1

[All of the following:]

a) the offspring of [an animal designated as] a sin-offering,

b) an animal exchanged for [an animal designated as] a sin-offering,

c)[an animal designated as] a sin-offering whose owner dies, and

d) such animal that was lost and then found only after the owner secured atonement,1 should be consigned to die.

[In the latter instance, if the first animal designated as a sin-offering] was found after the second that was set aside was slaughtered, but before its blood was presented on the altar, there is an unresolved doubt2 if it should be consigned to death or left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish.3 Therefore4 it should be consigned to death.

What is meant by being consigned to death? Not that one should kill them with a utensil or by hand. Instead, they should be brought into a room, locked inside, [and left] until they die. All of these matters were conveyed by Moses our teacher.

All of the above applies only to a sin-offering designated by an individual. [An animal designated as] a communal sin-offering, by contrast, which was lost and then discovered after atonement was secured - whether it is fit [to be offered as a sacrifice] or unfit5- should be left to be pasture until it contracts a blemish and then sold.6 The proceeds should be used for freewill offerings.7

With regard to communal sin-offerings, it is impossible to speak of offspring, exchanges, or the owners dying, because all of the communal offerings are male.8 The community cannot exchange one sacrificial animal for another as will be explained.9 And the entire Jewish people will not die.10

א

וְלַד חַטָּאת וּתְמוּרַת חַטָּאת וְחַטָּאת שֶׁמֵּתוּ בְּעָלֶיהָ וְחַטָּאת שֶׁאָבְדָה וְנִמְצֵאת אַחַר שֶׁכִּפְּרוּ הַבְּעָלִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יָמוּתוּ. נִמְצֵאת אַחַר שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטָה הַחַטָּאת הַשְּׁנִיָּה שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּזָּרֵק דָּמָהּ. הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק אִם תָּמוּת אִם תִּרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהּ מוּם. לְפִיכָךְ תָּמוּת. וְכֵיצַד הֵן מֵתוֹת. לֹא שֶׁיַּהַרְגֵם בִּכְלִי אוֹ בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא יַכְנִיסֵם לְבַיִת וְנוֹעֵל עֲלֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיָּמוּתוּ. וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ כֻּלָּם מִפִּי משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ נִשְׁמְעוּ. אֵין כָּל הַדְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים אֶלָּא בְּחַטַּאת יָחִיד בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל חַטַּאת צִבּוּר שֶׁאָבְדָה וְנִמְצֵאת אַחַר כַּפָּרָה בֵּין רְאוּיָה בֵּין אֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה תִּרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהּ מוּם וְתִמָּכֵר וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמֶיהָ לִנְדָבָה. וְאֵין אַתָּה יָכוֹל לוֹמַר בְּחַטַּאת צִבּוּר וָלָד אוֹ תְּמוּרָה אוֹ שֶׁמֵּתוּ בְּעָלֶיהָ. שֶׁכָּל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר זְכָרִים וְאֵין הַצִּבּוּר עוֹשִׂין תְּמוּרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר וְאֵין כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵתִים:

2

When the bull11 and/or the goat12 of Yom Kippur were lost, other [animals] were set aside instead of them [and sacrificed, and then the original animals were found], they should be left to pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish. [Then] they should be sold and the proceeds used for freewill offerings.13 [The rationale is that] a communal sin-offering is never consigned to death. [This same law applies when] the goats sacrificed as [atonement for the worship of] false divinities14 are lost other [animals] were set aside instead of them [and sacrificed, and then the original animals were found].

Why are [the animals that were lost and then discovered] themselves not offered as freewill offerings, for they are male? This is a decree, forbidding [offering them] after atonement was achieved, [lest they be offered as freewill offerings] before atonement [was achieved].15

ב

פַּר וְשָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁאָבְדוּ וְהִפְרִישׁ אֲחֵרִים תַּחְתֵּיהֶן. וְכֵן שְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁאָבְדוּ וְהִפְרִישׁ אֲחֵרִים תַּחְתֵּיהֶן. יִרְעוּ עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיִמָּכְרוּ וְיִפְּלוּ דְּמֵיהֶן לִנְדָבָה. שֶׁאֵין חַטַּאת הַצִּבּוּר מֵתָה. וְלָמָּה לֹא יִקְרְבוּ עַצְמָן נְדָבָה שֶׁהֲרֵי זְכָרִים הֵם. גְּזֵרָה לְאַחַר כַּפָּרָה מִשּׁוּם לִפְנֵי כַּפָּרָה:

3

[The following rules apply when a person] designated [an animal as] a sin-offering and it was lost, he designated another one instead of it, then the first one was found, and they both stood [before him]. If he took one of them and attained atonement through its [sacrifice], the other should be consigned to death.16 If he asks the advice [of the court],17 he is told to gain atonement through the one set aside first. The second should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish. [Then] it should be sold and the proceeds used for a freewill offering.18

If one of them was unblemished and the other had a disqualifying physical blemish, the unblemished one should be sacrificed and the blemished one should be redeemed.19If, [after it was redeemed,] the blemished one was slaughtered before the blood of the unblemished one was cast [upon the altar],20 it is forbidden to benefit from [the blemished one].21 If they were both blemished, they should both be sold, a sin-offering should be purchased from the proceeds, and the remainder used for freewill offerings.22

ג

הַמַּפְרִישׁ חַטָּאתוֹ וְאָבְדָה וְהִפְרִישׁ אַחֶרֶת תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְנִמְצֵאת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וַהֲרֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶם עוֹמְדוֹת. מָשַׁךְ אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵיהֶן וְנִתְכַּפֵּר בָּהּ הָאַחֶרֶת תָּמוּת. בָּא לְהִמָּלֵךְ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ שֶׁיִּתְכַּפֵּר בָּזוֹ שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה תִּרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהּ מוּם וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמֶיהָ לִנְדָבָה. הָיְתָה אַחַת מֵהֶן תְּמִימָה וְאַחַת בַּעֲלַת מוּם. תְּמִימָה תִּקָּרֵב וּבַעֲלַת מוּם תִּפָּדֶה. נִשְׁחֲטָה בַּעֲלַת מוּם קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּזָּרֵק דַּם הַתְּמִימָה הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה בַּהֲנָאָה. הָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין יִמָּכְרוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן וְיָבִיא מִדְּמֵיהֶם חַטָּאת וְהַשְּׁאָר יִפּל לִנְדָבָה:

4

[The following rules apply when a person] designated [an animal as] a sin-offering and it was lost, he designated another one instead of it and it was [also] lost, and he designated a third. Afterwards, the lost ones were found, and all three stood [before him]. If he received atonement through the first animal [that was set aside], the second should be consigned to death and the third left to pasture [until it contracts a disqualifying blemish].23 If he received atonement through the third animal [that was set aside], the second should be consigned to death and the first left to pasture.24 If he received atonement through the second animal [that was set aside], the first and the third should be consigned to death.25

ד

הִפְרִישׁ חַטָּאתוֹ וְאָבְדָה. וְהִפְרִישׁ אַחֶרֶת תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְאָבְדָה. וְהִפְרִישׁ אַחֶרֶת וְנִמְצְאוּ הָאוֹבְדוֹת וַהֲרֵי שְׁלָשְׁתָּן עוֹמְדוֹת וְנִתְכַּפֵּר בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה. שְׁנִיָּה מֵתָה וּשְׁלִישִׁית רוֹעָה. נִתְכַּפֵּר בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית שְׁנִיָּה מֵתָה וְרִאשׁוֹנָה רוֹעָה. נִתְכַּפֵּר בָּאֶמְצָעִית שְׁתֵּיהֶם מֵתוֹת:

5

When a person sets aside two [animals for] a sin-offering for surety,26 he may gain atonement through which one he desires, the second should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish. [Then it should be sold and] the proceeds used for a freewill offering.

ה

הַמַּפְרִישׁ שְׁתֵּי חַטָּאוֹת לְאַחֲרָיוּת. מִתְכַּפֵּר בְּאֵי זוֹ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה תִּרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהּ מוּם וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמֶיהָ לִנְדָבָה:

6

When a person sets aside [an animal that] is pregnant as a sin-offering and it gives birth, it and its offspring are considered as two animals set aside for a sin-offering and as surety for it.27

ו

הִפְרִישׁ חַטָּאת מְעֻבֶּרֶת וְיָלְדָה. הֲרֵי הִיא וּוְלָדָהּ כִּשְׁתֵּי חַטָּאוֹת שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְשׁוּ לְאַחֲרָיוּת:

7

If one set aside a sin-offering and then its year passed,28 it should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish. [Then] it should be sold and the proceeds used to bring another animal in its place. Similarly, if [an animal] was set aside as a sin-offering and it contracted a disqualifying blemish, [it should be sold and] the proceeds used to bring another animal in its place.

ז

הַמַּפְרִישׁ חַטָּאתוֹ וְעָבְרָה שְׁנָתָהּ. תִּרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהּ מוּם וְתִמָּכֵר וְיָבִיא בְּדָמֶיהָ אַחֶרֶת. וְכֵן אִם הִפְרִישׁ חַטָּאתוֹ וְנָפַל בָּהּ מוּם יָבִיא בְּדָמֶיהָ אַחֶרֶת:

8

Whenever [an animal designated as] a sin-offering was lost and then discovered before [the owner] achieved atonement,29 - even though when it was discovered it was blemished or its year had passed30 - it is not consigned to death.31 Instead, it should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish. [Then it should be sold and] the proceeds used for a freewill offering.

If it was found after [the owner] achieved atonement, even if it was discovered when it was blemished or its year had passed,32 since it was lost at the time atonement was achieved, it is consigned to death.

ח

כָּל חַטָּאת שֶׁאָבְדָה וְנִמְצֵאת קֹדֶם כַּפָּרָה. (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בַּעֲלַת מוּם אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת אַחַר שֶׁעָבְרָה שְׁנָתָהּ) אֵינָהּ מֵתָה אֶלָּא תִּרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהּ מוּם וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמֶיהָ לִנְדָבָה. נִמְצֵאת אַחַר כַּפָּרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בַּעֲלַת מוּם אוֹ עָבְרָה שְׁנָתָהּ הוֹאִיל וְהָיְתָה אֲבוּדָה בִּשְׁעַת כַּפָּרָה הֲרֵי זוֹ תָּמוּת:

9

If [the animal] was stolen or robbed at the time atonement was achieved and afterwards returned, it is not consigned to death. Instead, it is allowed to pasture [until it becomes blemished], for all we heard from Moses our teacher was that [an animal] that was lost [should be consigned to death].33

If it first34 was lost at night, even though it remained lost at the time atonement was achieved, it is not consigned to death.35 Instead, it is allowed to pasture [until it becomes blemished].

ט

הָיְתָה גְּנוּבָה אוֹ גְּזוּלָה בִּשְׁעַת כַּפָּרָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזְרָה. אֵינָהּ מֵתָה אֶלָּא תִּרְעֶה. לֹא שָׁמְעוּ מִמּשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ אֶלָּא אֲבוּדָה. הָיְתָה עִקַּר אֲבֵדָתָהּ בַּלַּיְלָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיְתָה אֲבוּדָה בִּשְׁעַת כַּפָּרָה. אֵינָהּ מֵתָה אֶלָּא תִּרְעֶה:

10

If [the owner] considered [an animal designated as a sin-offering] lost, but the shepherd did not or the shepherd considered it lost, but the owner did not, it is not consigned to death [if it is discovered after another animal was offered in place of it].36 Instead, it is allowed to pasture [until it becomes blemished].

י

אָבְדָה מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא מִן הָרוֹעֶה. אוֹ שֶׁאָבְדָה מִן הָרוֹעֶה וְאֵינָהּ אֲבוּדָה מִבְּעָלֶיהָ. אֵינָהּ מֵתָה אֶלָּא רוֹעָה:

11

All of those [animals mentioned in the above laws] that are allowed to pasture, may pasture until they contract a blemish. [Then they are sold and] the proceeds used to purchase a freewill offering.

יא

וְכָל אֵלּוּ שֶׁרוֹעוֹת רוֹעוֹת עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיִפְּלוּ דְּמֵיהֶן לִנְדָבָה:

12

If [the animal] was considered lost by both [the owner] and the shepherd, but another person - even in a far corner of the world - knows of its existence, there is an unresolved doubt whether it should be consigned to death.37 Therefore it should be consigned to death.38

יב

הָיְתָה אֲבוּדָה מִמֶּנּוּ וּמִן הָרוֹעֶה וְאַחֵר מַכִּירָה. אֲפִלּוּ בְּסוֹף הָעוֹלָם. הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק לְפִיכָךְ תָּמוּת:

13

[If the animal designated as a sin-offering] was hiding behind a door or behind a stairwell, it is considered as lost, for no one will see it at the time atonement is gained. If it is in a field or in a swamp, there is a doubt whether it is lost, for perhaps there is a person who saw it at the time atonement is achieved. Therefore it is consigned to death because of the doubt.

יג

הָיְתָה נֶחְבֵּאת אֲחוֹרֵי הַדֶּלֶת אוֹ בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲבוּדָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין אָדָם רוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ בִּשְׁעַת כַּפָּרָה. הָיְתָה בַּשָּׂדֶה אוֹ בַּאֲגַם הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק אֲבוּדָה שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ שָׁם אָדָם רוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ בִּשְׁעַת כַּפָּרָה. לְפִיכָךְ תָּמוּת מִסָּפֵק:

14

When a person sends [an animal designated as] a sin-offering from a distant country, we sacrifice it under the assumption that he is alive.

When does the above apply? With regard to a sin-offering of a fowl or a sin-offering of an animal for a woman who does not perform semichah, as we explained.39 [Different rules apply with regard to an animal set aside as] an unconditional guilt-offering.40 [If] its owner died or received atonement,41 it should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish. [Then it should be sold and] the proceeds used for a freewill offering. Whenever it is deemed that [an animal designated as] a sin-offering should be consigned to death, [one designated as] a guilt-offering should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish. [Then it should be sold and] the proceeds used for a freewill offering.

יד

הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ חַטָּאתוֹ מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם. מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתָהּ בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהוּא קַיָּם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּחַטַּאת הָעוֹף. אוֹ בְּחַטַּאת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁל אִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בַּת סְמִיכָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל אָשָׁם וַדַּאי שֶׁמֵּתוּ בְּעָלָיו. וְשֶׁכִּפְּרוּ בְּעָלָיו. יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיִמָּכֵר וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמָיו לִנְדָבָה. שֶׁכָּל שֶׁבְּחַטָּאת תָּמוּת בְּאָשָׁם יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמָיו לִנְדָבָה:

15

[If] any [animal set aside as] a guilt-offering that is consigned to pasture [until it contracts a disqualifying blemish] is sacrificed as a burnt offering itself,42 it is acceptable. Why is it not the initial preference to offer it as a burnt-offering? [This is] a decree, [using such an animal for a burnt-offering] after [its owner] gained atonement [is forbidden] lest [such an animal be used for a burnt-offering] before [the owner] gained atonement.43

טו

כָּל אָשָׁם שֶׁנִּתַּק לִרְעִיָּה. אִם הִקְרִיבוֹ עוֹלָה כָּשֵׁר. וְלָמָּה לֹא יִקָּרֵב בְּעַצְמוֹ עוֹלָה לְכַתְּחִלָּה. גְּזֵרָה לְאַחַר כַּפָּרָה מִשּׁוּם לִפְנֵי כַּפָּרָה:

16

When a person sets aside a female [animal] for a guilt-offering in which he [is obligated], it should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish.44 [Then] it should be sold and the proceeds used for a guilt-offering.45 If his guilt-offering was offered, the proceeds from the sale should be used to purchase a freewill offering. This also applies to her offspring.46

טז

הַמַּפְרִישׁ נְקֵבָה לַאֲשָׁמוֹ תִּרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהּ מוּם וְתִמָּכֵר וְיָבִיא בְּדָמֶיהָ אָשָׁם. אִם הִקְרִיב אֲשָׁמוֹ יִפְּלוּ דָּמֶיהָ לִנְדָבָה. וְכֵן וְלָדָהּ:

17

When a person sets aside a female [animal] for a burnt-offering47 in which he [is obligated] and she gives birth to a male, [the offspring] should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish. [Then] it should be sold and the proceeds used for a burnt-offering.48

יז

הִפְרִישׁ נְקֵבָה לְעוֹלָתוֹ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיָבִיא בְּדָמָיו עוֹלָה:

18

If, however, an ordinary person49 set aside a male [animal] for a sin-offering,50 a king51 set aside a she-goat as a sin-offering,52 or an anointed priest set aside a cow,53 these are not consecrated [at all], their physical person is not consecrated,54 nor is their worth consecrated.55 Therefore they may be sold [even] when unblemished.56

יח

אֲבָל הֶדְיוֹט שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ זָכָר לְחַטָּאת וְנָשִׂיא שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ שְׂעִירָה לְחַטָּאת. וְכֹהֵן מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ פָּרָה לְחַטָּאת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֵין מִתְקַדְּשִׁין לֹא קְדֻשַּׁת הַגּוּף וְלֹא קְדֻשַּׁת דָּמִים. לְפִיכָךְ יִמָּכְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּמוּם:

19

[The following laws apply when a person] brought a conditional guilt-offering57 and then discovered that he did not sin58 or that he definitely sinned.59 [Should he become aware of this] before the animal was slaughtered, it should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish. [Then it should be sold and] the proceeds used for a freewill offering.60 [The rationale61 is that] a person's heart feels contrite because of his sins. Since he designated [the animal as a sacrifice] because of a doubt, [we assume that] he resolved to consecrate it [regardless]. If he designated [an animal as a conditional guilt-offering] even because of witnesses62 and the witnesses were disqualified through hazamah,63 [the above ruling applies and] the proceeds used for a freewill offering.

If this was discovered after [the animal] was slaughtered, the blood should be poured out64 and the meat burnt as prescribed with regard to other sacrifices that were disqualified.65 If this was discovered after the blood was cast [on the altar], the meat should be eaten by the priests like that of other guilt-offerings.66

יט

הֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי וְנוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא חָטָא אוֹ שֶׁחָטָא וַדַּאי. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁחַט יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמָיו לִנְדָבָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלִּבּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם דָוֶה עַל עֲוֹנוֹתָיו וְהוֹאִיל וְעַל סָפֵק הִפְרִישׁוֹ גָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ לְהַקְדִּישׁ. הִפְרִישׁ אֲפִלּוּ עַל פִּי עֵדִים וְהוּזַמּוּ יִפְּלוּ דָּמָיו לִנְדָבָה. וְאִם אַחַר שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט נוֹדַע לוֹ. הַדָּם יִשָּׁפֵךְ וְהַבָּשָׂר יִשָּׂרֵף כִּשְׁאָר פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין. נוֹדַע לוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנִּזְרַק הַדָּם. הַבָּשָׂר יֵאָכֵל לַכֹּהֲנִים כְּכָל הָאֲשָׁמוֹת:

20

[This law] does not apply with regard to an unconditional guilt-offering. [In that instance,] if the person became aware that he did not sin before [the animal designated as a sacrifice was slaughtered], it should be allowed to go out and pasture among the flock like an ordinary animal.67 There is no holiness associated with it at all. If [he became aware of his innocence] after [the animal] was slaughtered, it should be buried.68 If [he became aware] after the blood was cast [on the altar], the meat should be taken to the place where [invalid sacrifices] are burnt like other sacrifices that were disqualified.69

כ

אָשָׁם וַדַּאי אֵינוֹ כֵּן. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁחַט נוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא חָטָא יֵצֵא וְיִרְעֶה בָּעֵדֶר כִּשְׁאָר הַחֻלִּין וְאֵין בּוֹ קְדֻשָּׁה כְּלָל. וְאִם מִשֶּׁנִּשְׁחַט הֲרֵי זֶה יִקָּבֵר. וְאִם מִשֶּׁנִּזְרַק הַדָּם. הַבָּשָׂר יֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה כִּשְׁאָר פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין:

21

When a person became liable to offer a conditional guilt-offering and he set aside two [animals] as surety,70 he should gain atonement through one of them and the second should be left to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish.71 [Then] it should be sold and the proceeds used for a freewill offering.72 Needless to say,73 this law applies with regard to an unconditional guilt-offering.

כא

מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בְּאָשָׁם תָּלוּי וְהִפְרִישׁ שְׁנַיִם לְאַחֲרָיוּת. מִתְכַּפֵּר בְּאֶחָד וְהַשֵּׁנִי יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמָיו לִנְדָבָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּאָשָׁם וַדַּאי שֶׁהוּא כֵּן:

22

All of the guilt-offerings mentioned in the Torah should be brought when they are in their second year of life74 and their price should be [two] silver shekalim75 with the exception of the guilt-offering brought by a person afflicted by tzara'at76 and the guilt offering brought by a nazirite77 which should be brought in their first year of life78 and their cost has no limit.

A conditional guilt-offering comes from both young lambs and elder ones.79 According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that it be brought only from [two] silver shekalim.

כב

כָּל הָאֲשָׁמוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה בָּאִין בְּנֵי שְׁתַּיִם וּבָאִים בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים. חוּץ מֵאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע וַאֲשַׁם נָזִיר שֶׁהֵם בְּנֵי שָׁנָה וְאֵין לִדְמֵיהֶם קִצְבָה. אָשָׁם תָּלוּי בָּא מִן הַקְּטַנִּים אוֹ מִן הַגְּדוֹלִים. וּמִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים:

23

If the price of rams decrease and a ram cannot be found for two silver selaim, the person has no means of correcting [his circumstance].80 He must wait until their price inflates and then bring one for two selaim, for the Torah was precise about their price and gave it an explicit limit.

כג

הוּזְלוּ אֵילִים וְלֹא יִמָּצֵא אַיִל בִּשְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים אֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא יִשְׁהֵא עַד שֶׁיּוּקְרוּ וְיָבִיא בִּשְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים שֶׁהֲרֵי הִקְפִּידָה תּוֹרָה עַל דָּמָיו וְנָתְנָה לוֹ קִצְבָה:

24

If a person set aside an animal as a guilt offering which was worth [only] one sela at the time it was set aside, but its worth appreciated to two at the time of atonement,81 it is acceptable. For the fact that it was initially unacceptable does not make it permanently disqualified, since it was not fit to be sacrificed until it was worth two [selaim]. Even though it increased in value on its own,82 a person can gain atonement through the increase in value of consecrated property.83

If it was worth two selaim at the time it was set aside, but its worth depreciated to one at the time of atonement, it is unacceptable.84 If its value later appreciated to two, it becomes acceptable again. For living animals are never permanently disqualified, as we explained.85 To what can the matter be likened? To a physical blemish that was contracted, but which disappeared.

כד

הִפְרִישׁ אֲשָׁמוֹ וְהָיָה בִּשְׁעַת הַפְרָשָׁה יָפֶה סֶלַע וּבִשְׁעַת כַּפָּרָה יָפֶה שְׁתַּיִם כָּשֵׁר. שֶׁהַדָּחוּי מֵעִקָּרוֹ אֵינוֹ דָּחוּי וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נִרְאֶה עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה שָׁוֶה שְׁתַּיִם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִשְׁבִּיחַ מֵאֵלָיו אָדָם מִתְכַּפֵּר בְּשֶׁבַח הֶקְדֵּשׁ. הָיָה בִּשְׁעַת הַפְרָשָׁה יָפֶה שְׁתַּיִם וּבִשְׁעַת כַּפָּרָה יָפֶה סֶלַע הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל. חָזַר וְנַעֲשָׂה יָפֶה שְׁתַּיִם יַחְזֹר לְכַשְׁרוּתוֹ שֶׁאֵין בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים נִדְחִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לְמוּם שֶׁנָּפַל וְעָבַר:

25

[The following rule applies when a person] set aside two selaim for a guilt-offering and purchased two rams for a guilt-offering with them. If one of them was worth two selaim, he should offer it as his guilt-offering86 and the other should be left to be pasture until it contracts a blemish [and then sold]. The proceeds should be used for a freewill offering.87

כה

הִפְרִישׁ שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים לְאָשָׁם וְלָקַח בָּהֶם שְׁנֵי אֵילִים לְאָשָׁם. אִם הָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָפֶה שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים יִקָּרֵב לַאֲשָׁמוֹ וְהַשֵּׁנִי יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמָיו לִנְדָבָה:

26

If a person was obligated to bring a guilt-offering that was a year old,88 and instead, brought one that was two years old,89 brought one that was a year old when he was obligated to bring one that was two years old, or brought one when the time for him to bring it had not come,90 it is unacceptable. It should be [left] until the next day91 and then it should be taken to the place where sacrifices are burnt.

This is the general principle: Any factor that disqualifies a sin-offering disqualifies a guilt-offering except a guilt-offering that was slaughtered with the intent that it was another sacrifice, which is acceptable, as will be explained.92

כו

הָיָה חַיָּב בְּאָשָׁם בֶּן שָׁנָה וְהֵבִיא בֶּן שְׁתַּיִם אוֹ בְּבֶן שְׁתַּיִם וְהֵבִיא בֶּן שָׁנָה. אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁחָטוֹ מְחֻסַּר זְמַן בַּבְּעָלִים. פָּסוּל וּתְעֵבַּר צוּרָתוֹ וְיֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל הַפָּסוּל בְּחַטָּאת פָּסוּל בְּאָשָׁם. חוּץ מִן הָאָשָׁם שֶׁשְּׁחָטוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמוֹ שֶׁהוּא כָּשֵׁר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

27

When a burnt-offering that must be brought by a nazirite,93 a woman who gives birth,94 or a person who is being purified after tza'arat,95 was slaughtered when it was more than twelve months old or the time for the owner to bring it had not come,96 it is acceptable97 and its accompanying offerings are required to be brought.

This is the general principle: Any factor that does not disqualify a burnt offering brought willingly does not disqualify a burnt-offering that is obligatory regardless of whether the one bringing it is considered to have fulfilled his obligation or not.

כז

עוֹלַת נָזִיר. עוֹלַת יוֹלֶדֶת. עוֹלַת מְצֹרָע. שֶׁשְּׁחָטָן בְּנֵי שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ וְיוֹם אֶחָד. אוֹ מְחֻסְּרֵי זְמַן בִּבְעָלִים. כְּשֵׁרִים וּטְעוּנִין נְסָכִים. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ פּוֹסֵל בְּעוֹלַת נְדָבָה אֵינוֹ פּוֹסֵל בְּעוֹלַת חוֹבָה. בֵּין עָלְתָה לַבְּעָלִים בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא עָלְתָה לָהֶם: