1

The design of the Menorah is explicitly [stated] in the Torah.1The [central] shaft of the Menorah had four goblets, two bulbs, and two flowers,2 [Exodus 25:34] states: "The Menorah shall have four embossed goblets, together with its bulbs and its flowers."3 A third flower was close to the Menorah's base, as [Numbers 8:4] states: "to its base, to its flower."4

א

הַמְּנּוֹרָה מְפֹרֶשֶׁת צוּרָתָהּ בַּתּוֹרָה. וְאַרְבָּעָה גְּבִיעִים וּשְׁנֵי כַּפְתּוֹרִים וּשְׁנֵי פְּרָחִים הָיוּ בִּקְנֵה הַמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כה לד) (שמות לז כ) "וּבַמְּנֹרָה אַרְבָּעָה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ". וְעוֹד פֶּרַח שְׁלִישִׁי הָיָה סָמוּךְ לִירֵכָהּ שֶׁל מְנוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ח ד) "עַד יְרֵכָהּ עַד פִּרְחָהּ":

2

The [Menorah] had three feet.5

Six [diagonal]6 branches extended from three other bulbs in the [central] shaft of the Menorah, three [branches] on one side and three on the other.

Each branch had three goblets, a bulb, and a flower. They were all embossed7 by beating them [in a manner that their surface] resembled [tiny] almonds.8

ב

וְשָׁלֹשׁ רַגְלַיִם הָיוּ לָהּ. וּשְׁלֹשָׁה כַּפְתּוֹרִים אֲחֵרִים הָיוּ בִּקְנֵה הַמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁמֵּהֶן יוֹצְאִים שֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים. שְׁלֹשָׁה מִצַּד זֶה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה מִצַּד זֶה. וּבְכָל קָנֶה וְקָנֶה מֵהֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה גְּבִיעִים וְכַפְתּוֹר וָפֶרַח. וְהַכּל מְשֻׁקָּדִים כְּמוֹ שְׁקֵדִים בַּעֲשִׂיָּתָן:

3

Thus, the total number of goblets was 22;9 of flowers, nine;10 of bulbs, eleven.11 [The absence of] any of these ornaments could render the others invalid.12 Even if one of the 42 [ornaments] was lacking, all [the others] would not be valid.

ג

נִמְצְאוּ כָּל הַגְּבִיעִים שְׁנַיִם וְעֶשְׂרִים. וְהַפְּרָחִים תִּשְׁעָה. וְהַכַּפְתּוֹרִים אַחַד עָשָׂר. וְכֻלָּן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה וַאֲפִלּוּ חָסֵר אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁנַיִם וְאַרְבָּעִים מְעַכֵּב אֶת כֻּלָּן:

4

This applies when the [Menorah] is made of gold.13 [However, if it is made] of other metals,14 it should not have goblets, bulbs, and flowers.15

Also, when the Menorah is made out of gold, its total [weight] including its lamps shall be one talent.16 It must be fashioned entirely by hammering out one block [of gold].17

[In contrast, should it be made from] other metals, there is no need to be precise about its weight.18 Also, it may be hollow.19

ד

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁעֲשָׂאוּהָ זָהָב. אֲבָל שְׁאָר מִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת אֵין עוֹשִׂין בָּהּ גְּבִיעִים כַּפְתּוֹרִים וּפְרָחִים. וְכֵן מְנוֹרָה הַבָּאָה זָהָב תִּהְיֶה כֻּלָּהּ כִּכָּר עִם נֵרוֹתֶיהָ וְתִהְיֶה כֻּלָּהּ מִקְשָׁה מִן הָעֲשָׁתוֹת. וְשֶׁל שְׁאָר מִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת אֵין מַקְפִּידִין עַל מִשְׁקָלָהּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה חֲלוּלָה כְּשֵׁרָה:

5

[The Menorah] should never be made of fragments of broken vessels, whether it was made of gold or of other metals.20

ה

וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתָהּ לְעוֹלָם מִן הַגְּרוּטָאוֹת בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל זָהָב בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל שְׁאָר מִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת:

6

[Though the Menorah's] tongs,21 ash-scoops,22 and oil containers [shall also be made out of pure gold], they are not included in the talent [mentioned above. This decision was made] because, in connection with the Menorah, [Exodus 25:31] states: "pure gold" and afterwards, [ibid.:38) repeats: "Its wick-tongs and ash-scoops shall be made of pure gold."23

The verse does not state: "its lamps shall be of pure gold," for the lamps24 were permanently fixed in the Menorah, and were included in the talent [of gold from which the Menorah was fashioned].25

ו

הַמֶּלְקָחַיִם וְהַמַּחְתּוֹת וּכְלֵי הַשֶּׁמֶן אֵינָן מִכְּלַל הַכִּכָּר שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בַּמְּנוֹרָה (שמות כה לא) (שמות לז יז) "זָהָב טָהוֹר" וְחָזַר וְאָמַר וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ וּמַחְתֹּתֶיהָ זָהָב טָהוֹר. וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר נֵרוֹתֶיהָ זָהָב טָהוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַנֵּרוֹת קְבוּעִין בַּמְּנוֹרָה וְהֵם מִכְּלַל הַכִּכָּר:

7

The [absence of one of the] seven branches of the Menorah invalidates the others.26 The [absence of one of the] seven lamps invalidates the others. This applies whether [the Menorah was made] of gold or of other metals.27

All the lamps were [permanently] affixed to the branches.28

ז

שִׁבְעַת קְנֵי הַמְּנוֹרָה מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְשִׁבְעַת נֵרוֹתֶיהָ מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל זָהָב בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל שְׁאָר מִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת. וְכָל הַנֵּרוֹת קְבוּעִים בַּקָּנִים:

8

The six lamps affixed in the six branches extending out from the Menorah all faced the central lamp which was above the [central] shaft of the Menorah.29 The central lamp faced the Holy of Holies and was called the western lamp.30

ח

שֵׁשֶׁת הַנֵּרוֹת הַקְּבוּעִים בְּשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים הַיּוֹצְאִים מִן הַמְּנוֹרָה כֻּלָּן פְּנֵיהֶם לַנֵּר הָאֶמְצָעִי שֶׁעַל קְנֵי הַמְּנוֹרָה וְזֶה הַנֵּר הָאֶמְצָעִי פָּנָיו כְּנֶגֶד קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא נֵר מַעֲרָבִי:

9

The goblets resembled Alexandrine chalices. They had wide mouths and narrow bases.31 The bulbs were like the apples of Keros which are slightly elongated, [resembling] eggs with both ends rounded.32 The flowers resemble the flowers of a column. They are shaped like bowls, with the edges bent over outward.33

ט

הַגְּבִיעִים דּוֹמִין לְכוֹסוֹת אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיאָה שֶׁפִּיהֶן רָחָב וְשׁוּלֵיהֶן קָצָר. וְהַכַּפְתּוֹרִים כְּמִין תַּפּוּחִים כְּרוּתִיִּים שֶׁהֵן אֲרֻכִּין מְעַט כְּבֵיצָה שֶׁשְּׁנֵי רָאשֶׁיהָ כַּדִּין. וְהַפְּרָחִים כְּמוֹ פִּרְחֵי הָעַמּוּדִים שֶׁהֵן כְּמִין קְעָרָה וּשְׂפָתָהּ כְּפוּלָה לַחוּץ:

10

The Menorah was eighteen handbreadths high:34

Its feet, [base,] and [bottommost] flower were three handbreadths high,35

There were two empty handbreadths,

The next handbreadth included a goblet, a bulb, and a flower,

Two empty handbreadths [followed],

A handbreadth with a bulb and two branches extending outward from it, one to one side and one to the other, extending outward and ascending until reaching the full height of the Menorah,36

An empty handbreadth,

A handbreadth with a bulb and two branches extending outward from it, one to one side and one to the other, extending outward and ascending until they reached the full height of the Menorah,

An empty handbreadth,

A handbreadth with a bulb and two branches extending outward from it, one to one side and one to the other, extending outward and ascending, until they reached the full height of the Menorah,

and two empty handbreadths

[Thus,] three handbreadths remained, with three goblets, a bulb, and a flower.37

י

גֹּבַהּ הַמְּנוֹרָה הָיָה שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר טֶפַח. הָרַגְלַיִם וְהַפֶּרַח שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. וּשְׁנֵי טְפָחִים חָלָק. וְטֶפַח שֶׁבּוֹ גָּבִיעַ כַּפְתּוֹר וָפֶרַח. וּטְפָחַיִם חָלָק. וְטֶפַח כַּפְתּוֹר וּשְׁנֵי קָנִים יוֹצְאִין מִמֶּנּוּ אֶחָד הֵילָךְ וְאֶחָד הֵילָךְ וְנִמְשָׁכִים וְעוֹלִין כְּנֶגֶד גֹּבַהּ הַמְּנוֹרָה. וְטֶפַח חָלָק. וְטֶפַח כַּפְתּוֹר וּשְׁנֵי קָנִים יוֹצְאִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֶחָד הֵילָךְ וְאֶחָד הֵילָךְ וְנִמְשָׁכִין וְעוֹלִין כְּנֶגֶד גֹּבַהּ הַמְּנוֹרָה. וְטֶפַח חָלָק. וְטֶפַח כַּפְתּוֹר וּשְׁנֵי קָנִים יוֹצְאִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֶחָד הֵילָךְ וְאֶחָד הֵילָךְ וְנִמְשָׁכִין וְעוֹלִין כְּנֶגֶד גֹּבַהּ הַמְּנוֹרָה. וּטְפָחַיִם חָלָק. נִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים שֶׁבָּהֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה גְּבִיעִים כַּפְתּוֹר וָפֶרַח:

11

A stone with three steps was [placed] before the Menorah.38 The priest stood on it39 and kindled the lamps.40 [Also,] he placed the containers of oil, the tongs, and the ash-scoops upon it while kindling it.

יא

וְאֶבֶן הָיְתָה לִפְנֵי הַמְּנוֹרָה וּבָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ מַעֲלוֹת שֶׁעָלֶיהָ כֹּהֵן עוֹמֵד וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת וּמַנִּיחַ עָלֶיהָ כְּלֵי שַׁמְנָהּ וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ וּמַחְתּוֹתֶיהָ בִּשְׁעַת הֲטָבָה:

12

The Table [for the Showbread] was twelve handbreadths long and six handbreadths wide.41 Its length was positioned in parallel with the length of the Sanctuary42 and its width was positioned in parallel with the width of the Sanctuary.43

Similarly, the length and width of all the articles in the Sanctuary except for the Ark paralleled the length and width of the Sanctuary. The length of the Ark was placed to the width of the Sanctuary.44

The lamps of the Menorah were also positioned in parallel with the width of the Temple, from north to south.45

יב

הַשֻּׁלְחָן הָיָה אָרְכּוֹ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר טֶפַח וְרָחְבּוֹ שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים. וְהָיָה מֻנָּח אָרְכּוֹ לְאֹרֶךְ הַבַּיִת וְרָחְבּוֹ לְרֹחַב הַבַּיִת. וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ אָרְכָּן לְאָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל בַּיִת וְרָחְבָּן לְרֹחַב הַבַּיִת חוּץ מִן הָאָרוֹן שֶׁהָיָה אָרְכּוֹ לְרֹחַב הַבַּיִת. וְכֵן נֵרוֹת הַמְּנוֹרָה כְּנֶגֶד רֹחַב הַבַּיִת בֵּין הַצָּפוֹן וּבֵין הַדָּרוֹם:

13

The Table46 had four side frames of gold which were Y-shaped at their heads.47 They supported the two arrangements of the showbread,48 two for each arrangement. The Torah49 calls them "its kesot."50

יג

אַרְבָּעָה סְנִיפִין שֶׁל זָהָב הָיוּ לַשֻּׁלְחָן מְפֻצָּלִין בְּרָאשֵׁיהֶן שֶׁהָיוּ סוֹמְכִין בָּהֶן שְׁתֵּי הַמַּעֲרָכוֹת שֶׁל לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים. שְׁנַיִם מִסֵּדֶר זֶה. וּשְׁנַיִם מִסֵּדֶר זֶה. וְהֵם הַנֶּאֱמָרִים בַּתּוֹרָה (שמות כה כט) "וּקְשׂוֹתָיו":

14

There were 28 rods of gold. Each resembled half of a hollow reed.51 Fourteen [were used] for one arrangement and fourteen for the other arrangement.52 [The Torah]53 calls them "its minakiot."

There were two incense bowls. The frankincense was placed inside them on the Table, on the side of the arrangements [of Showbread].54 [The Torah]55 calls them "its kapot."

The molds used to make the Showbread56 are called57 "its ke'arot."

יד

וּשְׁמוֹנָה וְעֶשְׂרִים קָנִים שֶׁל זָהָב כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן כַּחֲצִי קָנֶה חָלוּל הָיוּ לוֹ. אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְסֵדֶר זֶה וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְסֵדֶר זֶה. וְהֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים (שמות כה כט) "מְנַקִּיּוֹתָיו". וּשְׁנֵי הַבְּזִיכִין שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בָּהֶן הַלְּבוֹנָה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּצַד הַמַּעֲרָכוֹת הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין (שמות כה כט) "כַּפּוֹתָיו". וְהַדְּפוּסִין שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בָּהֶם לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים (שמות כה כט) "קְעָרוֹתָיו":

15

The 28 rods mentioned above [were used as follows]: The first loaf was placed on the Table itself.58 Three rods were placed between the first and the second loaves. Similarly, three rods were placed between each [of the following] loaves. Between the fifth and the sixth loaf, there were only two rods, for another loaf is not placed upon the sixth.59 Thus, each row [of loaves] required fourteen rods.60

טו

אֵלּוּ הָאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר קָנִים נוֹתֵן הַחַלָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁל שֻׁלְחָן וְנוֹתֵן בֵּין רִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁנִיָּה שְׁלֹשָׁה קָנִים. וְכֵן בֵּין כָּל חַלָּה וְחַלָּה שְׁלֹשָׁה קָנִים. וּבֵין שִׁשִּׁית וַחֲמִישִׁית שְׁנֵי קָנִים בִּלְבַד לְפִי שֶׁאֵין עַל הַשִּׁשִּׁית אַחֶרֶת. נִמְצְאוּ אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בְּכָל מַעֲרָכָה וּמַעֲרָכָה:

16

There were two tables in the Entrance Hall, near the entrance to the Temple building.61 One was made of marble.62 The Showbread was placed upon it before it was brought in.63 The other was made of gold. The bread was placed upon it when it was brought out.64 [The rationale for the use of different substances is that] with regard to holy matters, one must always ascend, and may not descend.65

טז

וּשְׁנֵי שֻׁלְחָנוֹת הָיוּ בָּאוּלָם מִבִּפְנִים עַל פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת. אֶחָד שֶׁל שַׁיִשׁ נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ. וְאֶחָד שֶׁל זָהָב נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו לֶחֶם בִּיצִיאָתוֹ. שֶׁמַּעֲלִין בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְלֹא מוֹרִידִין:

17

The incense altar66 was one cubit by one cubit square.67 It was placed in the Sanctuary, exactly [midway] between north and south,68 between the Table and the Menorah, towards the outside. These three were all placed beyond the first third of the Temple building, in front of the Parochet, which divided the Sanctuary from the Holy of Holies.69

יז

מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת הָיָה מְרֻבָּע אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה. וְהוּא נָתוּן בַּהֵיכָל מְכֻוָּן בֵּין הַצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מָשׁוּךְ בֵּין הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהַמְּנוֹרָה לַחוּץ. וּשְׁלָשְׁתָּן הָיוּ מֻנָּחִין מִשְּׁלִישׁ הַהֵיכָל וְלִפְנִים כְּנֶגֶד הַפָּרֹכֶת הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים:

18

The washbasin70 had twelve taps,71 so that all the priests who were involved in offering the daily sacrifice72 could sanctify [their hands and feet] at one time.73

A mechanism was made so that it could be filled with water at all times. [The mechanism itself] was not sacred, and thus, the water remaining in it did not become invalidated [for future use] because the night passed. [This was necessary] because the washbasin was a sacred vessel and sanctified [its contents].74 Anything which is sanctified by a sacred vessel becomes invalidated [for future use] after the night passes.75

יח

הַכִּיּוֹר הָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר דָּד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל הַכֹּהֲנִים הָעוֹסְקִים בַּתָּמִיד מְקַדְּשִׁים מִמֶּנּוּ כְּאֶחָד. וּמוּכְנִי עָשׂוּ לוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בָּהּ הַמַּיִם תָּמִיד. וְהִיא חֹל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהּ נִפְסָלִין בְּלִינָה שֶׁהַכִּיּוֹר מִכְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּמְקַדֵּשׁ וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיִּתְקַדֵּשׁ בִּכְלִי קֹדֶשׁ אִם לָן נִפְסַל: