1

When a sin-offering of a dove becomes intermingled with a burnt-offerings of doves or a burnt-offering of a dove becomes intermingled with sin-offerings of doves,1 even one in a myriad, they should all be consigned to death.2

When does the above apply? When their identity had been explicitly determined when they were purchased by the owner, [saying]: "This is a sin-offering. This is a burnt-offering." Different rules apply, however, of one brought doves to fulfill his obligation, some [for] a sin-offering and some for a burnt-offering, without stating explicitly [what each was, instead, they were brought] without specification and then a [dove designated as] a sin-offering or as a burnt-offering became mixed with these undesignated [doves] brought to fulfill his obligation.

א

חַטַאת הָעוֹף שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּעוֹלַת הָעוֹף. אוֹ עוֹלַת הָעוֹף שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּחַטַּאת הָעוֹף. אֲפִלּוּ אַחַת בְּרִבּוֹא כֻּלָּן יָמוּתוּ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ מְפֹרָשׁוֹת בִּשְׁעַת לְקִיחַת הַבְּעָלִים זוֹ חַטָּאת וְזוֹ עוֹלָה. אֲבָל אִם הֵבִיא עוֹפוֹת לְחוֹבָתוֹ מֵהֶן חַטָּאת וּמֵהֶן עוֹלָה וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ אֶלָּא כֻּלָּן סְתוּמוֹת וְנִתְעָרְבָה חַטָּאת אוֹ עוֹלָה בְּחוֹבָה זוֹ הַסְּתוּמָה יֵשׁ לָהֶן דִּינִים אֲחֵרִים:

2

What are the appropriate laws? If [a dove designated as] a sin-offering becomes intermingled with this unspecified [group of doves] brought to fulfill one's obligation, only the number of doves to be brought as sin-offerings in the unspecified [group] are acceptable.3 The number of burnt-offerings in the unspecified [group] and the sin-offering that became intermingled with them are disqualified, for a sin-offering has become intermingled with burnt-offerings.4

ב

וְכֵיצַד דִּינֵיהֶן. אִם נִתְעָרְבָה חַטָּאת בְּחוֹבָה זוֹ הַסְּתוּמָה אֵין כָּשֵׁר אֶלָּא מִנְיַן חַטָּאוֹת שֶׁבְּחוֹבָה בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל מִנְיַן הָעוֹלוֹת שֶׁבְּחוֹבָה עִם הַחַטָּאת שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בָּהֶן פְּסוּלִין שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְעָרְבָה חַטָּאת בְעוֹלוֹת:

3

Therefore if the unspecified [group] is [at least] twice as large as the number of sin-offerings [that became intermingled with them], half of the unspecified group is acceptable,5 and half are disqualified. It appears to me that [the priest offering the sacrifices] should offer all of them on the lower portion of the altar according to the rites appropriate for a sin-offering.6

ג

לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיְתָה הַחוֹבָה שְׁתַּיִם בְּחַטָּאת. חֲצִי הַחוֹבָה כָּשֵׁר וְחֶצְיָהּ פָּסוּל. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה כֻּלָּן לְמַטָּן כְּמַעֲשֵׂה חַטָּאת:

4

Similarly, if a burnt-offering7 becomes intermingled with this unspecified [group of doves], only the number of doves to be brought as burnt-offerings in the unspecified [group] are acceptable. The number of sin-offerings in the unspecified [group] and the burnt-offering that became intermingled with them are disqualified, for a burnt-offering has become intermingled with sin-offerings.8

Whether there are more doves in the unspecified group than the number of burnt-offerings that became intermingled with them, there were more burnt-offerings than doves in the unspecified group, or they were of equal amounts, only the amount of burnt-offerings in the unspecified group are acceptable. Therefore if the unspecified group was twice as large as the number of doves that became intermingled with them, half of the unspecified group is acceptable, and half are disqualified. It appears to me that [the priest offering the sacrifices] should offer all of them on the upper portion of the altar according to the rites appropriate for a burnt-offering.

ד

וְכֵן אִם נִתְעָרְבָה עוֹלָה בְּחוֹבָה זוֹ הַסְּתוּמָה. אֵין כָּשֵׁר אֶלָּא מִנְיַן עוֹלוֹת שֶׁבְּחוֹבָה. אֲבָל מִנְיַן הַחַטָּאוֹת שֶׁבְּחוֹבָה עִם הָעוֹלָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בָּהֶן פְּסוּלִין. שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְעָרְבָה עוֹלָה בְּחַטָּאת. בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה הַחוֹבָה הַסְּתוּמָה מְרֻבָּה עַל הָעוֹלוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בָּהּ. בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ הָעוֹלוֹת מְרֻבִּין עַל הַחוֹבָה הַסְּתוּמָה. בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שָׁווֹת. אֵין כָּשֵׁר אֶלָּא מִנְיַן עוֹלוֹת שֶׁבְּחוֹבָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיְתָה הַחוֹבָה שְׁתַּיִם בָּעוֹלוֹת חֲצִי הַחוֹבָה כָּשֵׁר וְחֶצְיָהּ פָּסוּל. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה כֻּלָּן לְמַעְלָה כְּמַעֲשֵׂה עוֹלָה:

5

When one unspecified group becomes intermingled with another unspecified group - whether they were all for one purpose, e.g., doves brought by zavim together with doves brought by zavim, or for two purposes, doves brought by zavim together with doves brought by women after childbirth, whether they were both brought by the same person, or they were brought by two separate people, if they were both similar, half are acceptable and half are disqualified.9 [This applies] whether [the priest] offered all of them on the upper portion of the altar or all on the lower portion of the altar, or half were offered on the upper portion of the altar and half on the lower portion, half are always acceptable and half are always disqualified, because half [of the mixture] are burnt-offerings and half are sin-offerings and a sin-offering is offered on the lower portion of the altar and a burnt-offering is offered on the upper portion.

[To explain:] If he offered them all on the upper portion, half are acceptable and they are burnt-offerings.10 If he offered them all on the lower portion, half are acceptable and they are sin-offerings.11 If half were offered on the lower portion of the altar and half on the upper portion, half of the half offered on the upper portion are acceptable [and the other half are disqualified,] because of the mixture.12 [The acceptable ones] are burnt-offerings. And half of the half of those offered on the lower portion are acceptable and they are sin-offerings.

ה

חוֹבָה סְתוּמָה וְחוֹבָה אַחֶרֶת סְתוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ. בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן מִשֵּׁם אֶחָד. כְּגוֹן קִנֵּי זָבִים עִם קִנֵּי זָבִים. אוֹ מִשְּׁנֵי שֵׁמוֹת כְּגוֹן קִנֵּי זָבִים עִם קִנֵּי יוֹלְדוֹת. בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶם לְאָדָם אֶחָד. בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ לִשְׁנַיִם. אִם הָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שָׁווֹת מֶחֱצָה כָּשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָּסוּל. בֵּין שֶׁעָשָׂה הַכּל לְמַעְלָה אוֹ הַכּל לְמַטָּה אוֹ עָשָׂה חֶצְיָן לְמַעְלָה וְחֶצְיָן לְמַטָּה לְעוֹלָם מֶחֱצָה כָּשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָּסוּל. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַכּל חֶצְיָן עוֹלָה וְחֶצְיָן חַטָּאת. וְהַחַטָּאת לְמַטָּה וְהָעוֹלָה לְמַעְלָה. אִם עָשָׂה הַכּל לְמַעְלָה חֶצְיָן כְּשֵׁרוֹת וְהֵן עוֹלוֹת. וְאִם עָשָׂה כֻּלָּן לְמַטָּה חֶצְיָן כְּשֵׁרוֹת וְהֵן חַטָּאוֹת. עָשָׂה חֶצְיָן לְמַטָּה וְחֶצְיָן לְמַעְלָה חֲצִי הַחֵצִי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לְמַעְלָה כָּשֵׁר מִפְּנֵי הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת וְהוּא עוֹלוֹת וַחֲצִי הַחֵצִי שֶׁל מַטָּה כָּשֵׁר וְהוּא חַטָּאוֹת:

6

[The following rules apply if] two unspecified groups became intermingled with each other and one was larger than the other, e.g., one had four doves and one had six. If he offered them all on the upper portion of the altar, or all on the lower portion, half are acceptable and half are disqualified for the reason we explained.13 [Different laws apply] if he offered half on the lower portion of the altar and half on the upper portion. If he did this after he asked,14 the lesser amount are acceptable.15 If he did this on his own initiative, the greater amount are acceptable.16

ו

הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי הַחוֹבוֹת הַסְּתוּמוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ זוֹ גְּדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה אַחַת אַרְבַּע עוֹפוֹת וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה שֵׁשׁ. אִם עָשָׂה הַכּל לְמַעְלָה אוֹ עָשָׂה הַכּל לְמַטָּה מֶחֱצָה פָּסוּל וּמֶחֱצָה כָּשֵׁר וּמִטַּעַם שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. עָשָׂה חֶצְיָן לְמַטָּה וְחֶצְיָן לְמַעְלָה. אִם אַחַר שֶׁשָּׁאַל עָשָׂה כֵן הַמֻּעָט כָּשֵׁר. וְאִם מִדַּעְתּוֹ עָשָׂה הַמְרֻבֶּה כָּשֵׁר:

7

This is the general principle: Whenever, on his initiative, the priest offered half on the upper portion of the altar and half on the lower portion, and it is impossible that [the doves of] one [owner] will not have been offered on both halves of the altar, the greater amount is acceptable.17 Since it is known that a portion of [this person's]18 sacrifices will be [offered] on the upper portion of the altar and a portion on the lower half, all of his sacrifices are acceptable.

ז

זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּעְתּוֹ חֶצְיָן לְמַעְלָה וְחֶצְיָן לְמַטָּה. וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה מִשֶּׁל אֶחָד לְמַעְלָה וּלְמַטָּה. הֲרֵי זֶה הַמְרֻבֶּה כָּשֵׁר הוֹאִיל וְדָבָר יָדוּעַ שֶׁמִּקְצָת קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו לְמַעְלָה וּמִקְצָתָם לְמַטָּה יִהְיוּ כָּל קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו כְּשֵׁרִים:

8

When two individuals purchase pairs of doves together or give the money for them to the priest [to purchase them], the priest may offer whichever he desires as sin-offerings and whichever he desires as burnt-offerings.19 For [the identity of the sacrifices] in the pair is determined only when purchased by the owners or when offered by the priest, as we explained.20

ח

שְׁנַיִם שֶׁלָּקְחוּ קִנֵּיהֶן בְּעֵרוּב אוֹ שֶׁנָּתְנוּ דְּמֵי קִנֵּיהֶן לַכֹּהֵן לְאֵיזֶה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הַכֹּהֵן יַקְרִיב חַטָּאת וּלְאֵיזֶה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יַקְרִיב עוֹלָה. שֶׁאֵין הַקִּינִין מִתְפָּרְשִׁין אֶלָּא בִּלְקִיחַת הַבְּעָלִים אוֹ בַּעֲשִׂיַּת הַכֹּהֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

9

If there were [groups of doves], some [groups of] sin-offerings and others, burnt-offerings, before a priest and he offered21 both [groups] on the upper portion of the altar or both on the lower portion, half are acceptable and half are not.22 If he offered half on the upper portion and half on the lower portion without knowing whether it was the sin-offerings or the burnt-offerings that he offered on the lower portion, they are all unacceptable. For we surmise that it was the burnt-offering that were offered on the lower portion and the sin-offerings on the upper portion.

ט

הָיוּ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן חַטָּאוֹת וְעוֹלוֹת. עָשָׂה שְׁתֵּיהֶן לְמַעְלָה אוֹ שְׁתֵּיהֶן לְמַטָּה מֶחֱצָה כָּשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָּסוּל. עָשָׂה חֶצְיָן לְמַעְלָה וְחֶצְיָן לְמַטָּה וְלֹא יָדַע אִם הַחַטָּאוֹת הֵם שֶׁעָשָׂה לְמַטָּה אוֹ הָעוֹלוֹת. הֲרֵי הַכּל פָּסוּל. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר הָעוֹלוֹת הֵם שֶׁעָשָׂה לְמַטָּה וְהַחַטָּאוֹת לְמַעְלָה:

10

If there were three groups of doves before him:23 one sin-offerings, one burnt-offerings, and one undefined, half burnt-offerings and half sin-offerings, without the purpose [for any given dove] being defined, if he offered all of them on the upper portion or on the lower portion, half are acceptable and half are not.24

י

הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁלֹשָׁה צִבּוּרֵי עוֹפוֹת אֶחָד חַטָּאוֹת וְאֶחָד עוֹלוֹת וְהָאֶחָד סָתוּם חֶצְיוֹ עוֹלוֹת וְחֶצְיוֹ חַטָּאוֹת וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ. אִם עָשָׂה כֻּלָּן לְמַעְלָה אוֹ לְמַטָּה. מֶחֱצָה כָּשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָּסוּל:

11

If he offered half on the upper portion and half on the lower portion,25 only the group that was undefined that was offered half on the upper portion and half on the lower portion is acceptable.26 It is divided between the owners27 and [the portion allotted to] each one is considered as valid for them, for the priest does not know which groups were specified [as being sin-offerings] and which one was left undefined. The two specified groups are not acceptable, because it is not known which one was offered on the upper portion of the altar and which one, on the lower portion and it is possible that the burnt-offerings were offered on the lower portion and the sin-offerings on the upper portion.

יא

עָשָׂה חֶצְיָן לְמַעְלָה וְחֶצְיָן לְמַטָּה. אֵין הַכָּשֵׁר אֶלָּא הַסָּתוּם בִּלְבַד שֶׁעָשָׂה חֶצְיוֹ לְמַעְלָה וְחֶצְיוֹ לְמַטָּה. וְהוּא מִתְחַלֵּק בֵּין הַבְּעָלִים וְעוֹלֶה לִשְׁנֵיהֶן. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַכֹּהֵן אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְאֵי זֶה מֵהֶן פֵּרֵשׁ וּלְאֵי זֶה מֵהֶן הָיָה הַסָּתוּם. וּשְׁנֵי הַצִּבּוּרִין הַמְפֹרָשִׁין פְּסוּלִין שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא יָדַע אֵי זֶה עָשָׂה לְמַעְלָה וְאֵי זֶה עָשָׂה לְמַטָּה וְשֶׁמָּא הָעוֹלָה נַעֲשֵׂית לְמַטָּה וְהַחַטָּאת לְמַעְלָה: