There is a positive commandment to hold the Temple in awe,1 as [Leviticus 19:30] states: "And you shall revere my Sanctuary."2 Nevertheless, it is not the [physical building of] the Temple which must be held in awe, but rather, He who commanded that it be revered.3


מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְיִרְאָה מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט ל) (ויקרא כו ב) "וּמִקְדָּשִׁי תִּירָאוּ". וְלֹא מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ אַתָּה יָרֵא אֶלָּא מִמִּי שֶׁצִּוָּה עַל יִרְאָתוֹ:


How is reverence for it manifest? A person should not enter the Temple Mount holding a staff,4 or with sandals on his feet,5 or wearing only underwear,6 with dust on his feet, or with money wrapped in his kerchief.7

It is superfluous to say that it is forbidden to spit on the entire Temple Mount.8 If one must spit, he should let it be absorbed in his clothing.9

One should not take a shortcut through the Temple Mount, by entering from one gate, and leaving from the opposite one, in order to shorten the way.10 Rather, one should walk around from the outside, entering only for the purpose of a mitzvah.11


וְאֵי זוֹ הִיא יִרְאָתוֹ לֹא יִכָּנֵס אָדָם לְהַר הַבַּיִת בְּמַקְלוֹ אוֹ בְּמִנְעָל שֶׁבְּרַגְלָיו אוֹ בַּאֲפֻנְדָּתוֹ אוֹ בָּאָבָק שֶׁעַל רַגְלָיו אוֹ בְּמָעוֹת הַצְּרוּרִין לוֹ בִּסְדִינוֹ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאָסוּר לָרֹק בְּכָל הַר הַבַּיִת אֶלָּא אִם נִזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ רֹק מַבְלִיעוֹ בִּכְסוּתוֹ. וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה הַר הַבַּיִת דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס מִפֶּתַח זוֹ וְיֵצֵא מִפֶּתַח שֶׁכְּנֶגְדָהּ כְּדֵי לְקַצֵּר הַדֶּרֶךְ אֶלָּא יַקִּיפוֹ מִבַּחוּץ. וְלֹא יִכָּנֵס לוֹ אֶלָּא לִדְבַר מִצְוָה:


All who enter the Temple Mount12 should [face] the right side, walk around [in that direction],13 and leave on the left side.14 [This applies to everyone] except to one to whom [a grievous] event occurred. He would circle around towards the left side.15 Therefore, [those who met him] would ask him: "Why are you circling towards the left?"16

"Because I have become a mourner," [he would answer].

"May the One Who rests in this House comfort you," [they would reply].

[Or he might answer:] "Because I have been ostracized."17

[In which case, they would reply:] "May the One Who rests in this House bring about a change in your heart and thus, you will follow the words of your colleagues. Then, they will draw you near."18


וְכָל הַנִּכְנָסִין לְהַר הַבַּיִת נִכְנָסִין דֶּרֶךְ יָמִין וּמַקִּיפִין וְיוֹצְאִין דֶּרֶךְ שְׂמֹאל חוּץ מִמִּי שֶׁאֵרְעוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מַקִּיף עַל הַשְּׂמֹאל. לְפִיכָךְ הָיוּ שׁוֹאֲלִין לוֹ מַה לְּךָ מַקִּיף עַל הַשְּׂמֹאל. שֶׁאֲנִי אָבֵל. הַשּׁוֹכֵן בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה יְנַחֶמְךָ. שֶׁאֲנִי מְנֻדֶּה. הַשּׁוֹכֵן בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה יִתֵּן בִּלְבָבְךָ וְתִשְׁמַע לְדִבְרֵי חֲבֵרֶיךָ וִיקָרְבוּךָ:


Anyone who has completed his service [in the Temple and desires] to leave, should not [turn around and] leave with his back to the Temple. Rather, he should walk backwards slightly19 and [then], walk slowly, and [turn] to his side20 until leaving the Temple Courtyard.21

Similarly, the members of the priestly watch,22 the representatives of the Jewish people,23 and the Levites [when they descend] from their platform,24 should leave the Temple in this manner, similar to one who steps backwards after his prayers.25 All these [are expressions of] reverence for the Temple.


כָּל שֶׁהִשְׁלִים עֲבוֹדָה וְנִסְתַּלֵּק לוֹ אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא וַאֲחוֹרָיו לַהֵיכָל אֶלָּא מְהַלֵּךְ אֲחוֹרַנִּית מְעַט מְעַט וּמְהַלֵּךְ בְּנַחַת עַל צִדּוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא מִן הָעֲזָרָה. וְכֵן אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר וְאַנְשֵׁי מַעֲמָד וּלְוִיִּם מִדּוּכָנָן כָּךְ הֵם יוֹצְאִין מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ כְּמִי שֶׁפּוֹסֵעַ אַחַר תְּפִלָּה לַאֲחוֹרָיו. כָּל זֶה לְיִרְאָה מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ:


A person should not act frivolously before the gate of Nicanor, the eastern gate of the Temple Courtyard,26 for it is positioned opposite the chamber of the Holy of Holies.

Everyone who enters the Temple Courtyard should walk in a dignified manner,27 in the region where he is permitted to enter.28 He should conceive of himself as standing before God, as [I Kings 9:3] states: "My eyes and My heart will be there forever."

One should walk with awe, fear, and trembling,29 as [Psalms 55:15] states: "We would walk in the House of the Lord with fervor."30


לֹא יָקֵל אָדָם אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד שַׁעַר מִזְרָחִי שֶׁל עֲזָרָה שֶׁהוּא שַׁעַר נִיקָנוֹר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. וְכָל הַנִּכְנָס לָעֲזָרָה יְהַלֵּךְ בְּנַחַת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לְהִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם. וְיִרְאֶה עַצְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד לִפְנֵי ה' כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים א ט ג) (דברי הימים ב ז טז) "וְהָיוּ עֵינַי וְלִבִּי שָׁם כָּל הַיָּמִים". וּמְהַלֵּךְ בְּאֵימָה וּבְיִרְאָה וּרְעָדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהילים נה טו) "בְּבֵית אֱלֹהִים נְהַלֵּךְ בְּרָגֶשׁ":

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


It is forbidden for anyone to sit in the Temple Courtyard,31 [for] sitting in the Temple Courtyard is prohibited32 except for the Kings of the House of David, as [II Samuel 7:18] states: "And King David entered and sat before the Lord."33

The Sanhedrin34 met in the half of the Chamber of Hewn Stone which was not consecrated.35


וְאָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם לֵישֵׁב בְּכָל הָעֲזָרָה וְאֵין יְשִׁיבָה בָּעֲזָרָה אֶלָּא לְמַלְכֵי בֵּית דָּוִד בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב ז יח) (דברי הימים א יז טז) "וַיָּבֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד וַיֵּשֶׁב לִפְנֵי ה'". וְהַסַּנְהֶדְרִין שֶׁהָיוּ יוֹשְׁבִין בְּלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית לֹא הָיוּ יוֹשְׁבִין אֶלָּא בְּחֶצְיָהּ שֶׁל חל:


Even though, the Temple is now in ruin because of our sins,36 a person must hold its [site] in awe, as one would regard it when it was standing.

[Therefore,] one should only enter a region which he is permitted to enter. He should not sit in [the area of] the Temple Courtyard, nor should he act frivolously when standing before [the place of] the eastern gate, as [implied by Leviticus 19:30]: "You shall observe My Sabbaths and you shall revere My Sanctuary." [Explaining the analogy between the two commands, the Sages comment:]37 "Just as the observance of the Sabbath [applies] for eternity, so too, the reverence for the Temple must be eternal. Even though it is in ruin, it remains holy."


אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַיּוֹם חָרֵב בַּעֲוֹנוֹתֵינוּ חַיָּב אָדָם בְּמוֹרָאוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה נוֹהֵג בּוֹ בְּבִנְיָנוֹ. לֹא יִכָּנֵס אֶלָּא לְמָקוֹם שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם וְלֹא יֵשֵׁב בָּעֲזָרָה וְלֹא יָקֵל רֹאשׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד שַׁעַר הַמִּזְרָח שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט ל) (ויקרא כו ב) "אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁי תִּירָאוּ". מַה שְּׁמִירַת שַׁבָּת לְעוֹלָם אַף מוֹרָא מִקְדָּשׁ לְעוֹלָם שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָרֵב בִּקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ עוֹמֵד:


When the Temple is standing, a person may not act frivolously in the area from Mt. Scopus,38 which is outside of Jerusalem, and inwards [towards the city.39 This prohibition only applies] when he can see the Temple, and there is no fence between him and the Temple.


בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַמִּקְדָּשׁ בָּנוּי אָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם לְהָקֵל אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ מִן הַצּוֹפִים שֶׁהוּא חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְלִפְנִים. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רוֹאֶה אֶת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְלֹא יִהְיֶה גָּדֵר מַפְסִיק בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַמִּקְדָּשׁ:


At all times,40 a person may not defecate41 or sleep42 [with his body positioned] between the east and the west.43 It is superfluous to state that one should not place a toilet between the east and the west in any place [throughout the world,] for the Temple is in the west. Therefore, one should not defecate to the west nor to the east, for it is opposite the west. Rather, we should always defecate and sleep [with our bodies] to the north and south.44

Whoever urinates from Mt. Scopus inward to the city should not sit facing the Temple. Rather, [he should position himself] to the north or to the south, or have the Temple at his side.45


אָסוּר לְאָדָם לְעוֹלָם שֶׁיִּפָּנֶה אוֹ שֶׁיִּישַׁן בֵּין מִזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין קוֹבְעִין בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא בֵּין מִזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב בְּכָל מָקוֹם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַהֵיכָל בְּמַעֲרָב. לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יִפָּנֶה לְמַעֲרָב וְלֹא לְמִזְרָח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַמַּעֲרָב. אֶלָּא בֵּין צָפוֹן לְדָרוֹם נִפְנִים וִישֵׁנִים. וְכָל הַמֵּטִיל מַיִם מִן הַצּוֹפִים וְלִפְנִים לֹא יֵשֵׁב וּפָנָיו כְּלַפֵּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֶלָּא לְצָפוֹן אוֹ לְדָרוֹם אוֹ יְסַלֵּק הַקֹּדֶשׁ לַצְּדָדִין:


A person may not make46 a house47 according to the Temple's design,48 a porch with the design of the Entrance Hall,49 a courtyard resembling the Temple Courtyard,50 a table according to the design of the Table for the Showbread, or a lamp in the design of the Menorah.51 However, one may make a lamp [resembling the Menorah] with five branches or with eight branches52 [even] with seven branches if it is not made of metal.53


וְאָסוּר לְאָדָם שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בַּיִת תַּבְנִית הֵיכָל. אַכְסַדְרָא תַּבְנִית אוּלָם. חָצֵר כְּנֶגֶד הָעֲזָרָה. שֻׁלְחָן בְּצוּרַת שֻׁלְחָן. וּמְנוֹרָה בְּצוּרַת מְנוֹרָה. אֲבָל עוֹשֶׂה הוּא מְנוֹרָה שֶׁל חֲמִשָּׁה קָנִים אוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמוֹנָה קָנִים אוֹ מְנוֹרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ שִׁבְעָה קָנִים:


The [encampment of the Jewish people] in the desert[ was divided into] three areas:54

the camp of Israel, which was itself subdivided into four camps;55

the camp of the Levites about which [Numbers 1:50] states: "They shall camp around the Sanctuary;"56

and the camp of the Shechinah [which included the area] beginning at the entrance to the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting inwards.57

Correspondingly, for [future] generations:

[The area] from the entrance to Jerusalem to the Temple Mount is comparable to the camp of Israel.58

[The area] from the entrance to the Temple Mount until the entrance to the Temple Courtyard, the gate of Nicanor, is comparable to the camp of the Levites.59

[The area] from the entrance to the Temple Courtyard inward, is comparable to the camp of the Shechinah.60

The chayl61 and the Women's Courtyard62 were regions of increased sanctity which were first instituted in the Temple.63


שְׁלֹשָׁה מַחֲנוֹת הָיוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר. מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהוּא אַרְבַּע מַחֲנוֹת. וּמַחֲנֵה לְוִיָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהּ (במדבר א נ) "וְסָבִיב לַמִּשְׁכָּן יַחֲנוּ". וּמַחֲנֵה שְׁכִינָה וְהוּא מִפֶּתַח חֲצַר אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְלִפְנִים. וּכְנֶגְדָּן לְדוֹרוֹת. מִפֶּתַח יְרוּשָׁלַיִם עַד הַר הַבַּיִת כְּמַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּמִפֶּתַח הַר הַבַּיִת עַד פֶּתַח הָעֲזָרָה שֶׁהוּא שַׁעַר נִיקָנוֹר כְּמַחֲנֵה לְוִיָּה. וּמִפֶּתַח הָעֲזָרָה וְלִפְנִים מַחֲנֵה שְׁכִינָה. וְהַחֵיל וְעֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים מַעֲלָה יְתֵרָה בְּבֵית עוֹלָמִים:


The entire land of Eretz Yisrael is more sanctified than all other lands. How is its holiness expressed?

The Omer offering, the two loaves (offered on Shavuot), and the first fruits must be brought from its [territory] and cannot be brought from other lands.


כָּל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִכָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת. וּמַה הִיא קְדֻשָּׁתָהּ שֶׁמְּבִיאִין מִמֶּנָּה הָעֹמֶר וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וְהַבִּכּוּרִים מַה שֶּׁאֵין מְבִיאִין כֵּן מִשְּׁאָר אֲרָצוֹת:


Eretz Yisrael has ten gradations of holiness, each higher than the preceding level. The cities which are surrounded by a wall are holier than the rest of the Land.

[How is this holiness expressed?]

Those afflicted by tzara'at are sent out of [these cities].

A corpse cannot be buried inside them until the entire city or its seven chosen representatives agree.

If a corpse has been taken outside a city, it should not be returned, even though all of the inhabitants are willing.

If the inhabitants of a city desire to disinter [a corpse] and remove it from the country, they may. The graves [of any individual] may be disinterred except for those of a king or of a prophet.

[The following rules apply in the case of a grave which was originally placed outside a city. Afterwards, the city grew in size to the point where] it surrounded the grave on all four sides, or merely on two sides which faced each other. If [originally,] there was more than 50 cubits between the grave and the city on either side, [the corpse] cannot be disinterred from the grave until every inhabitant of the city agrees. If a smaller distance [had originally been left,] it may be removed.


עֶשֶׂר קְדֻשּׁוֹת הֵן בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְזוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִזּוֹ. עֲיָרוֹת הַמֻּקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה מְקֻדָּשׁוֹת מִשְּׁאָר הָאָרֶץ שֶׁמְּשַׁלְּחִין מִתּוֹכָן אֶת הַמְצֹרָעִים וְאֵין קוֹבְרִין בְּתוֹכָן מֵת עַד שֶׁיִּרְצוּ שִׁבְעָה טוֹבֵי הָעִיר אוֹ כָּל אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר. וְאִם יָצָא הַמֵּת חוּץ לָעִיר אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָצוּ כֻּלָּן לְהַחְזִירוֹ. רָצוּ בְּנֵי הָעִיר לְהוֹצִיא הַקֶּבֶר מִן הַמְּדִינָה מְפַנִּין אוֹתוֹ. וְכָל הַקְּבָרוֹת מְפַנִּין חוּץ מִקֶּבֶר נָבִיא אוֹ מֶלֶךְ. קֶבֶר שֶׁהִקִּיפַתּוּ הָעִיר בֵּין מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹתָיו בֵּין מִשְּׁתֵי רוּחוֹת זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ אִם הָיְתָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הָעִיר יֶתֶר מֵחֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה לְכָאן וַחֲמִשִּׁים לְכָאן אֵין מְפַנִּין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּרְצוּ כֻּלָּן. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן מְפַנִּין אוֹתוֹ:


Jerusalem is holier than other walled cities. We must eat the sacrifices of lesser sanctity and the second tithes within its walls.

[Because of this holiness], the following [restrictions] were enacted in regard to Jerusalem:

No corpse is left within [its boundaries] overnight.

Human bones may not be transported within it.

Homes cannot be rented within it.

A resident alien may not be given the opportunity to settle in the city.

No graves may remain within [its boundaries] except for the graves of the House of David and the grave of Chuldah, the prophetess, which were there from the days of the first prophets.

We should not plant gardens or orchards within the city. It cannot be sowed or plowed [as a field], so that it will not smell foul. No trees may be maintained within it, except for a rose garden which was there from the days of the first prophets.

We may not maintain a garbage dump there, because of creeping animals.

We may not [build] balconies or protrusions extending into the public domain because of Tumat Ohel.

We may not create furnaces within it because of the smoke.

We may not raise chickens within it, because they may cause ritually pure articles [to become impure]. Similarly, a priest may not raise chickens throughout Eretz Yisrael, because they cause ritually pure articles [to become impure].

A house in the city which is sold is never designated as the permanent property of the buyer.

A house in the city is never designated as leprous.

It cannot be judged as an "apostate city."

An Eglah Arufah is never brought from it.

[The latter four statements apply] because [Jerusalem] was never divided among the tribes.


יְרוּשָׁלַיִם מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִשְּׁאָר הָעֲיָרוֹת הַמֻּקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה. שֶׁאוֹכְלִין קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי לְפָנִים מֵחוֹמָתָהּ. וְאֵלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. אֵין מְלִינִין בָּהּ אֶת הַמֵּת. וְאֵין מַעֲבִירִין בְּתוֹכָהּ עַצְמוֹת אָדָם. וְאֵין מַשְׂכִּירִין בְּתוֹכָהּ בָּתִּים. וְאֵין נוֹתְנִין בְּתוֹכָהּ מָקוֹם לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב. וְאֵין מְקַיְּמִין בָּהּ קִבְרוֹת חוּץ מִקִּבְרֵי בֵּית דָּוִד וְקֶבֶר חֻלְדָּה שֶׁהָיוּ בָּהּ מִימוֹת נְבִיאִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. וְאֵין נוֹטְעִין בָּהּ גַּנּוֹת וּפַרְדֵּסִים. וְאֵינָהּ נִזְרַעַת וְאֵינָהּ נֶחֱרֶשֶׁת שֶׁמָּא תִּסְרַח. וְאֵין מְקַיְּמִין בָּהּ אִילָנוֹת חוּץ מִגִּנַּת וְרָדִים שֶׁהָיְתָה שָׁם מִימוֹת נְבִיאִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. וְאֵין מְקַיְּמִין בָּהּ אַשְׁפָּה מִפְּנֵי הַשְּׁרָצִים. וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין הֵימֶנָּה זִיזִין וּגְזוּזְטְרָאוֹת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִפְּנֵי אֹהֶל הַטֻּמְאָה. וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין בָּהּ כִּבְשׁוֹנוֹת מִפְּנֵי הֶעָשָׁן. וְאֵין מְגַדְּלִין בָּהּ תַּרְנְגוֹלוֹת מִפְּנֵי הַקָּדָשִׁים. וְכֵן לֹא יְגַדְּלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים תַּרְנְגוֹלִים בְּכָל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִפְּנֵי הַטָּהֳרוֹת. וְאֵין הַבַּיִת נֶחְלָט בָּהּ. וְאֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים. וְאֵינָהּ נַעֲשֵׂית עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת. וְאֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה עֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַלְּקָה לִשְׁבָטִים:


The Temple Mount is holier than [the city of Jerusalem]. Zavim, Zavot, Niddot, and women who have given birth may not enter there. [However,] a corpse may be brought into the Temple Mount and one has contracted ritual impurity from a corpse may definitely enter there.


הַר הַבַּיִת מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנָּה שֶׁאֵין זָבִין וְזָבוֹת נִדּוֹת וְיוֹלְדוֹת נִכְנָסִין לְשָׁם. וּמֻתָּר לְהַכְנִיס הַמֵּת עַצְמוֹ לְהַר הַבַּיִת וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר טְמֵא מֵת שֶׁהוּא נִכְנָס לְשָׁם:


The chayl is holier than the Temple Mount. Gentiles and those who contracted impurity through contact with a corpse or engaging in sexual relations with a Niddah may not enter there.


הַחֵיל מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁאֵין עַכּוּ''ם וּטְמֵא מֵת וּבוֹעֵל נִדָּה נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם:


The Women's Courtyard is holier than the chayl. A person who has immersed himself in a mikveh, but must wait until the sun sets to become ritually pure, may not enter there.

This prohibition was instituted by the Sages. According to Torah law, such a person may enter the camp of the Levites. [Similarly,] a person who contracted ritual impurity through contact with a corpse and who entered the Women's Courtyard, is not liable for a sin offering.


עֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִן הַחֵיל שֶׁאֵין טְבוּל יוֹם נִכְנָס לְשָׁם. וְאִסּוּר זֶה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם אֲבָל מִן הַתּוֹרָה מֻתָּר לִטְבוּל יוֹם לְהִכָּנֵס לְמַחֲנֵה לְוִיָּה. וּטְמֵא מֵת שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְעֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים אֵינוֹ חַיָּב חַטָּאת:


The Courtyard of the Israelites is holier than the Women's Courtyard.64 A person who has purified himself, but has not brought the required sacrifices,65 may not enter there.66 Similarly, an impure person who enters there is liable for karet.67


עֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מֵעֶזְרַת נָשִׁים שֶׁאֵין מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים נִכְנַס לְשָׁם. וְטָמֵא שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְשָׁם חַיָּב כָּרֵת:


The Priestly Courtyard is holier than [the Courtyard of the Israelites].68 An Israelite may only enter there when required for:

a) Semichah,69 c) slaughtering,70 b) confession,71 tenufah.72


עֶזְרַת הַכֹּהֲנִים מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנָּה. שֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל נִכְנָסִין לְשָׁם אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת צָרְכֵיהֶם לִסְמִיכָה וּלְכַפָּרָה וְלִשְׁחִיטָה וְלִתְנוּפָה:


[The area] between the Altar and the Entrance Hall is holier than the area mentioned above. Priests who have physical deformities,73 have grown long hair,74 or whose [priestly] garments are torn may not enter there.75


בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנָּה שֶׁאֵין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין וּפְרוּעֵי רֹאשׁ וּקְרוּעֵי בְּגָדִים נִכְנָסִין לְשָׁם:


The Temple building is holier than [the area] between the Altar and the Entrance Hall. Only a priest who has sanctified his hands and feet may enter there.76


הַהֵיכָל מְקֻדָּשׁ מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ. שֶׁאֵין נִכְנָס לְשָׁם אֶלָּא רְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם:


The chamber of the Holy of Holies is holier than it. Only the High Priest may enter there, on Yom Kippur, while he is involved in the Temple service.77


בֵּית קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁאֵין נִכְנָס לְשָׁם אֶלָּא כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בִּשְׁעַת הָעֲבוֹדָה:


There was a place in the upper storey [of the Temple]78which was located directly opposite the Holy of Holies.79 It was entered only once in seven years, to [inspect it] and find out what is necessary for its repair.80

When builders [are required] to enter the Temple building to construct or repair it, or to remove an impure object,81 it is a mitzvah for the [craftsmen] who enter to be priests who do not possess any disqualifying physical deformities.82

If no [capable craftsmen meeting those criteria] can be found, priests with disqualifying deformities should enter.83

If none are found, Levites should enter.84

If none are found, Israelites should enter.

It is a mitzvah for [those who enter] to be ritually pure. If no [capable craftsman] who are ritually pure can be found, impure [craftsmen] may enter.85

[If there is a choice between a craftsman] who is impure and a priest with a disqualifying deformity, the priest with the deformity should enter, for [although the prohibitions against] ritual impurity are put aside in regard to matters which concern the entire people, [they are not relaxed completely].86

All those who enter to repair the Temple87 should be lowered down inside crates [from the upper floor].88 If no crates are available or if it is impossible [to make arrangements for them to enter] using crates, they may enter through the [usual] entrances.


מָקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה בַּעֲלִיָּה מְכֻוָּן עַל קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים אֵין נִכְנָסִין לוֹ אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת בְּשָׁבוּעַ לֵידַע מַה הוּא צָרִיךְ לְחַזֵּק בִּדְקוֹ. בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּכְנָסִין הַבַּנָּאִים לִבְנוֹת וּלְתַקֵּן בַּהֵיכָל אוֹ לְהוֹצִיא מִשָּׁם אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. מִצְוָה שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַנִּכְנָסִין כֹּהֲנִים תְּמִימִים. לֹא מָצְאוּ תְּמִימִים יִכָּנְסוּ בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם כֹּהֲנִים יִכָּנְסוּ לְוִיִּם. לֹא מָצְאוּ לְוִיִּם יִכָּנְסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל. מִצְוָה בִּטְהוֹרִים. לֹא מָצְאוּ טְהוֹרִים יִכָּנְסוּ טְמֵאִים. טָמֵא וּבַעַל מוּם יִכָּנֵס בַּעַל מוּם וְאַל יִכָּנֵס טָמֵא שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה דְּחוּיָה בְּצִבּוּר. וְכָל הַנִּכְנָסִין לַהֵיכָל לְתַקֵּן יִכָּנְסוּ בְּתֵבוֹת. אִם אֵין שָׁם תֵּבוֹת אוֹ אִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ בְּתֵבוֹת יִכָּנְסוּ דֶּרֶךְ פְּתָחִים: