This reflects the attribute of abundant love that transcends the intellect,

וְהוּא בְּחִינַת אַהֲבָה רַבָּה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵהַשֵּׂכֶל

i.e., the hidden love in the heart of every Jew that stems from the essential G‑dliness of the soul, a level that transcends understanding.

It does, however, pass through the intellect in a transitory manner1 and enclothe itself within it. Thus, it does affect one’s conscious mind.

שֶׁעוֹבֶרֶת דֶּרֶךְ מַעֲבִיר עַל יְדֵי הַשֵּׂכֶל וּמִתְלַבֶּשֶׁת בּוֹ.

There were two cherubs on the Kapores, one on one end and the other on the other end (Shmos 25:19).

וּשְׁנֵי הַכְּרוּבִים כְּרוּב אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה וּכְרוּב אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה (שְׁמוֹת כ"ה י"ט)

They represent Z’eir Anpin, literally, “the small face,” referring to the Middos, the first six emotive attributes, of Atzilus, and Nukva, literally, the feminine dimension, i.e., the Attribute of Malchus.

הֵם בְּחִינַת זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין וְנוּקְבָא

For Z’eir Anpin is the conclusion of the realms of Ein Sof

כִּי זָ"א הוּא סוֹף עוֹלָמוֹת הָאֵין סוֹף

Selections from Derech Mitzvosecha (SIE)

Derech Mitzvotecha dives into reasons behind mitzvot such as tzitzit, tefillin, prayer, belief in G-d, loving a fellow Jew, starting a family and many others. Five generations later, the author`s grandson and successor, the Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, has often advised those seeking to begin study of Chasidic philosophy to study this fundamental work.

and is symbolized by the cherub extending from the one end of the Kapores.

וְזֶהוּ מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה

And Nukva of Atzilus is the source of the created beings and their root.

וְנוּקְבָא הִיא מְקוֹר הַנִּבְרָאִים וְשָׁרְשָׁם

It is thus called “the lower mother.”

וְנִקְרֵאת אִמָּא תַּתָּאָה

This refers to the cherub extending from the other end of the Kapores.

וְזֶהוּ מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה

The reason the term cherubs is used can be explained as follows:

וְהַטַּעַם שֶׁנִּקְרָא כְּרוּב

G‑d’s infinite light is “not of the nature of any of these attributes at all.”2

הִנֵּה אוֹר אֵין סוֹף לַאו מִכָּל אִנּוּן מִדּוֹת אִיהוּ כְּלָל

Instead, it is simple in a complete and absolute manner.

כִּי הוּא פָּשׁוּט בְּתַכְלִית הַפְּשִׁיטוּת

Concerning this level, it is written (I Shmuel 15:29): “He is not a man that He would change his mind.”

וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר כִּי לֹא אָדָם הוּא לְהִנָּחֵם (שְׁמוּאֵל א' ט"ו כ"ט)

As mentioned previously, the term “man” refers to the configuaration of Ten Sefiros according to which the revealed levels of the Spiritual Cosmos are structured.3 G‑d’s infinite light “is not a man;” it transcends these structures and patterns.

Nevertheless, G‑d’s infinite light descends and enclothes itself in the Ten Sefiros to illumine the worlds

וְהִתְלַבְּשׁוּתוֹ לְהָאִיר בָּעוֹלָמוֹת הוּא עַל יְדֵי י' סְפִירוֹת

as explained above in the analogy of the soul enclothed in the body,

וְכַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל בִּמְשַׁל הִתְלַבְּשׁוּת הַנֶּפֶשׁ בַּגּוּף

with the nefesh, ruach, and neshamah enclothing themselves in the brain, the heart, and the liver,

בְּחִינַת נֶפֶשׁ־רוּחַ־נְשָׁמָה בְּמוֹחַ לֵב כָּבֵד

i.e., the neshamah, in the brain; the ruach, in the heart; and the nefesh, in the liver.

For that reason, this pattern of revelation is described with the term Adam, “man.”

וְעַל שֵׁם זֶה נִקְרָא אָדָם

In Atzilus, however, the Attribute of Chochmah is Ein Sof,

אַךְ בַּאֲצִילוּת הַחָכְמָה הִיא בִּבְחִינַת אֵין סוֹף

as are the emotive qualities.

וְכֵן הַמִּדּוֹת

Then, “the great man,” which refers to the higher rungs above Atzilus, is called “the first man.”

וְאָז נִקְרָא אָדָם הַגָּדוֹל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן

The term “first” implies that there will be a second. Once the Divine light is structured in the pattern of existence that characterizes Atzilus, it is possible for the pattern to be replicated on lower realms. Nevertheless, even though in Atzilus, G‑d’s light is revealed within a framework of limitation, its infinite nature is manifest.

When, however, this light enclothes itself and contracts itself to shine within the realms of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah, it is called “the diminutive countenance,”

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמִּתְלַבֵּשׁ וּמִתְצַמְצֵם לְהָאִיר לִבְרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה נִקְרָא אַנְפֵּי זוּטְרֵי

because the Attribute of Chochmah is in a state of contraction.

שֶׁהַחָכְמָה בִּבְחִינַת צִמְצוּם

This is the concept of “the cherubs which appear as children,” as stated in the Talmud (Chagigah 13b).

וְזֶהוּ עִנְיַן כְּרוּב כְּרַבְיָא כִּדְאִיתָא בִּגְמָרָא (חֲגִיגָה י"ג ב')

The cherubs were in a state of flux between their elevated state, i.e., the image of man as reflected in Atzilus, and their state of descent, when they become the source for vitality in Beriah and the realms below it, as implied by the verse:4

“The cherubs would spread their wings upward.”

וְהַכְּרוּבִים פּוֹרְשֵׂי כְנָפַיִם לְמַעְלָה

For three times a day, i.e., during the three prayer services each day, they would ascend and become one with the level of Atzilus.

כִּי ג' פְּעָמִים בְּכָל יוֹם עוֹלִים וּמִתְיַחֲדִים בִּבְחִינַת אֲצִילוּת בְּג' תְּפִלּוֹת שֶׁבְּכָל יוֹם

The cherubs emerge from the Kapores, from the Yesod of the Sublime Mother, which serves as a Kesser with regard to Z’eir Anpin and Nukva.

וְהַכְּרוּבִים יוֹצְאִים מִן הַכַּפֹּרֶת בְּחִינַת יְסוֹד אִמָּא שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה כֶּתֶר לִזְעֵיר אַנְפִּין וְנוּקְבָא

In microcosm, it reflects the level of sovev kol almin, which includes both of them equally.

וְהוּא בְּחִינַת סוֹבֵב כָּל עָלְמִין שֶׁכּוֹלֵל שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּשָׁוֶה,

{5In the Beis HaMikdash, at the entrance to the Sanctuary, there was a vine of gold (Middos 3:8).

(וְגֶפֶן שֶׁל זָהָב שֶׁהָיָה עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פִּתְחוֹ שֶׁל הֵיכָל בְּבֵית עוֹלָמִים (מִדּוֹת פֶּרֶק ג' מִשְׁנָה ח')

This refers to the quality of Yesod that produces fruit.

בְּחִינַת יְסוֹד דְּעָבֵיד פֵּירִין,

There were two tables in the Ulam within the doorway of the Beis HaMikdash (Shekalim 6:4).

וּשְׁתֵּי שֻׁלְחָנוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בָּאוּלָם מִבִּפְנִים עַל פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת (שְׁקָלִים פֶּרֶק ו' מִשְׁנָה ד')

It is possible that they are identified with the attributes of Netzach and Hod. Clarification is required.}

אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהֵם נֶצַח וְהוֹד וְצָרִיךְ עִיּוּן).

After the destruction of the Beis HaMikdash, every person can still draw down all these levels through his Divine service.

וּמִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יוּכַל הָאָדָם לְהַמְשִׁיךְ כָּל בְּחִינוֹת וּמַדְרֵגוֹת הַנִּזְכָּרוֹת לְעֵיל עַל יְדֵי עֲבוֹדָתוֹ

For it is written:6 “And I will dwell among them,”

שֶׁהֲרֵי וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם כְּתִיב

i.e, within the Jewish people. Thus there is “a sanctuary in microcosm” within every Jew.7

Through his Divine service, he can drawn down the spiritual lights that were manifest in the Beis HaMikdash and its utensils,

וְיוּכַל לְהַמְשִׁיךְ עַל יְדֵי עֲבוֹדָתוֹ הָאוֹרוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹרִים בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּבְכֵלָיו

because he has parallels to the curtains and the utensils within his soul.

כִּי גַם בְּנַפְשׁוֹ יֵשׁ בְּחִינוֹת יְרִיעוֹת וְכֵלִים.

The external and internal dimensions of our hearts parallel the Outer Altar, on which animal sacrifices were offered, and the Inner Altar, used for the incense offering.

מִזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן וּמִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי הֵם בְּחִינַת חִיצוֹנִיּוּת הַלֵּב וּפְנִימִיּוּת הַלֵּב

The external dimension of our hearts is involved with the refinement of the animal in man,

וְהִנֵּה בְּחִיצוֹנִיּוּת הַלֵּב הוּא בֵּרוּר הַבְּהֵמָה

i.e., the undesirable attributes of our animal soul.

רוֹצֶה לוֹמַר הַמִּדּוֹת הָרָעוֹת שֶׁל נֶפֶשׁ הַבַּהֲמִית

The Divine service associated with the Outer Altar thus involves casting away evil desires and arousing one’s longing for G‑d.

לְהַשְׁלִיךְ הַתַּאֲווֹת רָעוֹת וּלְעוֹרֵר הַתְּשׁוּקָה לַה'

In prayer, this is accomplished through the meditative recitation of the verses of Pesukei DeZimrah8 and the blessing Yotzer Or.9

וְהוּא בִּתְפִלָּה פְּסוּקֵי דְזִמְרָה וְיוֹצֵר

Afterwards, one proceeds to the level of the Inner Altar, upon which the incense offering is brought in silence,

וְאַחַר כָּךְ מִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי בְּחִינַת קְטֹרֶת בַּחֲשַׁאי

paralleling the inner dimension of the heart and its wondrous connection to G‑d.

פְּנִימִיּוּת הַלֵּב וְהִתְקַשְּׁרוּת נִפְלָאָה לַה'

This is given expression in the blessing Emes VeYatziv10

וְהוּא בֶּאֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב

in the fifteen terms that begin with the letter vav in that blessing.

ט"ו וָוִי"ן

They reinforce the statements made in the recitation of the Shema,

שֶׁהֵם חִזּוּק דָּבָר הַנֶּאֱמַר בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע

that G‑d is One.

אֵיךְ שֶׁהֲוָיָ' אֶחָד,

The Inner Altar is also associated with the arousal of abundant mercies, for it comes from the middle vector.11

גַּם מִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי הוּא בְּחִינַת הִתְעוֹרְרוּת רַחֲמִים רַבִּים,

The Table for the Showbread in the north is associated with the attribute of fear,

וְשֻׁלְחָן בַּצָּפוֹן בְּחִינַת יִרְאָה,

for it comes from the left vector. Previously, the Table was identified with Gevurah (might or power). Gevurah and fear are often linked together, for the expression of G‑d’s Gevurah evokes our fear. Similarly, the fiery love mentioned above is an expression of this attribute.

And the Menorah in the south is associated with the level of abundant love, for it comes from the right vector, as described above.

וּמְנוֹרָה בַּדָּרוֹם בְּחִינַת אַהֲבָה רַבָּה הַנִּזְכֶּרֶת לְעֵיל

Previously, the Menorah was identified with Chessed (kindness). Chessed and love are often linked together, for the expression of G‑d’s Chessed evokes our love.

The source of this love transcends the intellect.

שֶׁשָּׁרְשָׁהּ לְמַעְלָה מֵהַשֵּׂכֶל

Thus it is called the hidden love,

וְנִקְרֵאת אַהֲבָה מְסֻתֶּרֶת

yet it is revealed by the intellect.

אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּתְגַּלֵּית עַל יְדֵי אֶמְצָעוּת הַשֵּׂכֶל,

As opposed to love that comes as a result of intellectual understanding, this love is an inherent aspect of a Jew’s makeup and thus transcends understanding. Nevertheless, although this is an innate part of our spiritual being, usually, it is not revealed, but instead remains in a hidden, subconscious state. The revelation of this love can be achieved through the intellect. By focusing on concepts that inspire this love, it can be brought to the forefront of our consciousness.

The Ark, which contains the Tablets of the Ten Commandments, parallels Torah study, which is equivalent to all the other mitzvos.12

וְהָאָרוֹן שֶׁבּוֹ הַלּוּחוֹת הוּא בְּחִינַת תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד כֻּלָּם

The latter statement is applicable when one studies while in a state of bittul.

וְהַיְנוּ כְּשֶׁלּוֹמֵד בִּבְחִינַת בִּטּוּל

For then, the words of Torah that one studies are “My words that I placed in your mouth”13(Yeshayahu 59:21).

וּדְבָרַי אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי בְּפִיךָ (יְשַׁעְיָה נ"ט כ"א)

As the angel told the author of Beis Yosef, Rav Yosef Caro:14 “I am the mishnah speaking from your mouth.”

כְּמַאֲמַר הַמַּגִּיד לְבֵית יוֹסֵף אֲנִי הַמִּשְׁנָה הַמְדַבֶּרֶת בְּפִיךָ.

Drawing down the encompassing lights that are reflected by the Sanctuary’s curtains

וְעִנְיַן הַמְשָׁכַת הַמַּקִּיפִים שֶׁהָיוּ בַּיְרִיעוֹת

comes through negating one’s will,

הַיְנוּ עַל יְדֵי בִּטּוּל רָצוֹן

subduing the sitra achra,

לְאַכְפָּיָא לְסִטְרָא אָחֳרָא

as it states: “making your will as His Will.”15

עֲשֵׂה רְצוֹנְךָ כִּרְצוֹנוֹ

The fact that the person acts in opposition to his own will and intellect implies that the motivation to do so comes from higher powers, the encompassing powers of the soul. Expressing these encompassing powers draws down G‑d’s encompassing lights.

Even though one’s intellect and emotions are not refined to the point that he desires such positive conduct, he nevertheless acts in opposition to his own tendencies.

הֲגַם שֶׁשִּׂכְלוֹ וּמִדּוֹתָיו אֵין חֲפֵצִים בְּכָךְ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן עוֹשֶׂה נֶגְדָּם

This is a higher level than serving G‑d out of choice that stems from intellect and desire.

וְהוּא לְמַעְלָה מִבְּחִינַת בְּחִירָה שֶׁעַל פִּי הַשֵּׂכֶל וְהַתַּאֲוָה

For service that is motivated by one’s intellect and heartfelt desire is limited by the nature of these mortal attributes. The level described above, by contrast, has its roots in G‑d’s infinity.

Divine service of this nature arouses the Sublime Will

וּבְזֶה מְעוֹרֵר בְּחִינַת רָצוֹן הָעֶלְיוֹן

which rested in the Sanctuary’s curtains, as explained above

שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹרֶה בַּיְרִיעוֹת הַנִּזְכָּרוֹת לְעֵיל

and which transcends the levels of Chochmah and Binah.

שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה מִבְּחִינַת חָכְמָה וּבִינָה כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל,

There is another way in which one can arouse the expression of the encompassing lights that rested within the Sanctuary’s curtains.

וְעוֹד יֵשׁ דֶּרֶךְ לְהִתְעוֹרְרוּת הַמַּקִּיפִים שֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹרִים בַּיְרִיעוֹת

To comprehend this idea, the following preface is necessary:

וְהוּא בְּהַקְדִּים

The curtains were made from four materials: sky-blue wool,16 purple wool, crimson wool, and linen.

שֶׁהַיְרִיעוֹת נַעֲשׂוּ מִד' דְבָרִים תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר

They would be intertwined to make the threads.

וְהָיוּ שְׁזוּרִים יַחַד

These four materials parallel the four utensils that existed in the Beis HaMikdash, as mentioned above: the Menorah, the Table for the Showbread, the Inner Altar, and the Outer Altar,

וְהֵמָּה נֶגֶד ד' כֵּלִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁהֵם מְנוֹרָה וְשֻׁלְחָן וּמִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וְחִיצוֹן

which, in turn, are identified with the Sefiros of Chessed, Gevurah, Tiferes, and Malchus.

שֶׁהֵם חֶסֶד גְּבוּרָה תִּפְאֶרֶת מַלְכוּת

The utensils, however, represent these Sefiros as they exist within the inward lights,

אֶלָּא שֶׁבַּכֵּלִים הוּא בְּחִינוֹת חֶסֶד גְּבוּרָה תִּפְאֶרֶת מַלְכוּת שֶׁבַּפְּנִימִיּוּת

while the Sanctuary’s curtains represent how these Sefiros exist in the encompassing light.17

וּבַיְרִיעוֹת הוּא בִּבְחִינַת מַקִּיפִים

To explain this concept:

וּבֵאוּר הָעִנְיָן

Techeiles, sky-blue wool, resembles the color of the sea, which, in turn, resembles the color of G‑d’s throne (Menachos 43b).18

הִנֵּה תְּכֵלֶת דּוֹמָה לַיָּם עַד לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד (מְנָחוֹת מ"ג ב')

In spiritual terms, the sea is used as a metaphor for the Sefirah of Malchus, the source of His Sovereignty (throne).

This represents the attribute of Malchus,

הוּא בְּחִינַת מַלְכוּת

which is the source for the attributes of fear, dread and awe a king evokes.

שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה בָּאָה מִדַּת הַיִּרְאָה מוֹרָא וְאֵימַת הַמֶּלֶךְ,

The fear aroused by Malchus is of a different nature than that aroused by Gevurah. With regard to Gevurah, fear is a direct response to the awe-inspiring revelation one received. With regard to Malchus, by contrast, the fear comes from distance, for a subject is far removed from his king. Although he has never seen him, he still regards him with awe and dread.

Purple wool is identified with the quality of Tiferes

וְאַרְגָּמָן בְּחִינַת תִּפְאֶרֶת

that includes several colors.

שֶׁכּוֹלֵל כַּמָּה גְוָנִים

For Tiferes is the quality that defines the balance in the intermingling of Chessed and Gevurah.

כִּי הַתִּפְאֶרֶת מַכְרִיעַ בֵּין חֶסֶד וּגְבוּרָה

It is identified with the attribute of mercy,

וְהוּא מִדַּת הָרַחֲמִים

which, in turn, is associated with Yaakov who redeemed Avraham” (Yeshayahu 29:22)

לְיַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר פָּדָה אֶת אַבְרָהָם (יְשַׁעְיָה כ"ט כ"ב)

by arousing abundant mercies on one’s G‑dly soul.

בְּהִתְעוֹרְרוּת רַחֲמִים רַבִּים עַל נַפְשׁוֹ הָאֱלֹהִית

Yaakov, the quality of mercy, “redeems” Avraham, the inherent love for G‑d possessed by the G‑dly soul. I.e., when a person feels he is distant from G‑d and cannot express his natural love for Him, he should entreat G‑d’s mercies and ask that he be given the chance to express his spiritual potential.19

It also relates to the inward voice associated with the incense offering

גַּם הוּא קָלָא פְּנִימָאָה דִקְטֹרֶת

As mentioned above, the incense offering was brought in silence; so too, man’s inner voice is not vocalized aloud.

that reflects the inner dimension of the heart, as mentioned above with regard to the Inner Altar.

פְּנִימִיּוּת הַלֵּב כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל בְּחִינַת מִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי,

The red color of crimson wool refers to the level of love described with the analogy of flames of fire that relates to the Table for the Showbread, as explained above.

וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי הָיָה אָדוֹם הַיְנוּ בְּחִינַת הָאַהֲבָה בְּרִשְׁפֵּי אֵשׁ שֶׁבִּבְחִינַת הַשֻּׁלְחָן כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל,

And linen, which comes from flax stalks that “ascend alone,”20

וְשֵׁשׁ הוּא בַּד פִּשְׁתָּן שֶׁעוֹלֶה יְחִידִי

refers to the hidden love which is not a composite of any factor

הוּא הָאַהֲבָה מְסֻתֶּרֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ מֻרְכֶּבֶת בְּשׁוּם דָּבָר

for it transcends intellect.

לִהְיוֹתָהּ לְמַעְלָה מֵהַשֵּׂכֶל

Love that results from intellect is a composite, for it is structured by the intellectual concepts that inspire it. Love that transcends intellect, by contrast, is simple, without definition.21

This relates to the Menorah,

וְהוּא בְּחִינַת הַמְּנוֹרָה

except that the Menorah refers to revealing this love in the heart through the medium of the mind.

אֶלָּא שֶׁהַמְּנוֹרָה הַיְנוּ כְּשֶׁבָּאתָה לְגִלּוּי בַּלֵּב בְּאֶמְצָעוּת הַשֵּׂכֶל

Before it is revealed in the heart, i.e., as it is in its source, it is equivalent to the Ark, as explained above.

אֲבָל טֶרֶם גִּלּוּיָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִיא בְּשָׁרְשָׁה הוּא בְּחִינַת הָאָרוֹן וְכַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל

For the hidden dimensions of Chessed in the Yesod of the Sublime Mother are called hidden love.This refers to the Kapores placed on the Ark.

שֶׁהַחֲסָדִים הַמְכֻסִּים בִּיסוֹד אִמָּא נִקְרָאִים אַהֲבָה מְסֻתֶּרֶת כוּ'.

Within a person as well, there are encompassing powers and inward powers.

וְהִנֵּה הָאָדָם יֵשׁ בּוֹ גַם כֵּן מַקִּיפִים וּפְנִימִיִּים

On both these levels, we will find parallels to the four spiritual qualities mentioned above.

וּבִשְׁנֵיהֶם יִמָּצֵא ד' בְּחִינוֹת הַלָּלוּ

To explain:


The fundamental dimension of man is the emotional qualities he possesses.

כִּי עִקַּר הָאָדָם הֵם הַמִּדּוֹת שֶׁבּוֹ

They represent his inner dimension.

שֶׁהוּא בְּחִינַת פְּנִימִיּוּתוֹ

For when he perceives a concept only intellectually and his emotions are tending in the opposite direction,

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהַדָּבָר אֶצְלוֹ רַק בְּשִׂכְלוֹ אֲבָל מִדּוֹתָיו נוֹטִים לְהִפּוּךְ

i.e., there is a dichotomy between a person’s understanding and his feelings. He may intellectually appreciate the value of a given course of behavior, yet emotionally be drawn to conflicting conduct.

his perception is considered as being merely an encompassing matter, as one might say, “The concept is above me.” It is something which the person can relate to, but has not internalized.

הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא בְּחִינַת מַקִּיף לְבָד

as explained in Mitzvah 4222 with regard to “the seed of an animal.”

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּמִצְוָה מ"ב בְּעִנְיַן זֶרַע בְּהֵמָה

Even when such a person understands the greatness of G‑d,

שֶׁגַּם שֶׁיַּשְׂכִּיל גְּדֻלַּת ה'

as long as it has not affected his heart,

כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נָגַע לְלִבּוֹ

it is like a path of faith.

הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹ דֶּרֶךְ אֱמוּנָה לְבָד

Faith possesses powerful energy, for it stems from our essential G‑dly nature that transcends our intellect. Nevertheless, the very fact that it transcends the intellect produces a disadvantage because it is not internalized within our thought processes.

To cite an example from our Sages’ words:23 “A thief calls out to G‑d to help him before breaking in to a house.” Now, the thief believes in G‑d – for that reason, he prays to Him. What is it, however, that he is asking G‑d to grant him? Success in stealing! This inconsistency is possible because faith is far removed from our ordinary conscious thinking and has not been internalized within it. If the faith radiating in a person were to be integrated within him, he would find it impossible to defy G‑d’s will while praying to Him.

See sec. 1 in that source.

עַיֵּן שָׁם פֶּרֶק א'

Similar concepts apply in the spiritual realms.

וּכְמוֹ כֵן לְמַעְלָה

Z’eir Anpin of Atzilus is called “the Sublime Man.”

כִּי זָ"א (זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין) דַּאֲצִילוּת הַנִּקְרָא אָדָם

Its fundamental aspect are the six extremes, i.e., the six Middos, emotive qualities.

עִקָּרוֹ הוּא ו' קְצָווֹת

The intellectual aspects are considered mystically as contributing an auxiliary element

אֲבָל הַמּוֹחִין הֵם בּוֹ בְּסוֹד תּוֹסֶפֶת

and not as the root of Z’eir Anpin.

וְלֹא בְּסוֹד שֹׁרֶשׁ,

On one hand, the six Middos of Z’eir Anpin stem from the sublime intellectual attributes, the Sefiros of Chochmah, Binah, and Daas. Nevertheless, the emotive attributes of Z’eir Anpin have an independent source above Chochmah.

To illustrate through the parallel in the human realms: Intellect brings the emotions into revelation and directs their expression. Nevertheless, emotion is primarily an independent quality rooted in the heart, to which the intellectual input is merely auxiliary.24

Accordingly, when one who contemplates will meditate on the greatness of G‑d,

וְלָכֵן הִנֵּה כְּשֶׁיִּתְבּוֹנֵן הַמַּשְׂכִּיל בִּגְדֻלַּת ה'

which is both sovev kol almin and memale kol almin,

הַסּוֹבֵב כָּל עָלְמִין וּמְמַלֵּא כָּל עָלְמִין

although he will feel greatly moved intellectually,

גַּם שֶׁיִּתְפָּעֵל מְאֹד בְּשִׂכְלוֹ

and at that time, parallels to these four attributes – i.e., Chessed, Gevurah, Tiferes, and Malchus – exist in his mind –

וְיִמָּצֵא בְּשִׂכְלוֹ אָז ד' בְּחִינוֹת הַנִּזְכָּרוֹת לְעֵיל שֶׁהִזְכַּרְתִּי שֶׁהֵם חֶסֶד גְּבוּרָה תִּפְאֶרֶת מַלְכוּת שֶׁבַּשֵּׂכֶל

for as is well known,25 even within the intellect, there are emotional qualities –

כַּיָּדוּעַ שֶׁגַּם בְּשֵׂכֶל יֵשׁ מִדּוֹת כוּ'

these attributes serve as encompassing lights for him,

הֲרֵי הֵם בְּחִינַת מַקִּיפִים עָלָיו

and with it he will arouse the encompassing lights associated with the curtains described above.

וּבְזֶה יְעוֹרֵר אוֹרוֹת הַמַּקִּיפִים דִּירִיעוֹת הַנִּזְכָּרוֹת לְעֵיל

Only when these emotions emerge from a hidden state to revelation in his heart,

וּלְאַחַר שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִן הַהֶעְלֵם אֶל הַגִּלּוּי בַּלֵּב

will they serve as an inward light.

אָז יִהְיוּ בִּפְנִימִיּוּתוֹ

And they will then evoke the expression of the spiritual lights associated with the utensils of the Beis HaMikdash,

וְאָז יְעוֹרְרוּ הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ

which are inward lights that shine within vessels, as explained above.

שֶׁהֵם בְּחִינוֹת אוֹרוֹת פְּנִימִיִּים שֶׁבַּכֵּלִים כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל,

On this basis, it can be explained why, with regard to the curtains, all four materials were woven together and united as one thread,

וְזֶהוּ הַטַּעַם שֶׁבַּיְרִיעוֹת הֵם מָשְׁזָר שֶׁד' דְבָרִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל שְׁזוּרִים יַחַד וְהָיוּ לַאֲחָדִים

while with regard to the utensils, each was positioned in a distinct place;

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בַּכֵּלִים הֵם בִּמְקוֹמוֹת חֲלוּקִים

i.e., the Table in the north, the Menorah in the south, etc.

שֻׁלְחָן בַּצָּפוֹן וּמְנוֹרָה בַּדָּרוֹם וְכוּ'

For the encompassing lights are all intermingled as one.

כִּי הַמַּקִּיפִים הֵם כְּלוּלִים כְּאֶחָד

Since on this level the qualities are yet to be internalized, the different emotive attributes are still relatively simple in nature and hence can intermingle.

With regard to the inward lights, by contrast, each one has a distinct vessel and abode.

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּפְנִימִיִּים הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לְכָל אֶחָד כְּלִי וּמָדוֹר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ

Similar concepts apply with regard to a person.

וְכֵן בָּאָדָם

When happiness, bitterness, love, and fear shine inwardly,

חֶדְוָה וּמְרִירוּת אַהֲבָה וְיִרְאָה כְּשֶׁהֵם בִּפְנִימִיּוּתוֹ

i.e., in a revealed state within the heart,

רוֹצֶה לוֹמַר בְּגִלּוּי בַּלֵּב

each one has its own medium

יֵשׁ לְכָל אֶחָד כְּלִי מְיֻחָד

and two opposites cannot operate simultaneously.

וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִהְיוֹת שְׁנֵי הֲפָכִים יַחַד

While one is experiencing love, he does not feel fear, etc.

וְאִם אוֹהֵב אֵינוֹ יָרֵא כוּ'

Nevertheless, intellectually – on a level above the feelings in one’s heart – when one becomes excited from a concept that he has comprehended in his mind,

אֲבָל בְּשִׂכְלוֹ הִנֵּה כְּשֶׁמִּתְפָּעֵל מִדָּבָר אֶחָד הַמֻּשְׂכָּל בְּשִׂכְלוֹ

he may be moved to both love and fear,

שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ לְהִתְפָּעֵל לְאַהֲבָה גַּם לְיִרְאָה

and the two will coexist.

הִנֵּה יִשְׁכְּנוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחַד

This is the implication of the verse (Koheles 3:1): “There is a time for every desire under the heavens.”

וְזֶהוּ שֶׁכָּתוּב וְעֵת לְכָל חֵפֶץ תַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם (קֹהֶלֶת ג' א')

“The heavens” refer to the encompassing lights.

שָׁמַיִם הֵם בְּחִינַת מַקִּיפִים

“Under the heavens” refers to the inward lights,

וְתַחְתֵּיהֶם רוֹצֶה לוֹמַר בִּבְחִינַת הַפְּנִימִיִּים

on which level, “There is for every desire” – i.e., spiritual quality – a specific “time” and channel for its expression

יֵשׁ לְכָל חֵפֶץ עֵת וּכְלִי מְיֻחָד

in a way similar to the explanations given above.

עַל דֶּרֶךְ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל

On the level of the encompassing lights, however, all the levels are intermingled,

אֲבָל בְּהַמַּקִּיפִים הַכֹּל כְּלוּלִים יַחַד

as the threads for the curtains were intertwined.

וְזֶהוּ מָשְׁזָר

This is sufficient for a person of understanding.

וְדַי לַמֵּבִין,

On this basis, we can understand the verse (Devarim 4:39): “And you shall know today and take to heart that the Divine name Havayah is Elokim.”

וְזֶהוּ שֶׁכָּתוּב וְיָדַעְתָּ הַיּוֹם וַהֲשֵׁבוֹתָ אֶל לְבָבֶךָ כִּי הֲוָיָ' הוּא הָאֱלֹקִים (דְּבָרִים ד' ל"ט)

The concept that Havayah is Elokim reflects the mystic secret of the mitzvah of unifying G‑d

כִּי עִנְיַן שֶׁהֲוָיָ' הוּא הָאֱלֹקִים זֶה סוֹד מִצְוַת הַיִּחוּד

– concerning which we, the Jewish people, have been commanded –

שֶׁנִּצְטַוִּינוּ בּוֹ אֲנַחְנוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל

is discussed in the explanation of that mitzvah, sec. 3.26

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּמִצְוָה הַנִּזְכֶּרֶת לְעֵיל פֶּרֶק ג'

This is the fundamental aspect and foundation of our meditation.

וְהוּא עִקַּר וִיסוֹד הַהִתְבּוֹנְנוּת,

The above concept must initially be appreciated intellectually by a person as an encompassing light, as explained above.

וְהָעִנְיָן הַזֶּה צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בָּאָדָם בִּבְחִינַת יְדִיעָה בְּשֵׂכֶל בְּחִינַת מַקִּיפִים כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל

This is alluded to by the command: “And you shall know.”

וְזֶהוּ וְיָדַעְתָּ

Following which, “and take to heart” refers to the process of internalization of the concept.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ וַהֲשֵׁבוֹתָ עִנְיַן הַהֲשָׁבָה אֶל הַלֵּב בְּחִינַת פְּנִימִיּוּת

Combining the two together is desirable,

כִּי שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּאֶחָד טוֹבִים

for they arouse the encompassing and inward lights associated with the curtains and the utensils as explained above.

לְעוֹרֵר מַקִּיפִים וּפְנִימִיִּים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל דִּירִיעוֹת וְכֵלִים:

— 3 —

On this basis, we can understand why in Parshas Terumah, Moshe commanded

וְעִם כָּל זֶה יוּבַן מַה שֶּׁמֹּשֶׁה צִוָּה בְּפַרְשַׁת תְּרוּמָה

that first the utensils for the Sanctuary be fashioned and then the curtains,

לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּלִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַיְרִיעוֹת

but Betzalel did the opposite, first making the curtains and then the utensils.

וּבְצַלְאֵל עָשָׂה בְּהִפּוּךְ תְּחִלָּה הַיְרִיעוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַכֵּלִים

Our Sages’ discussion of this teaching in Berachos 55(a) is well known:

וְיָדוּעַ מַאֲמַר רַזַ"ל בִּבְרָכוֹת נ"ה (עַמּוּד א') עַל זֶה

When Moshe commanded Betzalel to make the Ark, the utensils, and the Sanctuary,

בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁצִּוָּה מֹשֶׁה לַעֲשׂוֹת אָרוֹן וְכֵלִים וּמִשְׁכָּן

Betzalel told Moshe: “Moshe our teacher, the pattern of the world is that a person builds a dwelling, and afterwards brings in utensils.

אָמַר לוֹ בְּצַלְאֵל מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ מִנְהָגוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם אָדָם בּוֹנֶה דִירָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַכְנִיס לְתוֹכָהּ כֵּלִים

Perhaps the Holy One, blessed be He, told you: ‘Make a Sanctuary, and afterwards, an Ark and utensils.’

שֶׁמָּא כָּךְ אָמַר לְךָ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עֲשֵׂה מִשְׁכָּן אָרוֹן וְכֵלִים

Moshe replied: “You were in G‑d’s shadow27 and knew His desired order.”

אָמַר לוֹ בְּצֵל אֵל הָיִיתָ וְיָדַעְתָּ,

To explain: Betzalel told Moshe that, at the beginning of the downward progression of the Spiritual Cosmos from G‑d’s infinite light,

וְהָעִנְיָן כִּי בְּצַלְאֵל אָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵי יָדוּעַ בְּעִנְיַן סֵדֶר הַהִשְׁתַּלְשְׁלוּת מֵאוֹר אֵין סוֹף שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה

the Ten Sefiros of the Iggulim are drawn down.

נִמְשְׁכוּ הַי' סְפִירוֹת דְּעִגּוּלִים

They are encompassing lights which are spherical in nature.

שֶׁהֵם בְּחִינַת הַמַּקִּיפִים הַמִּתְעַגְּלִים

Afterwards, into these spheres are drawn down the Ten Sefiros of Yosher,

וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְשְׁכוּ לְתוֹכָן י' סְפִירוֹת דְּיֹשֶׁר

which involves causing light to be enclothed within a vessel.

אוֹרוֹת בְּכֵלִים

The Tzemach Tzedek is describing the pattern in which the Sefiros of Atzilus are drawn down and formed from the kav, emphasizing that the two patterns of Iggulim and Yosher operate in tandem. First, the Iggulim, the encompassing lights are drawn down. Afterwards begins the pattern of Yosher, internalized lights.

If so, it was necessary to construct the Sanctuary also according to this pattern;

וְאִם כֵּן גַּם הַמִּשְׁכָּן צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ דֻּגְמָא זוֹ

i.e., at the outset, to make the curtains, which refer to the encompassing light of the Iggulim

מִתְּחִלָּה הַיְרִיעוֹת שֶׁהֵם הַמַּקִּיפִים

and then the utensils which are enveloped by the Iggulim which encompass them.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַכֵּלִים כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל שֶׁהֵם מֻקָּפִים מִן עִגּוּלִים הַמַּקִּיפִים,

Just as in the higher realms, the Sefiros of the Iggulim precede and encompass the Sefiros of Yosher, so, too, the boards and the curtains of the Sanctuary were made first and they encompass its utensils.

Moshe acknowledged the truth of Betzalel’s approach.

וְהוֹדָה לוֹ מֹשֶׁה.

Indeed, it is necessary to understand: What was Moshe’s supposition at the outset?

וּבֶאֱמֶת צָרִיךְ לְהָבִין מֵעִקָּרָא מַאי קָסָבַר מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם

Certainly, “the Torah of G‑d is perfect,”28

וּבְוַדַּאי תּוֹרַת ה' תְּמִימָה

and Moshe’s command also came from G‑d.

גַּם מַה שֶּׁצִּוָּה מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם מֵה' הוּא,

To explain: Both patterns of G‑dly light Iggulim and Yosher – are drawn down from the kav.

אַךְ הָעִנְיָן הוּא כִּי הִנֵּה הָעִגּוּלִים וְהַיֹּשֶׁר שְׁנֵיהֶם נִמְשָׁכִים מִן הַקַּו

From it emerge Iggulim as concentric spheres

שֶׁמִּמֶּנּוּ מִתְעַגְּלִים הָעִגּוּלִים

and then, within them, the Sefiros of Yosher.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַיֹּשֶׁר

Accordingly, with regard to the Sefiros of Yosher, it can be said that the Iggulim precede them, and thus relate to a higher level.

וְעַל בְּחִינַת הַיֹּשֶׁר הַזֶּה הַנִּמְשָׁךְ מֵהַקַּו הוּא שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהָעִגּוּלִים קָדְמוּ לוֹ

However, there is a place in the kav that surpasses the Iggulim,

אֲבָל הֲרֵי יֵשׁ בַּקַּו מָקוֹם שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵהָעִגּוּלִים

i.e., its very beginning, when it was first drawn down from G‑d’s infinite light

וְהוּא רֵאשִׁית הַמְשָׁכָתוֹ מֵאוֹר אֵין סוֹף

before the Iggulim of Adam Kadmon emerged from it.

טֶרֶם שֶׁנִּתְעַגְּלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עִגּוּלִים דְּאָדָם קַדְמוֹן

The kav represents the light that shines after the tzimtzum and is the source for all the spiritual realms that exist within that framework of existence. From it emanate the Sefiros of Iggulim and Yosher. Nevertheless, it has an initial point that is above those Sefiros.

Thus within the kav, there is a level above the Iggulim and a level below them,

וְנִמְצָא הַקַּו יֵשׁ בּוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵהָעִגּוּלִים וּמָקוֹם שֶׁלְּמַטָּה מֵהֶם

the latter referring to a point after the Sefiros of Yosher have been drawn down from it.

וְהוּא כְּשֶׁנִּמְשָׁךְ מִמֶּנּוּ הַיֹּשֶׁר כוּ'

For the kav is drawn down until the concluding levels of the feet of Adam Kadmon of Yosher

שֶׁהֲרֵי הַקַּו נִמְשָׁךְ עַד סִיּוּם רַגְלֵי אָדָם קַדְמוֹן דְּיֹשֶׁר

and these levels conclude in Asiyah,29 as is well known.

הַמִּסְתַּיְּמִים בַּעֲשִׂיָּה כַּיָּדוּעַ

To explain the concept with an analogy from the human realm:

וּבֵאוּר הַדָּבָר הוּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל בָּאָדָם

When a teacher communicates a concept to his student,

בְּהַשְׁפָּעַת שֵׂכֶל מֵרַב לְתַלְמִיד

the teacher’s intellectual grasp of the subject is far deeper than that of even his most advanced student.

שֶׁשֵּׂכֶל הָרַב עָמֹק הוּא גַּם מִתַּלְמִידוֹ הַנַּעֲלֶה בְּיוֹתֵר

What the teacher grasps in an inward manner and comprehends in his mind will remain only an encompassing light for the student.

עַד שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁהָרַב מַשִּׂיג בִּפְנִימִיּוּתוֹ וּמֻשָּׂג בְּשִׂכְלוֹ יִשָּׁאֵר עַל הַתַּלְמִיד בִּבְחִינַת מַקִּיף

Only a very small degree will be drawn down within the student’s abilities of comprehension in an internalized manner.

רַק מְעַט מִזְּעֵיר יֻמְשַׁךְ בְּהַשָּׂגָתוֹ בִּבְחִינַת פְּנִימִי

And when this advanced student will try to communicate what he received from his teacher to a student on a lower level than he,

וְאוֹתוֹ הַתַּלְמִיד הַנַּעֲלֶה כְּשֶׁיַּשְׁפִּיעַ מִמַּה שֶּׁקִּבֵּל לְנָמוּךְ מִמֶּנּוּ

what the advanced student will sharewill be like an encompassing light for that lesser student.

יִשָּׁאֵר גַּם הוּא עָלָיו בִּבְחִינַת מַקִּיף

Thus we see a pattern similar to the emergence of the successive Sefiros of Iggulim and Yosher from the kav.

This pattern will continue for many levels, one lower than the other.

עַד כַּמָּה מַדְרֵגוֹת זֶה לְמַטָּה מִזֶּה

What is an inward light for the higher level becomes an encompassing light for the lower level.

פְּנִימִי שֶׁבָּעֶלְיוֹן נַעֲשֶׂה מַקִּיף לַתַּחְתּוֹן

To give an example, Moshe communicated the Torah to Yehoshua and Yehoshua to the Elders.30

וּכְמוֹ מֹשֶׁה מָסַר תּוֹרָה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ לִזְקֵנִים כוּ'

In a similar way, the kav is drawn down from G‑d’s infinite light after the tzimtzum.

וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל זֶה הַקַּו הַנִּמְשָׁךְ מֵאוֹר אֵין סוֹף לְאַחַר הַצִּמְצוּם

Now, in relation to G‑d’s infinite light, it has undergone an awesome tzimtzum.

עִם שֶׁלְּגַבֵּי אוֹר אֵין סוֹף הוּא צִמְצוּם עָצוּם

Therefore it is called the kav, the vector,

שֶׁלָּכֵן נִקְרָא קַו

a term that implies a limited ray that has no area.

שֶׁהוּא הֶאָרָה מוּעֶטֶת וְאֵין בּוֹ שֶׁטַח

The Tzemach Tzedek is borrowing geometric terms. A line has only two dimensions and therefore no area. The intent is that the kav itself is only a potential and does not receive expression until it is enclothed in the Sefiros. In contrast, the light before the tzimtzum “filled up the entire cavity.”

Thus it is of absolutely no importance at all in relation to G‑d’s infinite light.

לוֹמַר שֶׁכְּלָא חֲשִׁיב לְגַבֵּי הָאֵין סוֹף

Nevertheless, it is absolutely above all other entities

הִנֵּה הוּא לְמַעְלָה מַּעְלָה מִכָּל הַנִּמְצָאִים

to the extent that when influence is drawn down from the kav to Adam Kadmon, a ray will be drawn down that can be revealed only as an encompassing light.

עַד שֶׁכְּשֶׁיֻּמְשַׁךְ מִמֶּנּוּ לְאָדָם קַדְמוֹן יֻמְשַׁךְ תְּחִלָּה הֶאָרָה בִּבְחִינַת מַקִּיף

Afterwards, a very small amount will be drawn down in an inward manner.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְעַט מִזְּעֵיר בִּבְחִינַת פְּנִימִיּוּת

A similar process applies with regard to the influence that is drawn down from Adam Kadmon to the levels below it.

וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ זֶה מֵאָדָם קַדְמוֹן וּלְמַטָּה וְכוּ'.

The approach of Moshe our teacher, who commanded that the Ark be made first, can thus be explained as follows:

וְטַעֲנַת מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם שֶׁצִּוָּה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָאָרוֹן תְּחִלָּה

In the Ark were placed the Tablets of the Ten Commandments on which was inscribed: “I am G‑d your L‑rd.... You shall have no other gods....”31

מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבּוֹ מֻנָּחִים הַלּוּחוֹת שֶׁבָּהֶם י' הַדִּבְּרוֹת אָנֹכִי וְלֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ

The source of the Tablets is a very lofty level within G‑d’s infinite light,

שֶׁשָּׁרְשָׁן מְאֹד נַעֲלֶה בְּאוֹר אֵין סוֹף

the beginning of the kav which is drawn down from G‑d’s infinite light before the forms expressed by the Iggulim and Yosher are drawn down from it.

וְהוּא בְּחִינַת רֵאשִׁית הַמְשָׁכַת הַקַּו מֵאוֹר אֵין סוֹף טֶרֶם שֶׁנִּמְשְׁכוּ מִמֶּנּוּ צִיּוּר עִגּוּלִים וְיֹשֶׁר

It transcends both to an exceeding degree.

שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה מְאֹד נַעֲלֶה מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם,

To explain the concept:

וּבֵאוּר הַדָּבָר

In another source, we find the interpretation of the verse (Yeshayahu 27:5): “If Israel would take hold of My stronghold,32 she would make peace with Me; indeed, she would make peace with Me.”

נִתְבָּאֵר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר בְּעִנְיָן מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר אוֹ יַחֲזִיק בְּמָעֻזִּי שָׁלוֹם יַעֲשֶׂה לִּי יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם לִי (יְשַׁעְיָה כ"ז ה')

Our Sages comment (Sanhedrin 99b): “Whoever occupies himself with Torah study brings about peace in the Heavenly Company and peace in the earthly company.”

וְאָמְרוּ רַזַ"ל כָּל הָעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה מֵשִׂים שָׁלוֹם בְּפַמַּלְיָא שֶׁל מַעְלָה וּבְפַמַּלְיָא שֶׁל מַטָּה (סַנְהֶדְרִין צ"ט ב'),

The concept of peace is explained there as follows:

וְנִתְבָּאֵר שָׁם עִנְיַן הַשָּׁלוֹם הוּא

Within every created being and within the world at large, there are two types of life-energy,

כִּי מֵאַחַר שֶׁבְּכָל נִבְרָא וְכֵן בָּעוֹלָם בִּכְלָלוֹ יֵשׁ ב' מִינֵי חַיּוּת

G‑dly energy that is memale kol almin and that which is sovev kol almin.

מִבְּחִינַת מְמַלֵּא וּמִבְּחִינַת סוֹבֵב

These are alluded to by the verse (Tehillim 135:6): “All that G‑d desired, He made,”

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב כֹּל אֲשֶׁר חָפֵץ ה' עָשָׂה (תִּלִּים קל"ה ו')

and the verse (ibid., 33:6): “The heavens were made through G‑d’s speech.”

וּכְתִיב בִּדְבַר ה' שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ (תִּלִּים ל"ג ו')

For the life-energy in every created being stems from two factors:

שֶׁבְּכָל נִבְרָא חַיּוּתוֹ

a) G‑d’s desire for its existence, which grants it its fundamental vitality;

עַל יְדֵי חֵפֶץ ה' בְּקִיּוּמוֹ

this is the mystic secret of the life-energy which is sovev kol almin;

זֶה סוֹד סוֹבֵב,

and b) that which is communicated by His generous speech, i.e., the life-energy that is memale kol almin.

וְעַל יְדֵי דְּבָרוֹ הַטּוֹב

This generates the potential for the particular qualities that characterize the entity and distinguish it from others.

which is the source for the created beings in the Ten Utterances of Creation,

שֶׁהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ הַנִּבְרָא בַּעֲשָׂרָה מַאֲמָרוֹת

as stated in Tanya (Shaar HaYichud VehaEmunah, ch. 1).

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּלִקּוּטֵי אֲמָרִים (חֵלֶק ב' פֶּרֶק א')

Both patterns are necessary, as stated in the explanation of the mitzvah of G‑d’s unity, sec. 2.33

כִּי שְׁנֵיהֶם צְרִיכִים לִהְיוֹת דַּוְקָא כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּמִצְוַת יִחוּד פֶּרֶק ב'

To connect these concepts to the verses cited previously: From the standpoint of G‑d’s will, no individual entity carries individual import; the entity’s particular qualities and attributes are significant only as they serve as an expression of the fulfillment of His will. This reflects G‑d’s light that is sovev kol almin, His light that “transcends all the worlds.”

From the perspective of G‑d’s speech, by contrast, every individual entity has a purpose of its own, possessing unique importance that stems from its own particular qualities. This reflects G‑d’s light that is memale kol almin, His light that “fills all the worlds,” endowing every entity with a specific dimension of Divine vitality.

Both patterns are fundamental to our world’s existence as a “dwelling for G‑d in the lower realms.” The light that is memale kol almin makes the entities in the lower realms distinct, each one reflecting a particular dimension of G‑dliness. The light that is sovev kol almin enables G‑d’s transcendence, the dimension of His light that is undefined and unlimited, to reside within our world, transforming it into His dwelling.

If so, it is necessary that there be a third level which joins them together,

וְאִם כֵּן צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בְּחִינַת שְׁלִישִׁי הַמְחַבֵּר שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו

a rung above both sovev kol almin and memale kol almin.

וְהוּא בְּחִינָה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִסּוֹבֵב וּמְמַלֵּא

This refers to the level of Sublime Pleasure (Taanug) that transcends Will (Ratzon), that is identified with the life-energy that is sovev kol almin,and Chochmah, which is identified with the life-energy that is memale kol almin.34

תַּעֲנוּג הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵרָצוֹן וְחָכְמָה

Pleasure, the third level, fuses both together,

וְהוּא הַמְחַבֵּר אוֹתָם

because the pleasure an entity arouses is the motivator for one’s will and Chochmah.

כִּי הַתַּעֲנוּג בְּהַדָּבָר הוּא סִבַּת הָרָצוֹן וְהַחָכְמָה

In the spiritual analogue, the implication is that G‑d’s pleasure in the bittul of the yesh

וְרוֹצֶה לוֹמַר הַשַּׁעֲשׁוּעִים שֶׁלּוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ בְּבִטּוּל הַיֵּשׁ

The concept of bittul hayesh arose in G‑d’s thought, as it were, i.e., that an entity which feels its own identity would undergo self-nullification, and that this process would bring Him pleasure. As a result, a world was created that gave expression to this motif.

fuses together His Will and His Chochmah

הוּא הַמְחַבֵּר רְצוֹנוֹ וְחָכְמָתוֹ

and activates them, motivating them to bring the world into being.

לְהַוּוֹת הָעוֹלָם

This is the concept of “bringing about peace in the Heavenly Company.”

וְזֶהוּ עִנְיַן שָׁלוֹם בְּפַמַּלְיָא שֶׁל מַעְלָה

In kabbalistic terminology, Atik Yomin, which is identified with pleasure, joins together Arich Anpin, which is identified with will, with Chochmah.

וּבִלְשׁוֹן הַקַּבָּלָה יָדוּעַ בְּחִינַת עַתִּיק יוֹמִין הוּא הַמְחַבֵּר אֲרִיךְ אַנְפִּין עִם הַחָכְמָה

Afterwards, “one brings about peace in the earthly company,”

וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁלוֹם בְּפַמַּלְיָא שֶׁל מַטָּה

among the created beings who are drawn down from these spiritual heights,

בַּנִּבְרָאִים הַנִּמְשָׁכִים מֵהֶם

for their existence also involves a fusion of sovev kol almin and memale kol almin.

שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מִסּוֹבֵב וּמְמַלֵּא

Similar concepts apply whenever there is a connection between the physical and the spiritual.

וְכֵן בִּכְלַל חִבּוּר גַּשְׁמִיּוּת וְרוּחָנִיּוּת

For a physical entity derives its life-energy primarily from the level that is sovev kol almin,

שֶׁהַגַּשְׁמִיּוּת עִקָּרוֹ מִסּוֹבֵב

while a spiritual entity derives its energy primarily fromthe level that is memale kol almin.

וְרוּחָנִיּוּת מְמַלֵּא

To explain: Every entity – both within this material world and within the more elevated spiritual realms – has both a soul and a body, i.e., spiritual content and a form in which that content is expressed. The degree of refinement of that form varies according to the nature of the realm within which it exists.

Its soul or spiritual content is derived from the realms above it. That is the implication of the term Seder HaHishtalshelus, the chainlike order of spiritual descent, in which each lower rung is a more defined expression of spiritual qualities that also exist on higher levels. This reflects the pattern of memale kol almin.

Nevertheless, the transition from each spiritual realm to the one below it – and particularly, the transition to our material world – is drastic and is not within the ordinary potential of the entities of the higher realm. Indeed, this is precisely what separates one realm from another.

How is this transition possible? Because there is an unlimited quality involved, one that is not limited to a specific type of being, but instead can exist in a variety of different forms. This is an expression of the life-energy that is sovev kol almin.

On every level, both patterns of life-energy are necessary. Nevertheless, in the spiritual realms, the primary element of their existence is their spiritual content. Therefore, they relate more to the level of memale kol almin. In our material world, by contrast, the primary element of existence is the physical dimension of reality. Hence, it relates more closely to the level which is sovev kol almin.

In the human realm, the soul, the parallel to the Heavenly Company, and the body, the parallel to the earthly company, are joined together

וּבָאָדָם מִתְחַבְּרִים יַחַד נֶפֶשׁ וְגוּף

by the entity that establishes peace between these two opposing entities, the Torah,

וְהַמֵּשִׂים שָׁלוֹם הוּא הַתּוֹרָה

Because its source is the Sublime Pleasure described above,

שֶׁשָּׁרְשָׁהּ מִתַּעֲנוּג עֶלְיוֹן הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל

as it is written with regard to the Torah (Mishlei 8:30): “I was a delight for Him.”

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ כוּ' שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים (מִשְׁלֵי ח' ל')

For this reason, G‑d made a stipulation with the work of Creation (Avodah Zarah 3a) that its existence would be maintained

וְלָכֵן הָיָה תְּנַאי לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית (עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה ג' א')

if – and only if – the Jews accept the Torah.

אִם יְקַבְּלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה

This is reflected in the Sages’ interpretation of Yirmeyahu 33:25, rendering it as: “Were it not for My covenant, i.e., the Torah,… I would not have established the statutes of the heavens and the earth.”35

כִּי אִם לֹא בְרִיתִי יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה חֻקּוֹת שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ (יִרְמְיָה ל"ג כ"ה)

For without the Torah, the encompassing lights and the inward lights would not be able to be combined and thus it would be impossible for the world to come into existence.

דְּמַקִּיפִים וּפְנִימִיִּים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל לֹא הָיוּ מִתְחַבְּרִים

For this reason, Moshe commanded that the Ark and the utensils should be made first,

וְעַל כֵּן צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָאָרוֹן וְהַכֵּלִים תְּחִלָּה

since they are of primary importance. As explained above, they reflect the manifestation of G‑d’s infinite light within this material world.

וְגַם הֵמָּה הָעִקָּר

For the curtains are just a cover and an enclosure for the utensils, whose source is very lofty.

שֶׁהַיְרִיעוֹת הֵם רַק לְמִכְסֶה וּלְאֹהֶל עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁהֲרֵי שָׁרְשָׁן מְאֹד נַעֲלֶה כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל,

Nevertheless, in practice, Betzalel’s perspective was correct,

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לְמַעֲשֶׂה הָיָה דַּעַת בְּצַלְאֵל נָכוֹן

because the elevated heights of the utensils are only from the perspective of the Torah,

לְפִי שֶׁזֶּה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִצַּד הַתּוֹרָה

whose source is from these lofty heights.

שֶׁשָּׁרְשָׁהּ שָׁם

Nevertheless, the utensils themselves are rooted in the approach of Yosher, which is below the kav.

אֲבָל הַכֵּלִים עַצְמָן הֵם מִבְּחִינַת הַיֹּשֶׁר שֶׁלְּמַטָּה מֵהַקַּו

Therefore it is appropriate to give primacy to the curtains, which are identified with the Iggulim.

וְלָכֵן רְאוּיִם הַיְרִיעוֹת לְהַקְדִּימָם

After drawing down the Iggulim, however, we have the potential to draw down the influence of the Torah into the utensils

אֶלָּא שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ אֲנַחְנוּ יְכוֹלִים לְהַמְשִׁיךְ הַתּוֹרָה בְּתוֹךְ הַכֵּלִים

and to place the Tablets into the Ark.

וְלִתֵּן הַלּוּחוֹת בָּאָרוֹן

Then, they will be on a higher level.

וְאָז יִהְיוּ הֵם נַעֲלִים

Similarly, in a spiritual sense,

וּכְמוֹ כֵן בְּרוּחָנִיּוּת

through being occupied with Torah study, every person can draw down G‑d’s infinite light that transcends both the Iggulim and Yosher into the lowest levels.

יָכוֹל כָּל אָדָם עַל יְדֵי עֵסֶק הַתּוֹרָה לְהַמְשִׁיךְ בְּחִינַת אוֹר אֵין סוֹף שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵעִגּוּלִים וְיֹשֶׁר לְמַטָּה מַּטָּה

Indeed, in the Ultimate Future, this infinite light will be revealed specifically in this material world,

עַד שֶׁיִּתְגַּלֶּה לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה דַוְקָא

as explained in another source with regard to Torah study.

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר בְּעִנְיַן תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה:

In contrast, there are times when a limb or organ expresses a power, but does so against its tendency. For example, the power of will can be expressed through the brain when a person studies more than he would according to his natural tendency. In that instance, however, it is obvious that the brain is not doing what it wants; it is responding to the will. When, however, a person studies what he desires to study or speaks when he desires to speak, the power is expressed naturally and the connection between it and the organ becomes obvious. The will, i.e., the person’s encompassing powers, energizes his intellect, his internal powers. In a similar way, G‑d’s encompassing light will make possible and enhance the revelation of His inward light,