For this to take place, it is necessary for the light to have been removed

וְאִם כֵּן בְּהֶכְרֵחַ שֶׁכְּבָר הִיא מִסְתַּלֶּקֶת

and to have departed from the world of Atzilus,

וְיוֹצֵאת מִכְּלַל עוֹלַם הָאֲצִילוּת

as explained above in the analogy.

כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל בַּמָּשָׁל.

For this reason, the years that Adam and the Patriarchs gave King David were subtracted from their own lives,

וְלָכֵן הַשָּׁנִים שֶׁנָּתְנוּ אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהָאָבוֹת לְדָוִד הַמֶּלֶךְ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם נֶחְסְרוּ מַמָּשׁ מִשְּׁנֵי חַיֵּיהֶם

because this process of drawing down sublime spiritual lights involves a great descent

כִּי הֵם בְּחִינַת הַמְשָׁכוֹת אוֹרוֹת עֶלְיוֹנִים בְּדֶרֶךְ יְרִידָה גְדוֹלָה

Selections from Derech Mitzvosecha (SIE)

Derech Mitzvotecha dives into reasons behind mitzvot such as tzitzit, tefillin, prayer, belief in G-d, loving a fellow Jew, starting a family and many others. Five generations later, the author`s grandson and successor, the Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, has often advised those seeking to begin study of Chasidic philosophy to study this fundamental work.

and a drastic transition from Atzilus to Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah.

בְּדִלּוּג הָעֶרֶךְ מֵאֲצִילוּת לִבְרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה

When the lights descend into Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah,

וּכְשֶׁהֵם יוֹרְדִים בִּבְרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה

it is necessary for them to depart from Atzilus

בְּהֶכְרֵחַ שֶׁמִּסְתַּלְּקִים מֵאֲצִילוּת

and thus they will be lacking there.

וְנֶחְסָרִים מִשָּׁם

For this reason, this influence is referred to as a “gift,”

וְלָכֵן נִקְרָא זֶה בְּשֵׁם מַתָּנָה

as it is written (Tehillim 21:5): “He asked life from You and You granted it to him.”1

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב חַיִּים שָׁאַל מִמְּךָ נָתַתָּ לּוֹ (תִּלִּים כ"א ה')

And just as when a person gives a gift to a friend,

כְּמוֹ הַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ

once he has given it to his friend,

שֶׁמִּשֶּׁנּוֹתְנָהּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ

he himself is lacking it.

נֶחְסֶרֶת אֶצְלוֹ.

Although Avraham, Yaakov, and Yosef endowed David with life,

Yitzchak did not grant him any of his years.

וְהִנֵּה יִצְחָק לֹא נָתַן לְדָוִד כְּלוּם

The rationale is that Yitzchak is identified with the Attribute of Judgment,

וְהַטַּעַם לְפִי שֶׁמַּדְרֵגָתוֹ הוּא דִין

as reflected in the verse (Bereishis 31:42): “The fear of Yitzchak accompanied me.”

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב וּפַחַד יִצְחָק הָיָה לִי (בְּרֵאשִׁית ל"א מ"ב)

The emotional counterparts of the quality of Gevurah (might), personified by Yitzchak, are fear and stern judgment.

It was not necessary for David to receive the radiance and the influence of the attribute of stern judgment from him,

וְאֵין מֵהַצֹּרֶךְ לְדָוִד לְקַבֵּל הֶאָרָה וְהַשְׁפָּעָה דִּבְחִינַת דִּינִים אֵלּוּ מִמֶּנּוּ,

for inherently, even without receiving influence from a higher source, the Sefirah of Malchus is associated with judgment,

כִּי גַם בְּלַאו הָכִי

as our Sages state:2 “The judgments of the king are law.”

הֲרֵי דִינָא דְמַלְכוּתָא דִּינָא

And it is written (Mishlei 29:4): “A king establishes the land with judgment.”

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב מֶלֶךְ בְּמִשְׁפָּט יַעֲמִיד אָרֶץ (מִשְׁלֵי כ"ט ד')

Yitzchak was identified with the sublime court

אֶלָּא שֶׁיִּצְחָק הוּא בְּחִינַת בֵּית דִּין הָעֶלְיוֹן

which is identified with severe judgment.

וְנִקְרָא דִּינָא קַשְׁיָא

Malchus is identified with the lower court

וּמַלְכוּת הִיא בֵּית דִּין הַתַּחְתּוֹן

which is identified with more lenient judgment.

וְנִקְרָא דִּינָא רַפְיָא

Hence, it is not at all necessary for David to receive influence from Yitzchak,

וְאִם כֵּן הֲרֵי אֵין דָּוִד צָרִיךְ לְקַבֵּל כְּלָל מִיִּצְחָק

lest the Attribute of Might and Judgment be increased and amplified in David’s kingship on this material plane.

שֶׁלֹּא יִתּוֹסְפוּ וְיִתְגַּדְּלוּ הַגְּבוּרוֹת וְהַדִּינִים

Instead, the opposite is true;

אֶלָּא נַהֲפוֹךְ הוּא

it is necessary for him to receive an added measure of Chessed,

שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְקַבֵּל תּוֹסֶפֶת חֲסָדִים

i.e., the influence he received from Avraham.

וְהַיְנוּ מֵאַבְרָהָם,

Now, the number of years with which both Yaakov and Yosef endowed David are mystically significant.

Yaakov gave David 28 years. 28 is identified with כח, power. Yaakov’s gift thus recalls

וְיַעֲקֹב נָתַן לְדָוִד כ"ח שָׁנָה,

Moshe’s request (Bamidbar 14:17): “And now, increase the power of A-donai.

הוּא עִנְיַן מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בְּמֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם יִגְדַל נָא כֹּ"חַ אַדְ' (בַּמִּדְבָּר י"ד י"ז)

28 is also associated with the milui and the milui of the milui of G‑d’s name A-donai,

שֶׁהוּא הַמִּלּוּי וּמִלּוּי דְּמִלּוּי שֶׁל שֵׁם אַדְנַ"י

Milui refers to a pattern in Torah numerology in which the name of a letter is spelled out and all the letters in the term spelled out are counted. For example, the name Adonai is spelled alef-dalet-nun-yud (אדני). The first letter alef is spelled out: alef-lamed-pei (אלף). The three letters alef-lamed-pei are its milui. The milui of its milui is arrived at by spelling out each of the letters alef-lamed-pei. When we add together the number of letters in the milui of the milui of G‑d’s name Adonai, a total of 28 letters is reached.

for the latter contains 28 letters.

שֶׁעוֹלֶה כ"ח אוֹתִיּוֹת

This power is the quality with which Yaakov endowed David.

וּבְחִינָה זוֹ נָתַן יַעֲקֹב לְדָוִד.

To explain:

וְהָעִנְיָן

G‑d’s name A-donai is the source of the worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah,

כִּי שֵׁם אַדְ' הוּא מָקוֹר דִּבְרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה

and it enclothes itself in them to grant them life.

וּמִתְלַבֵּשׁ בָּהֶם לְהַחֲיוֹתָם

The literal meaning of this name is “L‑rd” and a lord can only be said of one who has subjects,

כִּי שֵׁם אַדְנוּת הוּא דַוְקָא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲבָדִים

people on a much lower level over whom the lord is exalted. The other emotional attributes are a reflection of one’s inner nature and do not require the involvement of others. For example, a kind person feels an inner urge to show kindness even if he does not have others to whom to grant that kindness.3 By contrast, the concept of a lord by definition requires that there by others who accept his authority,

Thus the Zohar4identifies this name as the quality that enables G‑d to be “known as the Master of all.”

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּזֹּהַר דְּאַנְתְּ אִשְׁתְּמוֹדָע אָדוֹן עַל כֹּלָּא,

The milui of the name A-donai refers to the dimension of the name that remains hidden,

וּפֵרוּשׁ מִלּוּי אַדְ' הַיְנוּ בְּחִינַת הַהֶעְלֵם שֶׁבּוֹ

For the additional letters that comprise the milui are not pronounced.

that which cannot be revealed in the worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah

מַה שֶּׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִתְגַּלּוֹת בִּבְרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה

when giving them life and manifesting His authority and dominance.

לְהַחֲיוֹתָם וְלִהְיוֹת בִּבְחִינַת גִּלּוּי הָאַדְנוּת וְהַשְּׂרָרָה

Instead, it is hidden and subsumed within the quality of A-donai itself.

אֶלָּא נֶעְלָם וְכָמוּס הוּא בּוֹ

This is the implication of the term milui,

שֶׁזֶּה נִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם מִלּוּי,

that the milui of the letters of a word are hidden within the word’s revealed letters.

עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל הַמִּלּוּי שֶׁל הָאוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁל הַתֵּבָה שֶׁהֵם בִּבְחִינַת הֶעְלֵם וְהֶסְתֵּר תּוֹךְ אוֹתָן הָאוֹתִיּוֹת

For another person hears only the actual letters one pronounces.

שֶׁהֲרֵי זוּלָתוֹ אֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ רַק מַה שֶּׁיּוֹצֵא מִפִּיו מְפֹרָשׁ שֶׁהֵם גּוּף הָאוֹתִיּוֹת

Their milui is subsumed within them in a hidden state.

אֲבָל הַמִּלּוּי שֶׁלָּהֶם כָּמוּס בְּתוֹכָן בִּבְחִינַת הֶעְלֵם,

Similarly, the name A-donai is the revelation

וְכָךְ בְּחִינַת אַדְ' הוּא הַגִּלּוּי

that is drawn down into the worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah to endow them with life-energy

הַנִּמְשָׁךְ בִּבְרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה לְהַחֲיוֹתָם

through manifesting His mastery over them.

עַל יְדֵי מַה שֶּׁהוּא אָדוֹן עֲלֵיהֶם

This is the inner meaning of “Your Kingship is Kingship over all worlds.”5

וּמַלְכוּתוֹ מַלְכוּת כָּל עוֹלָמִים

Since within G‑d there is a dimension of sovereignty, and sovereignty by definition requires other beings, the revelation of G‑d’s quality of sovereignty brings other beings into existence.

Thus, G‑d’s sovereignty is itself the medium that conveys vitality to them.

שֶׁזֶּהוּ גוּפָא הוּא הַמְחַיֶּה אוֹתָם,

But its inner dimension and essence cannot be revealed in the worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah,

אֲבָל פְּנִימִית וְעַצְמוּתוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִתְגַּלּוֹת בִּבְרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה

but instead remains hidden and subsumed within itself.

אֶלָּא נֶעְלָם וְכָמוּס הוּא בּוֹ

This is the implication of the idea that the milui of its milui has 28 letters;

וְזֶהוּ עִנְיַן הַמִּלּוּי שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁעוֹלֶה בְּגִימַטְרִיָּא כ"ח

this refers to its power and inner dimension.

דְּהַיְנוּ כֹּחוֹ וּפְנִימִיּוּתוֹ,

NOTE: See Biurei Zohar, Parshas Ki Sissa, with regard to the concept of a half-shekel.

הג"ה: עַיֵּן בֵּאוּרֵי הַזֹּהַר פַּרְשַׁת תִּשָּׂא בְּעִנְיַן מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל

There the concept of milui is explained with an analogy of a person who is communicating a concept

מְבֹאָר שָם פֵּרוּשׁ וְעִנְיַן מִלּוּי שֶהוּא כְּמוֹ אָדָם הַמְדַבֵּר אֵיזֶה עִנְיָן

and has a deep intent that is not openly revealed in his words.

וְיֵש לוֹ בְּזֶה כַּוָּנָה עֲמֻקָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִרְאֵית בְּגִלּוּי מִתּוֹךְ דְּבָרוֹ

Instead, it is contained within his mind while he is speaking,

אֶלָּא שֶׁהִיא אֶצְלוֹ בְּמוֹחוֹ בְּעֵת שֶׁמְּדַבֵּר

although the words he says mean something else.

וְהַדִּבּוּר הוּא עִנְיָן אַחֵר

Thus, the hidden intent is the inner dimension of the words he is speaking.

וְנִמְצָא אוֹתוֹ הַכַּוָּנָה הִיא פְּנִימִיּוּת הַדָּבָר שֶׁמְּדַבֵּר כוּ'

Similarly, the milui of the name Adonai is the inner dimension of that name.

וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ זֶה יִתְפָּרֵשׁ מִלּוּי אַדְ' שֶׁהוּא פְּנִימִיּוּת שֵׁם אַדְ' כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל:

Therefore, when Moshe our teacher desired to draw down forgiveness and atonement for the Jewish people for the sin of the Golden Calf, he said:

וְלָכֵן מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם כְּשֶׁרָצָה לְהַמְשִׁיךְ סְלִיחָה וּמְחִילָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל חֵטְא הָעֵגֶל אָמַר

“And now, increase the power of A-donai.

יִגְדַּל נָא כֹּחַ אַדְ'

His intent was that the inner strength and hidden power of the name A-donai, i.e., its milui, be revealed

שֶׁיִּתְגַּלֶּה בְּחִינַת הַכֹּחַ וְהַהֶעְלֵם שֶׁל שֵׁם אַדְ'

and thus bring about atonement for sin,

שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה יִהְיֶה נוֹשֵׂא עָוֹן,

for this hidden dimension stems from the level of Arich Anpin

כִּי הוּא מִבְּחִינַת אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם

which is associated with atonement.

שֶׁהוּא נוֹשֵׂא עָוֹן,

This concept is also reflected in our Sages’ statement:

וְזֶהוּ גַם כֵּן מַה שֶּׁאָמְרוּ רַזַ"ל

“Whenever one responds ‘Amen, yehei shmei rabba…’ with his full strength (כח),

כָּל הָעוֹנֶה אָמֵן יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ

even a seventy-year decree against him will be rent” (see Shabbos 119b; Zohar, Vol. III, p. 20a).

קוֹרְעִים לוֹ גְּזַר דִּינוֹ שֶׁל ע' שָׁנָה (עַיֵּן שַׁבָּת קי"ט ב' זֹהַר חֵלֶק ג' כ' א')

The term “his full strength” can be interpreted as referring to the full strength of Amen, yehei shmei rabba…

פֵּרוּשׁ בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל אָמֵן יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא

which has 28 letters.

שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כ"ח אוֹתִיּוֹת

There are 28 letters in the refrain Yehei shmei… almaya. 28 is the numerical equivalent of the word כח, which means “strength.”

Similarly, there are 28 words from the beginning of the Kaddish until the word almaya, the conclusion of Amen, yehei shmei rabba….6

וְכֵן מִיִּתְגַּדַּל עַד אָמֵן יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא יֵשׁ גַּם כֵּן כ"ח תֵּבוֹת

This represents the milui of the name A-donai,

וְהֵם בְּחִינַת הַמִּלּוּי דְּאַדְ'

which constitutes its strength and inner dimension.

שֶׁהוּא כֹּחַ וּפְנִימִית דְּאַדְ'

(Therefore, a decree against the person will be rent,

(וְלָכֵן קוֹרְעִים לוֹ גְּזַר דִּינוֹ

as explained above with regard to Moshe.)

עַל דֶּרֶךְ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל בְּמֹשֶׁה),

This also explains the 28 years that Yaakov gave to David.

וְזֶהוּ גַם כֵּן עִנְיַן כ"ח שָׁנָה שֶׁנָּתַן יַעֲקֹב לְדָוִד

With this gift, he intended to draw down the ray which is the milui of G‑d’s name A-donai and its fundamental power

פֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁהִמְשִׁיךְ הֶאָרָה זוֹ שֶׁהִיא מִלּוּי אַדְ' וְעִקַּר כֹּחוֹ

and have it enclothed within the Attribute of Malchus

לְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ בְּמִדַּת הַמַּלְכוּת

that shined forth in David’s kingship.

הַמְּאִירָה בְּמַלְכוּת דָּוִד,

For Yaakov is identified with the middle bolt.

כִּי יַעֲקֹב הוּא בְּרִיחַ הַתִּיכוֹן

In the description of the construction of the Sanctuary, the Torah mentions7 three bolts that supported the walls of the Sanctuary. The upper and lower bolts were not single units, but instead were each composed of two bars that covered half the Sanctuary’s length. The middle bolt, by contrast, ran along the entire length of the Sanctuary.

The Zohar explains8 the counterpart to this concept in the spiritual realms as follows: The Sefiros are described as shining in the three different vectors. The right and left vectors have a beginning – a point below G‑d’s essence – and an end – they cease before reaching the lowest levels. The middle vector, by contrast, “extends from one end to the other”; it connects to G‑d’s essence which is above limitation and simultaneously penetrates to the lowest realms and reveals G‑dliness there.

The middle vector thus extends from the highest level, Kesser, until the lowest level, Malchus.

שֶׁמַּבְרִיחַ מִן קָצֶה עֶלְיוֹנָה דְּכֶתֶר עַד קָצֶה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה דְּמַלְכוּת

For Yaakov is identified with mercy,

כִּי הוּא בְּחִינַת רַחֲמִים

and through mercy, the highest levels are aroused,

וְעַל יְדֵי רַחֲמָנוּת מְעוֹרֵר מִלְמַעְלָה מַּעְלָה

as indicated by the phrase:9 “In Your abundant mercy, show mercy upon us.”

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים רַחֵם עָלֵינוּ

Therefore it was Yaakov who drew down the 28 letters of the milui of G‑d’s name A-donai as explained above.

לָכֵן הוּא דַוְקָא שֶׁהִמְשִׁיךְ בּוֹ בְּחִינַת כ"ח אוֹתִיּוֹת דְּמִלּוּי הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל,

Yosef endowed David with 37 years.

יוֹסֵף נָתַן לְדָוִד ל"ז שָׁנָה,

37 reflects the 10 Sefiros:

הוּא י' סְפִירוֹת

30 is identified with the 3 heads, i.e., the three most sublime qualities, Kesser, Chochmah, and Binah

כִּי ג' רֵישִׁין נִקְרָאִים ל'

as each one includes all 10 Sefiros;

לְפִי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶם כָּלוּל מֵעֶשֶׂר

and the 7 lower emotive qualities are identified with the number 7.

וְז' תַּחְתּוֹנוֹת נִקְרָאִים ז'

This parallels the explanation of the verse:10 “And the years of Sarah’s life were 100 years, 20 years, and 7 years” found in the Zohar.11

וְכָעִנְיָן הַמְבֹאָר בַּזֹּהַר בְּפֵרוּשׁ וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי שָׂרָה

The 100 years refer to the Attribute of Kesser.

מֵאָה שָׁנָה בְּחִינַת כֶּתֶר

The 20 years refer to the levels of Aba and Imma, Chochmah and Binah,

וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה אַבָּא וְאִמָּא

for they each include all 10 Sefiros.

שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד כָּלוּל מֵעֶשֶׂר

And the 7 years refer to the 7 lower attributes, i.e., the 7 emotive qualities.

וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנִים הֵם ז' תַּחְתּוֹנוֹת

Similarly, with regard to the 37 years that Yosef endowed David,

וְכָךְ הוּא עִנְיַן ל"ז דְּיוֹסֵף

the 3 heads are identified with 30,

שֶׁהַג' רֵישִׁין נִקְרָאִים ל'

while the 7 lower qualities are 7 in number.

וְז' תַּחְתּוֹנוֹת הֵם ז' כְּמִסְפָּרָן,

In both instances, we consider the intellectual qualities as a composite of all ten Sefiros in contrast to the emotive qualities that are reckoned as units.

It is, however, necessary to explain why it was necessary for Yosef to endow David with the three intellectual qualities.

אַךְ לְהָבִין מַהוּ עִנְיַן ג' רֵישִׁין שֶׁנָּתַן יוֹסֵף לְדָוִד

For Adam had already endowed him with his attribute,

וַהֲלֹא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן נָתַן בּוֹ מִמַּדְרֵגָתוֹ

which is the quality of Chochmah.

שֶׁהוּא בְּחִינַת הַחָכְמָה,

The concept can be explained as follows:

אַךְ הָעִנְיָן

As explained above, there are two levels of influence drawn down from Chochmah to Malchus:

כִּי נִתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל שֶׁיֵּשׁ ב' מִינֵי הַמְשָׁכוֹת הַחָכְמָה בְּמַלְכוּת

a) the Sublime Chochmah, i.e., Chochmah of Atzilus as it exists on its own elevated plane,

א' הִיא הַחָכְמָה עִלָּאָה

and b) Chochmah as it descends and enclothes itself within the emotive qualities.

ב' הַחָכְמָה שֶׁבַּמִּדּוֹת

For example, the Chochmah within the Attribute of Chessed, etc., determines how the worlds should be directed;

כִּי הִנֵּה הַחָכְמָה שֶׁבַּמִּדּוֹת הִיא אֵיךְ לִהְיוֹת הַנְהָגַת הָעוֹלָמוֹת

how kindness, judgment, or mercy should be drawn down.

וְאֵיךְ יִהְיֶה הַמְשָׁכַת הַחֶסֶד אוֹ הַדִּין אוֹ הָרַחֲמָנוּת,

This latter quality is called the intellectual element of Z’eir Anpin.

וְנִקְרֵאת מוֹחִין דְּזָ"א,

The Chochmah of Atzilus itself, level (a), is elevated far above the emotive qualities,

אֲבָל הַחָכְמָה דַאֲצִילוּת בְּעַצְמוּתָהּ הִיא לְמַעְלָה מַּעְלָה מִגֶּדֶר הַמִּדּוֹת

and is too lofty even to serve as an intellectual impetus and motivating rationale for an emotive quality,

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִהְיוֹת מוֹחִין וְטַעַם לַמִּדָּה

i.e., to direct the expression of the emotive quality.

לְהַנְהִיג אֶת הַמִּדָּה,

Instead, it exists as essential wisdom.

אֶלָּא הִיא בְּחִינַת חָכְמָה עַצְמִיּוּת

To cite a parallel on the material plane.

כְּמוֹ עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְמַטָּה

There are intellectual disciplines that are not at all related to emotional expression,

חָכְמוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן נוֹגְעִים לַמִּדּוֹת

for example, the wisdom of the Talmud and other sciences,

כְּמוֹ חָכְמַת הַתַּלְמוּד וּשְׁאָרֵי חָכְמוֹת כוּ'

These forms of wisdom reflect knowledge as it exists in the abstract, above all sense of application.

as stated in the Siddur Im Dach12 in the interpretation of the statement of the Zohar in Parshas Emor:13 “There are three festivals designated to be sanctified.”

וּכמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּסִדּוּר בְּפֵרוּשׁ מַאֲמַר הַזֹּהַר תְּלָתָא דְאִנּוּן זְמִינִין מִקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁבְּפַרְשַׁת אֱמוֹר

In that source, it is explained that the festivals are “designated to be sanctified.” The three festivals (Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukkos) relate to the three emotive qualities: Chessed, Gevurah, and Tiferes. They “are designated to be sanctified,” because they receive influence from Chochmah which is referred to as kodesh, “holiness.” Shabbos, by contrast, is not merely “designated to be sanctified.” Instead, it is identified with Chochmah itself and is therefore “holy,” i.e., separate and distinct, in a realm of its own.

See also the explanation of the statement:14 “‘Holiness’ – this is an entity set apart.”

עַיֵּן שָׁם בֵּאוּר עִנְיַן קֹדֶשׁ מִלָּה בְּגַרְמָהּ הוּא,

Both these dimensions of Chochmah are drawn down to Malchus.

וְהִנֵּה בִּבְחִינַת מַלְכוּת נִמְשָׁכִים גַּם כֵּן מִב' מִינֵי חָכְמָה אֵלּוּ

Yosef drew down into Malchus the Chochmah enclothed in the emotive qualities, level (b) mentioned above,

יוֹסֵף הִשְׁפִּיעַ מִבְּחִינַת הַחָכְמָה שֶׁבַּמִּדּוֹת

i.e., the potential for wisdom within kingship

דְּהַיְנוּ לִהְיוֹת בְּחִינַת חָכְמָה בְּמַלְכוּת

to lead the kingdom with wisdom,

לְהַנְהִיג אֶת הַמְּלוּכָה בְּחָכְמָה

to grant each person what he requires according to his temperament and nature,

לְהַשְׁפִּיעַ לְכָל אֶחָד כְּפִי מִזְגוֹ וּתְכוּנָתוֹ

to give neither more nor less than what is required.

לֹא לְהוֹסִיף וְלֹא לִגְרוֹעַ

This is called the lower Chochmah.

וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא בְּחִינַת חָכְמָה תַּתָּאָה

The source of Adam the first man was rooted in the Sublime Chochmah.

אֲבָל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁשָּׁרְשׁוֹ מֵחָכְמָה עִלָּאָה

Accordingly, he endowed David with the essence of Chochmah

הִשְׁפִּיעַ בּוֹ עַצְמִיּוּת הַחָכְמָה

which is not related to the emotive characteristics at all.

שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹגֵעַ לַמִּדּוֹת כְּלָל,

Yosef is “the ruler over the land,”

וּלְפִי שֶׁיּוֹסֵף הוּא הַשַּׁלִּיט עַל הָאָרֶץ

i.e., Yosef is identified with the Attribute of Yesod of Z’eir Anpin,

שֶׁהָיָה מִבְּחִינַת יְסוֹד זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין

the sublime righteous man,

צַדִּיק עֶלְיוֹן

which is the fundamental source of influence for the Attribute of Malchus, which is identified with the land,

שֶׁהוּא עִקָּר הַמַּשְׁפִּיעַ בְּמִדַּת הַמַּלְכוּת

as it is written (Bereishis 42:6): “Yosef... is the provider.” For Yesod is the direct source of influence to Malchus.

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב וְיוֹסֵף כוּ' הוּא הַמַּשְׁבִּיר כוּ' (בְּרֵאשִׁית מ"ב ו')

Therefore, Yosef specifically was the one who endowed a dimension of all the Sefiros to David, who embodied Malchus,

וּלְכָךְ נָתַן הוּא בְּיִחוּד מִכָּל הָעֶשֶׂר סְפִירוֹת לְדָוִד שֶׁהוּא בְּחִינַת מַלְכוּת

granting him both the three intellectual qualities and the seven emotive attributes –

ג' רֵישִׁין וְגַם ז' תַּחְתּוֹנוֹת

as alluded to in his endowment of 37 years.

שֶׁהֵן הֵן ל"ז שָׁנָה הַנִּזְכָּרוֹת לְעֵיל:

As explained above, 37 alludes to both the intellectual and emotive attributes.

All of these lights that are drawn down from the higher spiritual realms to Malchus,

וְהִנֵּה מִכָּל אוֹרוֹת אֵלּוּ הַנִּמְשָׁכִים לְמַעְלָה בְּמַלְכוּת דַּאֲצִילוּת

from Adam, who is identified with Chochmah in its elevated state, and the Patriarchs, who are identified with the intellectual dimensions of the emotive qualities,

מִכָּל בְּחִינוֹת הַנִּזְכָּרוֹת לְעֵיל אָדָם וְהָאָבוֹת מִכֻּלָּן

were drawn down to David.

נִמְשַׁךְ בְּדָוִד

For the totality of Malchus of Atzilus shined forth within David’s kingship,

כִּי כְּלָלוּת מַלְכוּת דַּאֲצִילוּת הֵאִירָה בְּמַלְכוּת דָּוִד,

enabling these two types of Chochmah to be manifest within his kingship,

לִהְיוֹת בְּמַלְכוּתוֹ גַם כֵּן ב' מִינֵי חָכְמָה הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל

as well as the five Attributes of Kindness from Avraham,

וְה' חֲסָדִים דְּאַבְרָהָם

the 28 dimensions of A-donai from Yaakov,

וְכֹ"חַ אַדְ' דְּיַעֲקֹב

and the seven emotive qualities from Yosef.

וְז' תַּחְתּוֹנוֹת עַל יְדֵי יוֹסֵף כוּ'

This follows the paradigm reflected in the description of Yehoshua, who represented a exemplar of Jewish leadership, as (Bamidbar 27:18): “A man in whom there is spirit.”

וְהוּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בִּיהוֹשֻׁעַ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר רוּחַ בּוֹ (בַּמִּדְבָּר כ"ז י"ח)

Our Sages (Sifri, Parshas Pinchas, sec. 140) interpret this as meaning: “One who can relate to the spirit of each and every one.”

שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ נֶגֶד רוּחוֹ שֶׁל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד (סִפְרֵי פַּרְשַׁת פִּנְחָס ק"מ)

Implied is that he was endowed with influence from the totality of the Sublime Chochmah

דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנִּמְשַׁךְ בּוֹ מִבְּחִינַת כְּלָלוּת חָכְמָה עֶלְיוֹנָה

that includes all the 600,000 perspectives of the 600,000 souls.

שֶׁכּוֹלֶלֶת כָּל ס' רִבּוֹא דֵּעוֹת שֶׁל ס' רִבּוֹא נְשָׁמוֹת כוּ'

Similar concepts apply with regard to David.

וְכָךְ בְּדָוִד

The fact that he was king over the entire people

גַּם בְּמַה שֶּׁהָיָה מֶלֶךְ עַל כָּל הָעָם

is also an outgrowth of the quality of Chochmah that was enclothed in him.

נִמְשַׁךְ וְנִתְלַבֵּשׁ גַּם כֵּן מִבְּחִינַת חָכְמָה

This refers to the general quality of Chochmah that encompasses all the different perspectives.

וְהִיא בְּחִינַת כְּלָלוּת הַחָכְמָה שֶׁכּוֹלֵל לְכָל הַדֵּעוֹת כוּ'

This does not apply with regard to all the other kings.

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּכָל הַמְּלָכִים

Although they were wise,

שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁהָיוּ חֲכָמִים

their wisdom came as a result of Chochmah enclothing itself in their own particular G‑dly spark,

הַיְנוּ שֶׁנִּתְלַבְּשָׁה בְּחִינַת הַחָכְמָה בְּנִיצוֹץ הַפְּרָטִי שֶׁלָּהֶם

as it existed with its own characteristics and nature.

כִּפי מַה שֶּׁהוּא בְּמִזְגוֹ וּתְכוּנָתוֹ,

Thus, it did not relate to all the people.

אֲבָל אֵין זֶה נוֹגֵעַ כְּלָל לְכָל הָעָם

It was of a particular and not a general nature.

וַהֲרֵי זֶה פְּרָט וְלֹא כְּלָל

This is sufficient for a person of understanding.

וְדַי לַמֵּבִין.

For this reason, David merited the crown of kingship for all time,

וּלְסִבָּה זוֹ זָכָה דָוִד בְּכֶתֶר מְלוּכָה

because he was a vehicle for the Attribute of Malchus in its totality. The above explanations relate to the kings who followed David. Similarly,

לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה מֶרְכָּבָה מַמָּשׁ לְהַמַּלְכוּת כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל,

Shaul, who preceded David, was not a vehicle for the Attribute of Malchus.

אָמְנָם עִנְיַן שָׁאוּל

Instead, he was identified with the quality of Binah

הוּא שֶׁהָיָה מִבְּחִינַת בִּינָה

which is above Malchus,

שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִן הַמַּלְכוּת

as implied by the verse (Bereishis 36:37): “Shaul, from the broadening of the river,”

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב שָׁאוּל מֵרְחוֹבוֹת הַנָּהָר (בְּרֵאשִׁית ל"ו ל"ז)

Although the King Shaul referred to in this verse is one of the kings of Edom, and not the first of Israel’s kings, we derive concepts about the Jewish King Shaul from the Torah’s description of the Edomite king.

for as is well known,15 Binah is called “the broadening of the river.”

וְיָדוּעַ דְּהַבִּינָה נִקְרֵאת רְחוֹבוֹת הַנָּהָר

Chochmah represents the initial outflow from the wellsprings of knowledge. However, Chochmah represents only the seminal form of the concept. The power of Binah expands that initial idea, giving it breadth and depth.

Since Binah is above Malchus, on a higher spiritual plane, Shaul was not able to navigate his way amidst the details required for his kingdom to be established.

וּלְפִי שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמַּלְכוּת

Therefore, Shaul’s kingship did not endure.

לָכֵן לֹא נִתְקַיְּמָה הַמְּלוּכָה בְּיָדוֹ

He himself ruled for only a short time and his dynasty was not perpetuated.

(Also, because his spiritual level was so high,

(וְגַם לְעֹצֶם מַעֲלָתוֹ

he was assessed very critically

הָיָה הַקְּפֵידָא עָלָיו בְּיוֹתֵר

to the point that even one misdeed was held against him in judgment,16

עַד שֶׁבְּאַחַת עָלְתָה לוֹ

i.e., his failure to kill Agag was alone considered sufficient to have the kingship taken from him and his descendants.

Similar concepts are explained in the interpretation of the verse {Tehillim 50:3}: “Around Him, it is very turbulent.”)

עַל דֶּרֶךְ מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב וּסְבִיבָיו נִשְׂעֲרָה מְאֹד (תִּלִּים נ' ג'))

Based on the connection between נשערה, “turbulent,” and שערה, “hair,” our Sages17 state that G‑d judges those “around Him” (i.e., close to Him) very carefully, passing judgment on even a misdeed as small as a hairsbreadth.

Shaul was “borrowed” from his exalted rung

אֶלָּא שֶׁשָּׁאַל נִשְׁאַל מִבְּחִינָתוֹ הַגָּבוֹהַּ

and brought to this world

לָעוֹלָם הַתַּחְתּוֹן

only to begin the concept of kingship.

כְּדֵי לְהַמְצִיא עִנְיַן הַמְּלוּכָה

The root שאל also means “borrowed.” Shaul was “borrowed.” His spiritual level was essentially above that of this world. He was brought into the world only to initiate kingship within Israel.

For, since “all beginnings are difficult,”18

לְפִי שֶׁכָּל הַתְחָלוֹת קָשׁוֹת

to initiate the concept of monarchy among the Jewish people it was necessary for influence to be drawn down from a very lofty place,

וְצָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת מִמָּקוֹם הַיּוֹתֵר גָּבוֹהַּ

as is well known with regard to the dedication of the altar.

כַּיָּדוּעַ בְּעִנְיַן חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ

(See Mitzvas Ner Chanukah and the explanation of Mitzvah 107 there.)19

(עַיֵּן מִצְוַת נֵר חֲנֻכָּה וּבְמַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב שָׁם בֵּאוּר מִצְוָה ק"ז):

In that source, the Tzemach Tzedek explains that the anointment process refers to drawing down extremely sublime and powerful spiritual influences. This is done when initiating the Kohen Gadol into his office in order to endow him with additional strength to overcome the challenges that he will surely face. A similar concept applies with regard to the dedication of the altar and, in microcosm, at the beginning of every child’s education.

— 3 —

Clarification is, however, necessary with regard to the concept that Mashiach will also be a king.

אַךְ עֲדַיִין צָרִיךְ לְהָבִין מַהוּ שֶׁהַמָּשִׁיחַ גַּם כֵּן יִהְיֶה מֶלֶךְ

According to the explanations for the need to appoint a king given in sec. I,

דִּלְפִי מַה שֶּׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל פֶּרֶק א'

a conceptual difficulty arises:

קָשֶׁה

In the era of Mashiach’s coming, the entire Jewish people will be Torah scholars,

כִּי בִּזְמַן בִּיאַת מָשִׁיחַ בִּמְהֵרָה בְיָמֵינוּ אָמֵן יִהְיוּ כָּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים

as it is written (Yeshayahu 11:9): “And the earth will be filled with the knowledge of G‑d.”

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב וּמָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ דֵּעָה אֶת ה' (יְשַׁעְיָה י"א ט')

And it is written (Yirmeyahu 31:33): “A person will not teach his colleague… for all will know Me.”

וּכְתִיב וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ (יִרְמְיָה ל"א ל"ג)

Why then will a king be necessary?

וְאִם כֵּן לָמָּה צְרִיכִים לְמֶלֶךְ.

Similarly, there is a difficulty with regard to the very existence of a mitzvah to appoint a king over the Jewish people.

וְכֵן קָשֶׁה עַל הַמִּצְוָה שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה לְמַנּוֹת מֶלֶךְ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל

Since the same Torah applies to all of us,

וַהֲלֹא תּוֹרָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּנוּ

this mitzvah must also apply to Torah scholars.

וְאִם כֵּן גַּם תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים נִצְטַוּוּ בְּכָךְ

This is problematic according to the concepts explained in sec. I.

וְאִם כֵּן קָשֶׁה לְפִי מַה שֶּׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל פֶּרֶק א'.

To explain:

אַךְ הָעִנְיָן

In truth, there is a dimension of kingship that is also relevant to Torah scholars.

דְּבֶאֱמֶת שַׁיָּךְ בְּחִינַת מְלוּכָה גַּם עַל תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים

Even though they are knowledgeable in G‑d’s Torah

הֲגַם שֶׁמַּשְׂכִּילִים בְּתוֹרַת ה'

and do not need to be motivated to become batel as must a servant,

וְאֵינָן נִצְרָכִים לִהְיוֹת בִּבְחִינַת בִּטּוּל כְּעֶבֶד

as explained in sec. I,

עַל דֶּרֶךְ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל פֶּרֶק א'

nevertheless, a higher dimension of kingship is relevant to them.

אֶלָּא שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת מְלוּכָה יוֹתֵר נַעֲלֵית.

To clarify:

וְהָעִנְיָן

The Torah is unlimited,

כִּי הַתּוֹרָה הִיא בְּחִינַת בְּלִי גְבוּל

as implied by the verse (Tehillim 84:8): “They shall proceed from strength to strength.”20

וְכַמַּאֲמָר יֵלְכוּ מֵחַיִל אֶל חָיִל (תִּלִּים פ"ד ח')

There are an unlimited number of levels –

שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּחִינַת מַדְרֵגוֹת אֵין קֵץ וְתַכְלִית

each one an ascent over the previous one –

הַכֹּל בִּבְחִינַת עִלּוּי אַחַר עִלּוּי

within the comprehension of the Torah.

בְּאֹפֶן הַשָּׂגַת הַתּוֹרָה,

In the Ultimate Future, G‑dliness will be revealed through the comprehension of the inner dimensions of the Torah.

וְהִנֵּה לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא יִהְיֶה גִּלּוּי אֱלֹקוּת בְּהַשָּׂגַת פְּנִימִיּוּת הַתּוֹרָה

This will come about through Mashiach, who will teach the entire nation the inner dimensions of the Torah

וְהַיְנוּ עַל יְדֵי מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁהוּא יִלְמוֹד פְּנִימִיּוּת הַתּוֹרָה לְכָל הָעָם

– even what is hidden in the present era.

גַּם מַה שֶּׁהָיָה כָּעֵת בְּהֶעְלֵם,

Needless to say, Mashiach himself will certainly know more than any of the people.

אָכֵן אַף עַל פִּי כֵן בְּוַדַּאי הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ יַכִּיר יוֹתֵר

For not everything that he himself comprehends will he be able to reveal and teach to the entire nation,

כִּי לֹא כָּל מַה שֶּׁמַּשִּׂיג בְּעַצְמוֹ יָכוֹל לְגַלּוֹת וּלְלַמֵּד לְכָל הָעָם

because they will be incapable of understanding it.

כִּי לֹא יוּכְלוּ לְהַשִּׂיג

Due to this quality, i.e., because of the dimension that surpasses their understanding to the extent that it cannot be revealed to them, he will be called a king.

וְהִנֵּה מֵחֲמַת בְּחִינָה זוֹ נִקְרָא מֶלֶךְ,

In the mortal realm, the subject-king relationship is defined only by bittul:

דִּכְמוֹ עִנְיַן הַמְּלוּכָה שֶׁלְּמַטָּה הוּא רַק בְּחִינַת הַבִּטּוּל

making a commitment that is above the limits of one’s mind.

הַיְנוּ מַה שֶּׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה מֵהַגְבָּלַת שִׂכְלוֹ

For when something is thoroughly comprehended by one’s mind, there is no need for an order from the king regarding it:

כִּי לְדָבָר שֶׁמִּתְיַשֵּׁב בְּשִׂכְלוֹ בְּטוּב טַעַם וָדַעַת אֵין צָרִיךְ עַל זֶה לִפְקֻדַּת הַמֶּלֶךְ

even without the king’s command, one considers the matter proper and correct.

שֶׁהֲרֵי גַם בְּלֹא מִצְוָתוֹ נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר מִצַּד עַצְמוֹ וְטוֹב הוּא בְּעֵינָיו

When obeying a king’s command, by contrast, the fundamental point is that one acts out of obedience and submission to the king’s orders whether one understands or not.

An order is necessary only when a matter runs contrary to one’s intellect

אֶלָּא הַפְּקֻדָּה הוּא רַק עַל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא נֶגֶד שִׂכְלוֹ

and he considers it astonishing.

וְהוּא פִּלְאִי מִמֶּנּוּ

Nevertheless, because of the king’s order and decree,

שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מִצַּד הַפְּקֻדָּה וְהַגְּזֵרָה

he is required to carry it out.

מֻכְרָח לְקַיֵּם אוֹתָהּ

He nullifies his will to the king’s will,

וּמְבַטֵּל רְצוֹנוֹ לִרְצוֹן הַמֶּלֶךְ

because he appreciates that he does not comprehend (the hidden rationale) in the king’s inner heart.

כִּי אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לֵב הַמֶּלֶךְ (וְטַעְמוֹ הַכָּמוּס)

This is an expression of bittul to a level above his wisdom.

וַהֲרֵי זֶה בְּחִינַת בִּטּוּל לְגַבֵּי לְמַעְלָה מִן הַחָכְמָה שֶׁלּוֹ

Although the matter is not grasped within his mind thoroughly,

שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְיַשֵּׁב בְּשִׂכְלוֹ

he heeds the king’s decree,

שׁוֹמֵעַ לִגְזֵרַת הַמֶּלֶךְ

confident that the king comprehends why it is correct and he has a satisfactory explanation.

שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ נָכוֹן הוּא וְיֵשׁ לוֹ טוּב טַעַם.

Similar concepts apply with regard to the Torah,

וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ זֶה יוּבַן גַּם כֵּן בְּעִנְיַן הַתּוֹרָה

which contains both mitzvos and chukim.

שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מִצְוֹת וְחֻקִּים

The term mitzvos refers to precepts whose rationale can be comprehended by our intellect, while chukim refers to precepts whose rationale transcends our comprehension.

The rationale for the mitzvos can be comprehended,

הַמִּצְוֹת הֵם הַמֻּשָּׂגִים

e.g., those of tzitzis and tefillin.

כְּמוֹ צִיצִית וּתְפִלִּין,

The chukim, by contrast, transcend intellectual comprehension,

וְהַחֻקִּים הֵם

like the laws of the Red Heifer or shaatnez.

כְּמוֹ פָּרָה אֲדֻמָּה וְשַׁעַטְנֵז

In the latter instance, both wool and linen alone are permitted,

שֶׁצֶּמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים כָּל חַד לְחוּדֵיהּ שָׁרֵי

as is each one of them when combined with silk.

וְכֵן כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶם עִם מֶשִׁי

It is only a combination of these two fabrics that is forbidden to be worn.

רַק צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים יַחְדָּו לֹא תִלְבַּשׁ כוּ'.

In the Ultimate Future, Mashiach will reveal the motivating principles for the Torah’s commandments.

וְהִנֵּה טַעֲמֵי תוֹרָה יִתְגַּלּוּ לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא עַל יְדֵי הַמָּשִׁיחַ

He himself, however, will receive an infinitely greater revelation

אָכֵן לוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ יִתְגַּלֶּה הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר לְאֵין קֵץ וְתַכְלִית

than what he will be able to communicate to the nation,

מִמַּה שֶׁיּוּכַל הוּא לְגַלּוֹת לָעָם

as it is written (Yeshayahu 52:13): “Behold, My servant will become wise; he will become exalted, will be raised high and become exceedingly lofty.”

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ הִנֵּה יַשְׂכִּיל עַבְדִּי יָרוּם וְנִשָּׂא וְגָבַהּ מְאֹד (יְשַׁעְיָה נ"ב י"ג)

The verse refers to five levels.21

וְהֵם ה' עֲלִיּוֹת

“He will become wise,” indicates that he will surpass Avraham….22

יַשְׂכִּיל מֵאַבְרָהָם כוּ'

The term מאד (meod) in the phrase “exceedingly lofty” shares the letters of the name אדם (Adam),

וְגָבַהּ מְאֹד אוֹתִיּוֹת אָדָם

i.e., Mashiach’s understanding will surpass that of Adam the first man

שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לְמַעְלָה גַם מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן

who is identified with Sublime Chochmah,

שֶׁהוּא חָכְמָה עִלָּאָה

for Mashiach will receive a greater revelation.

כִּי לְמָשִׁיחַ יִתְגַּלֶּה יוֹתֵר,

מאד also serves as an acronym for the names Mashiach, Adam, and David. Thus the five levels the Tzemach Tzedek mentions are identified with Adam, Avraham, Yitzchak, Yaakov, and David.

Therefore, Mashiach will serve as a king over the Jewish people

וְלָכֵן יִהְיֶה מָשִׁיחַ גַּם כֵּן מֶלֶךְ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל

even though they will all be Torah scholars,

הֲגַם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ אָז כֻּלָּם בְּמַדְרֵגַת תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים

and the motivating principles for the Torah’s commandments will be revealed to them.

עַד שֶׁגַּם טַעֲמֵי הַתּוֹרָה יִתְגַּלֶּה לָהֶם

Nevertheless, not everything that will be revealed to Mashiach will be revealed to them.

מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי לֹא כָּל מַה שֶׁיִּתְגַּלֶּה לְמָשִׁיחַ יִתְגַּלֶּה לָהֶם

Instead, this deeper understanding will serve as an encompassing light above them.

אֶלָּא יְהֵא בְּחִינַת מַקִּיף עֲלֵיהֶם

Due to this encompassing light, Mashiach will be called a king over them,

וּמִצַּד זֶה נִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם מֶלֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶם

for kingship involves revealing a dimension that transcends the understanding of the recipient.

שֶׁהַמְּלוּכָה הִיא מַה שֶּׁלְּמַעְלָה מִן הַשֵּׂכֶל שֶׁל הַמְקַבֵּל.

The revelation of this transcendent dimension calls forth bittul which is fundamental to the king-subject relationship.

According to the Kabbalah, the concept can be explained as follows:

וְעַל פִּי הַקַּבָּלָה הוּא כָּךְ

The created beings of the worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah have a “lower king”:

כִּי הַנִּבְרָאִים דִּבְרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה יֵשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם מֶלֶךְ תַּתָּאָה

Malchus of Atzilus

מַלְכוּת דַּאֲצִילוּת

which becomes like Atik to the world of Beriah.

שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה עַתִּיק לִבְרִיאָה

The term Atik refers to a level that is, as the Tzemach Tzedek proceeds to explain, removed from the levels that it brings into existence. Most frequently, this term is used to refer to the inner dimensions of Kesser, for there is distance between it and the realm of Atzilus, which comes into being from it. However, Malchus also serves as Atik for the world of Beriah, i.e., there is a radical difference in the spiritual levels of Malchus and Beriah.

The term Atik refers to a level above understanding,

וְהַיְנוּ בְּחִינַת עַתִּיק הוּא מַה שֶּׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵהַשֵּׂכֶל

as alluded to in the phrase (Iyov 9:5): “He who removes (hama’tik) mountains.”

מִלְּשׁוֹן הַמַּעְתִּיק הָרִים (אִיּוֹב ט' ה')

This level is removed and separate from the comprehension of the created beings of the three worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah.

שֶׁנֶּעְתָּק וְנִבְדָּל מִן הַשָּׂגַת הַנִּבְרָאִים שֶׁבְּג' עוֹלָמוֹת בְּרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה

It serves as an encompassing light for them.

אֶלָּא הוּא בִּבְחִינַת מַקִּיף עֲלֵיהֶם

In this way, it is comparable to the decree of a king for a subject. To accept such a decree,

כִּמְשַׁל גְּזֵרַת הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל הָעֶבֶד

a subject must negate his own will,

שֶׁהָעֶבֶד מְבַטֵּל רְצוֹנוֹ

because the king’s decree transcends his comprehension.

כִּי הוּא לְמַעְלָה מֵהַשָּׂגָתוֹ כוּ'

Therefore, with regard to the worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah, such an approach is identified with Malchus of Atzilus.

וְנִקְרָא זֶה בְּשֵׁם מַלְכוּת דַּאֲצִילוּת עַל בְּרִיאָה־יְצִירָה־עֲשִׂיָּה,

By contrast, with regard to the souls of Atzilus who are called “brothers” of Z’eir Anpin and Nukva,23

אֲבָל לְגַבֵּי הַנְּשָׁמוֹת דַּאֲצִילוּת הַנִּקְרָאִים אַחִים לִזְעֵיר אַנְפִּין וְנוּקְבָא

Malchus of Atzilusis not an encompassing light or concealed at all.

אֵין זֶה בְּחִינַת מַקִּיף וְהֶעְלֵם כְּלָל

For they are actually called brothers i.e., on an equivalent spiritual plane

שֶׁהֲרֵי נִקְרָאִים אַחִים מַמָּשׁ

to these Sefiros, as explained above.

לְהַסְּפִירוֹת כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל

Nevertheless, there is also a level that serves as an encompassing light for these souls,

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי גַם עֲלֵיהֶם יֵשׁ בְּחִינַת מַקִּיף

i.e., Malchus of Adam Kadmon, which serves as Atik to Atzilus.

וְהוּא מַה שֶּׁמַּלְכוּת דְּאָדָם קַדְמוֹן נַעֲשֶׂה עַתִּיק לַאֲצִילוּת

The term Atik of Atzilus implies that it is removed and separate from “the days of the earth.”

פֵּרוּשׁ עַתִּיק דַּאֲצִילוּת מַה שֶּׁמִּתְנַשֵּׂא מִימוֹת עוֹלָם

The latter term refers to the “sublime days,” the emotive Attributes of Atzilus.

הֵם יוֹמִין עִלָּאִין שֶׁהֵם מִדּוֹת דַּאֲצִילוּת

There is a rung that is detached and removed from them, exalted far above their comprehension,

וְנֶעְתָּק וְנִבְדָּל מֵהֶם וְהַגְבֵּהַּ מְאֹד נַעֲלָה מֵהַשָּׂגָתָם

i.e., the rung of Malchus of Adam Kadmon, which serves as Atik in relation to Atzilus.

הוּא בְּחִינַת הַמַּלְכוּת דְּאָדָם קַדְמוֹן עַל אֲצִילוּת

The source of Mashiach will be from the level of Malchus of Adam Kadmon.

וְשָׁם יִהְיֶה שֹׁרֶשׁ הַמָּשִׁיחַ

This is alluded to by the phrase “exceedingly lofty” that is stated in relation to him. Like David, Mashiach must be granted life,

וְזֶהוּ וְגָבַהּ מְאֹ"ד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ

as it is stated concerning him

וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר

(Tehillim 21:5): “He asked life from You and You granted it to him.”

חַיִּים שָׁאַל מִמְּךָ נָתַתָּה לּוֹ (תִּלִּים כ"א ה')

Nevertheless, Mashiach’s level will differ from that of David,

וְלֹא כְּמוֹ בְּדָוִד

who is identified with Malchus of Atzilus

שֶׁהָיָה מִמַּלְכוּת דַּאֲצִילוּת

and who received life from Adam the first man and the Patriarchs

שֶׁקִּבֵּל חַיִּים מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהָאָבוֹת

who are identified with Sefiros within Atzilus,

שֶׁהֵם הַסְּפִירוֹת דַּאֲצִילוּת

as explained in sec. 2.

כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל פֶּרֶק ב'

With regard to the source of Mashiach’s life,

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּמָשִׁיחַ

we apply the phrase “You granted it,”

נָתַתָּ אַתָּה

i.e., You – G‑d’s essence.

הָאֵין סוֹף בְּעַצְמוֹ

Therefore Mashiach will be king over Israel,

וּמִצַּד זֶה יִהְיֶה בְּחִינַת מֶלֶךְ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל

even though they will be Torah scholars

הֲגַם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים

and even though the motivating principles for the mitzvos will be revealed at that time.

וַהֲגַם שֶׁיִּתְגַּלּוּ טַעֲמֵי מִצְוֹת

Nevertheless, people at large will not be granted all the revelations granted to Mashiach.

אֲבָל לֹא כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּתְגַּלֶּה לוֹ.

Therefore, he will be called both a teacher and a king. He will function in both capacities.

וְלָכֵן נִקְרָא רַב וּמֶלֶךְ

Because he will reveal the motivating rationales for the mitzvos to the Jewish people in a manner which they will comprehend,

מִפְּנֵי מַה שֶּׁיְּגַלֶּה טַעֲמֵי מִצְוֹת בְּהַשָּׂגָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל

he will be called a teacher.

יִהְיֶה נִקְרָא רַב

And because there will remain a quality above their comprehension that will serve as an encompassing light,

וּמִפְּנֵי מַה שֶּׁיִּשָּׁאֵר בִּבְחִינַת מַקִּיף עֲלֵיהֶם

he will be called a king.

נִקְרָא מֶלֶךְ

In a similar way, we can understand another concept:

וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ זֶה יוּבַן גַּם כֵּן עוֹד עִנְיַן

how the Malchus of Ein Sof serves as Kesser to Adam Kadmon.

מַלְכוּת דְּאֵין סוֹף כֶּתֶר לְאָדָם קַדְמוֹן כוּ'

Those who understand will comprehend.

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