֶחָלָב אוֹ חָלָב שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ הַבָּשָׂר וְנִתְבַּשֵּׁל עִמּוֹ שִׁעוּרוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. כֵּיצַד. חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר שֶׁנָּפְלָה לִקְדֵרָה רוֹתַחַת שֶׁל חָלָב. טוֹעֵם הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה. אִם אָמַר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ טַעַם בָּשָׂר אֲסוּרָה. וְאִם לָאו מֻתֶּרֶת. וְאוֹתָהּ חֲתִיכָה אֲסוּרָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁקָּדַם וְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַחֲתִיכָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּפְלֹט חָלָב שֶׁבָּלְעָה. אֲבָל אִם לֹא סִלֵּק מְשַׁעֲרִים אוֹתָהּ בְּשִׁשִּׁים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֶחָלָב שֶׁנִּבְלָע בָּהּ וְנֶאֱסַר יָצָא וְנִתְעָרֵב עִם שְׁאָר הֶחָלָב:

9

When milk falls [onto a piece of] meat [being cooked] in a pot,31 we taste32 the piece on which the milk fell. If it does not have the flavor of milk, everything is permitted.33 [More stringent rules apply] if the piece of meat has the flavor of milk. Even though if the piece of meat was pressed to remove [the absorbed liquid], the flavor [of milk] would not remain, since it has the flavor of milk now, it is forbidden and we must measure its entire volume.34 If everything in the pot - the other meat, the vegetables, the sauce, and the spices - is great enough so that the piece is one sixtieth of the entire [volume], that piece of meat is forbidden35 and the remainder is permitted.36

ט

נָפַל חָלָב לְתוֹךְ קְדֵרָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר טוֹעֲמִין אֶת הַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁנָּפַל עָלֶיהָ חָלָב. אִם אֵין בָּהּ טַעַם חָלָב הַכּל מֻתָּר. וְאִם יֵשׁ בַּחֲתִיכָה טַעַם חָלָב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם תִּסָּחֵט הַחֲתִיכָה לֹא יִשָּׁאֵר בָּהּ טַעַם. הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ עַתָּה טַעַם חָלָב נֶאֶסְרָה אוֹתָהּ חֲתִיכָה. וּמְשַׁעֲרִין בְּכֻלָּהּ אִם הָיָה בְּכָל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּקְּדֵרָה מִן הַחֲתִיכוֹת וְהָיָּרָק וְהַמָּרָק וְהַתַּבְלִין כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה חֲתִיכָה זוֹ אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים מִן הַכּל הַחֲתִיכָה אֲסוּרָה וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר:

10

When does the above apply? When he did not stir the pot at the outset when the milk fell into it. [He did so] only at the end37 and did not cover the pot.38

If, however, he stirred the pot from the beginning until the end39 or covered [the pot]40 from the time [the milk] fell until the end, [the question of whether a prohibition exists depends] on whether [the milk] imparted its flavor.41

Similarly, if the milk fell into the sauce or onto all the pieces and it was not known on which piece [the milk] fell,42 he should stir the entire pot so that all its contents will be mixed [thoroughly].43 If the flavor of milk [can be detected] in the entire pot, it is forbidden. If not, it is permitted. If a gentile to taste [the pot] whom we can rely on cannot be found, we require a measure of sixty whether for meat in milk or milk in meat. If there is one measure in sixty,44 it is permitted. If there is less than sixty, it is forbidden.

י

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁלֹּא נִעֵר אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה בַּתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁנָּפַל הֶחָלָב אֶלָּא לְבַסּוֹף וְלֹא כִּסָּה. אֲבָל אִם נִעֵר מִתְּחִלָּה וְעַד סוֹף אוֹ שֶׁכִּסָּה מִשְּׁעַת נְפִילָה עַד סוֹף הֲרֵי זֶה בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וְכֵן אִם נָפַל חָלָב לְתוֹךְ הַמָּרָק אוֹ לְכָל הַחֲתִיכוֹת וְלֹא נוֹדַע לְאֵי זֶה חֲתִיכָה נָפַל. נוֹעֵר אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה כֻּלָּהּ עַד שֶׁתָּשׁוּב וְיִתְעָרֵב הַכּל. אִם יֵשׁ בַּקְּדֵרָה כֻּלָּהּ טַעַם חָלָב אֲסוּרָה וְאִם לָאו מֻתֶּרֶת. אִם לֹא נִמְצָא נָכְרִי שֶׁיִּטְעֹם וְנִסְמֹךְ עָלָיו מְשַׁעֲרִים בְּשִׁשִּׁים בֵּין בָּשָׂר לְתוֹךְ חָלָב בֵּין חָלָב לְתוֹךְ בָּשָׂר אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים מֻתָּר פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים אָסוּר:

11

When meat has been cooked in a pot, milk should not be cooked in it.45 If one cooked [milk] in it, [it is forbidden] if it imparted its flavor.46

יא

קְדֵרָה שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בָּהּ בָּשָׂר לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל בָּהּ חָלָב. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם:

12

The udders [of an animal] are forbidden according to Rabbinic Law.47 [The prohibition is not of Scriptural origin, because] meat that was cooked in milk from an animal that was slaughtered is not forbidden according to Scriptural Law, as we explained.48

Therefore if one cut it open and discharged the milk it contained, it is permitted to roast it and eat it. If one cut it both horizontally and vertically and then pressed it into a wall until none of the moisture of the milk remained, it may be cooked with other meat.49

When an udder has not been cut open, when from a young animal that never nursed50 or from an older one, it is forbidden to cook it. If one transgressed and cooked it alone, it is permitted to partake of it. If one cooked it with other meat, we require 60 times its volume. The udder itself is calculated in the 60.51

יב

הַכְּחַל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. שֶׁאֵין בָּשָׂר שֶׁנִתְבַּשֵּׁל בַּחֲלֵב שְׁחוּטָה אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם קְרָעוֹ וּמֵרֵק הֶחָלָב שֶׁבּוֹ מֻתָּר לִצְלוֹתוֹ וּלְאָכְלוֹ. וְאִם קְרָעוֹ שְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב וְטָחוֹ בַּכֹּתֶל עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאַר בּוֹ לַחְלוּחִית חָלָב מֻתָּר לְבַשְּׁלוֹ עִם הַבָּשָׂר. וּכְחַל שֶׁלֹּא קְרָעוֹ בֵּין שֶׁל קְטַנָּה שֶׁלֹּא הֵינִיקָה בֵּין שֶׁל גְּדוֹלָה אָסוּר לְבַשְּׁלוֹ. וְאִם עָבַר וּבִשְּׁלוֹ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ. וְאִם בִּשְּׁלוֹ עִם בָּשָׂר אַחֵר מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים וּכְחַל מִן הַמִּנְיָן:

13

What is implied? If the entire mixture together with the udder was sixty times the volume of the udder, the udder is forbidden,52 and the remainder is permitted. If there was less than 60 times its volume, the entire mixture is forbidden. Regardless of [the ruling applying to the entire mixture], if the udder fell into another pot, it can cause it to be forbidden. We require 60 times its volume as in the original instance.53 [The rationale is that] the udder which is cooked becomes considered as a forbidden piece of meat.

We measure [the volume of] the udder at the time that it was cooked, not according to its state when it fell [into the mixture].

יג

כֵּיצַד. אִם הָיָה הַכּל עִם הַכְּחַל כְּמוֹ שִׁשִּׁים בַּכְּחַל הַכְּחַל אָסוּר וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר. וְאִם הָיָה בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים הַכּל אָסוּר. בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ אִם נָפַל לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת אוֹסֵר אוֹתָהּ וּמְשַׁעֲרִין בּוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים כְּבָרִאשׁוֹנָה. שֶׁהַכְּחַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁנִתְבַּשֵּׁל נַעֲשָׂה כַּחֲתִיכָה הָאֲסוּרָה וְאֵין מְשַׁעֲרִין בּוֹ אֶלָּא כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא בְּעֵת שֶׁנִתְבַּשֵּׁל לֹא כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנָּפַל:

14

We do not roast an udder that has been cut above meat on a spit.54If, however, one roasted it [in that manner], everything is permitted.55

יד

אֵין צוֹלִין אֶת הַכְּחַל שֶׁחֲתָכוֹ [לְמַעְלָה] מִן הַבָּשָׂר בְּשִׁפּוּד. וְאִם צָלָהוּ הַכּל מֻתָּר:

15

A stomach that is cooked with milk inside it56 is permitted. [The rationale is that] it is no longer considered as milk.57 Instead, it is considered as a waste product, because it undergoes a change in the digestive system.

טו

קֵבָה שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָהּ בֶּחָלָב שֶׁבָּהּ מֻתֶּרֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָלָב אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא כְּטִנֹּפֶת שֶׁהֲרֵי יִשְׁתַּנֶּה בַּמֵּעַיִם:

16

It is forbidden to place the skin of a kosher animal's stomach [in milk] to serve as a catalyst for it to harden into cheese. If one used it as a catalyst, [a gentile] should taste the cheese. If it has a taste of meat, it is forbidden. If not, it is permitted. [The rationale is that] the catalyst is itself a permitted entity,58 for it comes from the stomach of a kosher animal. [The only question] is [whether] the prohibition against meat and milk [was violated] and that is dependent on whether the flavor was imparted.

[Different laws apply, however, when] one uses the skin of the stomach of a nevelah, a trefe, or a non-kosher animal. [The rationale is that] since the catalyst is forbidden in its own right, the cheese becomes forbidden, not because of the prohibition of meat and milk, but because of the prohibition against a nevelah. For this reason, [our Sages] forbade cheeses made by gentiles, as we explained.59

טז

אָסוּר לְהַעֲמִיד הַגְּבִינָה בְּעוֹר הַקֵּבָה שֶׁל שְׁחוּטָה. וְאִם הֶעֱמִיד טוֹעֵם אֶת הַגְּבִינָה אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ טַעַם בָּשָׂר אֲסוּרָה וְאִם לָאו מֻתֶּרֶת. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּעֲמִיד דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר הוּא. שֶׁקֵּיבַת שְׁחוּטָה הִיא. וְאֵין כָּאן אֶלָּא אִסּוּר בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב שֶׁשִּׁעוּרוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. אֲבָל הַמַּעֲמִיד בְּעוֹר קֵיבַת נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה וּבְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה הוֹאִיל וְהַמַּעֲמִיד דָּבָר הָאָסוּר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ נֶאֶסְרָה הַגְּבִינָה מִשּׁוּם נְבֵלָה לֹא מִשּׁוּם בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב. וּמִפְּנֵי חֲשָׁשׁ זֶה אָסְרוּ גְּבִינַת עַכּוּ''ם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

17

Meat alone is permitted and milk alone is permitted. It is [only] when the two become mixed together through cooking that they both become forbidden.

When does the above apply? When they were cooked together, when a hot object fell into a hot object,60 or when a cold object fell into a hot object.61If, however, [milk or meat] that is hot fell into the other when it is cold, [all that is necessary is to] remove the surface of the meat which touched the milk; the remainder may be eaten.62

If cold [meat] fell into cold [milk or the opposite], one must wash the piece of meat thoroughly.63 [Afterwards,] it may be eaten. For this reason, it is permitted to [carry] meat and milk bound together in a single handkerchief, provided they do not touch each other. If they do touch each other, one must wash the meat and wash the cheese.64 [Afterwards,] he may partake of them.

יז

הַבָּשָׂר לְבַדּוֹ מֻתָּר וְהֶחָלָב לְבַדּוֹ מֻתָּר וּבְהִתְעָרֵב שְׁנֵיהֶן עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל יֵאָסְרוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּיַחַד אוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל חַם לְתוֹךְ חַם אוֹ צוֹנֵן לְתוֹךְ חַם. אֲבָל אִם נָפַל אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם וְהוּא חַם לְתוֹךְ הַשֵּׁנִי וְהוּא צוֹנֵן קוֹלֵף הַבָּשָׂר כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ הֶחָלָב וְאוֹכֵל הַשְּׁאָר. וְאִם נָפַל צוֹנֵן לְתוֹךְ צוֹנֵן מֵדִיחַ הַחֲתִיכָה וְאוֹכְלָהּ. לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לִצְרֹר בָּשָׂר וּגְבִינָה בְּמִטְפַּחַת אַחַת וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִגְּעוּ זֶה בָּזֶה. וְאִם נָגְעוּ מֵדִיחַ הַבָּשָׂר וּמֵדִיחַ הַגְּבִינָה וְאוֹכֵל:

18

When a substance is salted to the extent that it cannot be eaten because of its salt,65 is considered as if it is boiling.66 If it can be eaten in its present state like kutach,67 it is not considered as if it is boiling.68

יח

מָלִיחַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל מֵחֲמַת מִלְחוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּרוֹתֵחַ. וְאִם נֶאֱכָל כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ הַכּוּתָח אֵינוֹ כְּרוֹתֵחַ:

19

[The following rules apply when] a fowl that has been slaughtered falls into milk or kutach that contains milk: If it is raw, it need only be washed thoroughly and it is permitted. If it was roasted, one should remove its surface.69If it has portions where it is open70 or it is spiced and it falls into milk or kutach, it is forbidden.71

יט

עוֹף שָׁחוּט שֶׁנָּפַל לְחָלָב אוֹ לְכוּתָח שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חָלָב. אִם חַי הוּא מְדִיחוֹ וּמֻתָּר. וְאִם צָלִי קוֹלְפוֹ. וְאִם הָיוּ בּוֹ פְּלָחִים פְּלָחִים אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְתֻבָּל בְּתַבְלִין וְנָפַל לְחָלָב אוֹ לְכוּתָח הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר:

20

It is forbidden to serve fowl72 together with milk on the table upon which one is eating.73 This is a decree [enacted] because habit [might lead] to sin.74 We fear that one will eat one with the other. [This applies] even though fowl with milk is forbidden only because of Rabbinic decree.75

כ

אָסוּר לְהַעֲלוֹת הָעוֹף עִם הַגְּבִינָה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל עָלָיו גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם הֶרְגֵּל עֲבֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאכַל זֶה עִם זֶה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעוֹף בְּחָלָב אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

21

When two guests who are not familiar with each other are eating at the same table, one may eat the meat of an animal and one may eat cheese. [The rationale is] that they are not well-acquainted with each other to the extent that they will eat together.76

כא

שְׁנֵי אַכְסַנָּאִין שֶׁאֵינָם מַכִּירִין זֶה אֶת זֶה אוֹכְלִין עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד זֶה בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה וְזֶה גְּבִינָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין זֶה גַּס לִבּוֹ בָּזֶה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֹּאכַל עִמּוֹ:

22

We do not knead a loaf with milk. If one kneaded it [with milk], the loaf is forbidden,77 because habit [might lead] to sin, lest he eat it together with meat. We do not dab an oven with animal fat.78 If in fact one dabbed an oven [with fat], any loaf is forbidden79 until one fires the oven,80 lest one eat milk with [that loaf]. If one altered the appearance of the bread so that it will be evident that one should not eat meat or milk with it, it is permitted.

כב

אֵין לָשִׁין הָעִסָּה בְּחָלָב וְאִם לָשׁ כָּל הַפַּת אֲסוּרָה מִפְּנֵי הֶרְגֵּל עֲבֵרָה. שֶׁמָּא יֹאכַל בָּהּ בָּשָׂר. וְאֵין טָשִׁין אֶת הַתַּנּוּר בְּאַלְיָה. וְאִם טָשׁ כָּל הַפַּת אֲסוּרָה עַד שֶׁיַּסִּיק אֶת הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁמָּא יֹאכַל בָּהּ חָלָב. וְאִם שִׁנָּה בְּצוּרַת הַפַּת עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה נִכֶּרֶת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל בָּהּ לֹא בָּשָׂר וְלֹא חָלָב הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

23

When a loaf has been baked together with roasted meat or fish were roasted together with meat,81 it is forbidden to eat them together with milk.82 When meat was eaten83 in a dish and then fish were cooked in it, it is permitted to eat those fish together with kutach.84

כג

פַּת שֶׁאֲפָאָהּ עִם הַצָּלִי וְדָגִים שֶׁצְּלָאָן עִם הַבָּשָׂר אָסוּר לְאָכְלָן בְּחָלָב. קְעָרָה שֶׁאָכְלוּ בָּהּ בָּשָׂר וּבִשְּׁלוּ בָּהּ דָּגִים אוֹתָן הַדָּגִים מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָן בְּכוּתָח:

24

When a knife was used to cut roasted meat85 and then was used to cut radish or other sharp foods, it is forbidden to eat them together with kutach.86 If, however, one cut meat [with a knife] and afterwards cut zucchini or watermelon,87 one should scrape away the place where the cut was made and the remainder may be eaten with milk.

כד

סַכִּין שֶׁחָתַךְ בָּהּ בָּשָׂר צָלִי וְחָזַר וְחָתַךְ בָּהּ צְנוֹן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִדְּבָרִים חֲרִיפִין אָסוּר לְאָכְלָן בְּכוּתָח. אֲבָל אִם חָתַךְ בָּהּ בָּשָׂר וְחָזַר וְחָתַךְ בָּהּ קִישׁוּת אוֹ אֲבַטִּיחַ גּוֹרֵד מְקוֹם הַחֲתָךְ וְאוֹכֵל הַשְּׁאָר בְּחָלָב:

25

We do not place a jar of salt near a jar of kutach, because it will draw out its flavor.88 Thus one will cook meat with this salt that has the flavor of milk. One may, however, place a jar of vinegar near a jar of kutach, because the vinegar will not draw out its flavor.89

כה

אֵין מַנִּיחִין כַּד שֶׁל מֶלַח בְּצַד כַּד שֶׁל כְּמָךְ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשּׁוֹאֵב מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִמְצָא מְבַשֵּׁל הַבָּשָׂר בְּמֶלַח זֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם הֶחָלָב. אֲבָל מַנִּיחַ כַּד הַחֹמֶץ בְּצַד כַּד הַכְּמָךְ שֶׁאֵין הַחֹמֶץ שׁוֹאֵב מִמֶּנּוּ:

26

When a person eats cheese or milk first, it is permitted for him to eat meat directly afterwards. He must, however, wash his hands90 and clean his mouth between the cheese and the meat.91

With what should he clean his mouth? With bread or with fruit that [require him] to chew and then swallow or spit them out.92 One may clean his mouth with all substances with the exception of dates, flour, and vegetables, because they do not clean effectively.

כו

מִי שֶׁאָכַל גְּבִינָה אוֹ חָלָב תְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לֶאֱכל אַחֲרָיו בָּשָׂר מִיָּד. וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיָּדִיחַ יָדָיו וִיקַנֵּחַ פִּיו בֵּין הַגְּבִינָה וּבֵין הַבָּשָׂר. וּבְמַה מְקַנֵּחַ פִּיו בְּפַת אוֹ בְּפֵרוֹת שֶׁלּוֹעֲסָן וּבוֹלְעָן אוֹ פּוֹלְטָן. וּבַכּל מְקַנְּחִין אֶת הַפֶּה חוּץ מִתְּמָרִים אוֹ קֶמַח אוֹ יְרָקוֹת שֶׁאֵין אֵלּוּ מְקַנְּחִין יָפֶה:

27

When does the above apply? With regard to the meat of a domesticated animal or a wild beast.93 If, however, one [desires to] eat the meat of a fowl after eating cheese or milk, it is not necessary for him to clean his mouth or wash his hands.94

כז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּבְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה אוֹ חַיָּה. אֲבָל אִם אָכַל בְּשַׂר עוֹף אַחַר שֶׁאָכַל הַגְּבִינָה אוֹ הֶחָלָב אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לֹא קִנּוּחַ הַפֶּה וְלֹא נְטִילַת יָדַיִם:

28

When a person ate meat first - whether the meat of an animal or the meat of a fowl - he should not partake of milk afterwards unless he waits the time for another meal, approximately six hours.95 This stringency is required because meat that becomes stuck between teeth and is not removed by cleaning.96

כח

מִי שֶׁאָכַל בָּשָׂר בַּתְּחִלָּה בֵּין בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה בֵּין בְּשַׂר עוֹף לֹא יֹאכַל אַחֲרָיו חָלָב עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בֵּינֵיהֶן כְּדֵי שִׁעוּר סְעֵדָּה אַחֶרֶת וְהוּא כְּמוֹ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת מִפְּנֵי הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁל בֵּין הַשִּׁנַּיִם שֶׁאֵינוֹ סָר בְּקִנּוּחַ: