1

Whenever anyone who is unacceptable to perform Temple service performs the rite of melikah,1 the melikah is unacceptable. [Nevertheless,] even though the dove [killed by such a melikah] is unacceptable, it is not considered as a nevelah2 of a kosher fowl with regard to the laws of ritual impurity.3

Similarly, if one performed melikah at night or slaughtered an ordinary dove in [the Temple Courtyard] or a consecrated dove outside [the Temple Courtyard], they are not nevelot.4

א

כָּל הַפְּסוּלִין לַעֲבוֹדָה שֶׁמָּלְקוּ מְלִיקָתָן פְּסוּלָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹתוֹ הָעוֹף פָּסוּל אֵינוֹ כְּנִבְלַת הָעוֹף הַטָּהוֹר לְטֻמְאָה. וְכֵן אִם מָלַק בַּלַּיְלָה אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁחַט חֻלִּין בִּפְנִים וְקָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ. אֵינָהּ כִּנְבֵלָה:

2

If one performed melikah on turtle-doves before they reached the appropriate age or on young doves who passed the appropriate age5 or on a dove whose wing shriveled, whose eye was lost6 or whose leg was cut off,7 it is considered as a nevelah in all contexts. This is the general principle: Any disqualifying factor that takes place after [a dove] entered the Temple Courtyard8 disqualifies it, but does not render it a nevelah. If the disqualifying factor did not take place after it was brought into the Temple Courtyard, [the dove] is a nevelah in all contexts.

ב

מָלַק תּוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּן וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה שֶׁעָבַר זְמַנָּם וְשֶׁיָּבַשׁ גַּפָּהּ וְשֶׁנִּסְמֵית עֵינָהּ וְשֶׁנִּקְטְעָה רַגְלָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ נְבֵלָה לְכָל דָּבָר. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁהָיָה פְּסוּלָהּ בַּקֹּדֶשׁ פְּסוּלָה וְאֵינָהּ נְבֵלָה. לֹא הָיָה פְּסוּלָהּ בַּקֹּדֶשׁ הֲרֵי זוֹ נְבֵלָה לְכָל דָּבָר:

3

For this reason, when a person performs melikah and the animal is discovered to be tereifah,9 he performed melikah with a knife,10 or performed melikah on an ordinary dove in [the Temple Courtyard] or a consecrated dove outside [the Temple Courtyard],11 they are considered as a nevelah in all contexts. For melikah permits and purifies only a dove that is acceptable to [be offered on] the altar.12

ג

לְפִיכָךְ הַמּוֹלֵק וְנִמְצֵאת טְרֵפָה. אוֹ שֶׁמָּלַק בְּסַכִּין אוֹ שֶׁמָּלַק חֻלִּין בִּפְנִים וְקָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ. הֲרֵי זוֹ נְבֵלָה לְכָל דָּבָר. שֶׁאֵין הַמְּלִיקָה מַתֶּרֶת וּמְטַהֶרֶת אֶלָּא דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא כָּשֵׁר לַמִּזְבֵּחַ:

4

In contrast, if melikah was performed on a dove that was sodomized, set aside for pagan sacrifice, worshiped, given to a prostitute as her fee, exchanged for a dog, was a tumtum13 or an androgynus,14 it is considered as a nevelah in all contexts. It causes a person's garments to become impure when it [enters his] gut.15 The rationale is that the holiness [of a sacrifice] does not fall upon them16 and thus it is not considered as having been disqualified [after entering] the Temple Courtyard.

ד

אֲבָל הַנִּרְבָּע וְהַמֻּקְצֶה וְהַנֶּעֱבָד וְהָאֶתְנָן וְהַמְּחִיר וְהַטֻּמְטוּם וְהָאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס שֶׁנִּמְלְקוּ. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נְבֵלָה לְכָל דָּבָר וּמְטַמְּאִין בְּגָדִים בְּבֵית הַבְּלִיעָה. שֶׁאֵין הַקְּדֻשָּׁה חָלָה עֲלֵיהֶן וַהֲרֵי אֵין פְּסוּלָן בְּקֹדֶשׁ:

5

We already explained in [Hilchot] Ma'aseh Hakorbanot,17 that [the blood from] a sin-offering of fowl is presented on the lower [half of the altar] and [the blood from] a burnt-offering of fowl is presented on the upper [half of the altar].18 When [the blood from] a sin-offering of fowl is presented on the upper [half of the altar], it is unacceptable. [This applies] whether the blood was presented in the manner of a sin-offering19 or in the manner of a burnt-offering,20 whether it was offered for the sake of a burnt-offering or for the sake of a sin-offering.

ה

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁחַטַּאת הָעוֹף נַעֲשֵׂית לְמַטָּה וְעוֹלַת הָעוֹף לְמַעְלָה. חַטַּאת הָעוֹף שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ לְמַעְלָה פְּסוּלָה. בֵּין שֶׁעָשָׂה הַזָּיָתָהּ כְּמַעֲשֵׂה חַטָּאת. בֵּין שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ כְּמַעֲשֵׂה עוֹלָה. בֵּין שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ לְשֵׁם עוֹלָה. בֵּין שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ לְשֵׁם חַטָּאת:

6

Similarly, when [the blood from] a burnt-offering of fowl was presented on the lower [half of the altar], even if he performed melikah on one of the signs of ritual slaughter21 on the lower half and the other sign on the upper half, it is unacceptable. [This applies] whether the melikah was performed in the manner of a burnt-offering or in the manner of a sin-offering,22 whether it was offered for the sake of a sin-offering or for the sake of a burnt-offering.

ו

וְכֵן עוֹלַת הָעוֹף שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ לְמַטָּה אֲפִלּוּ מָלַק סִימָן אֶחָד לְמַטָּה וְסִימָן אֶחָד לְמַעְלָה פְּסוּלָה בֵּין שֶׁמְּלָקוֹ כִּמְלִיקַת עוֹלָה בֵּין שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ כְּמַעֲשֵׂה חַטָּאת. בֵּין שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ לְשֵׁם חַטָּאת בֵּין שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ לְשֵׁם עוֹלָה:

7

When melikah was performed on a sin-offering of a fowl on the lower half of the altar in the manner as it should be performed for a burnt-offering for the sake of a sin-offering, as it should be performed for a sin-offering for the sake of a burnt-offering,23 or as it should be performed for a burnt-offering for the sake of a burnt-offering,24 it is unacceptable.

ז

חַטַּאת הָעוֹף שֶׁמְּלָקָהּ לְמַטָּה כִּמְלִיקַת עוֹלָה לְשֵׁם חַטָּאת אוֹ כְּמַעֲשֵׂה חַטָּאת לְשֵׁם עוֹלָה אוֹ כְּמַעֲשֵׂה עוֹלָה לְשֵׁם עוֹלָה פְּסוּלָה:

8

Similarly, when a burnt-offering of a fowl was presented on the upper [half of the altar] in the manner as it should be performed for a sin-offering for the sake of a burnt-offering or as it should be performed for a sin-offering for the sake of a sin-offering, it is unacceptable. If, however, he performs it as it should be performed for a burnt-offering for the sake of a sin-offering, it is acceptable,25 but it is not considered as if the owner fulfilled his obligation.26

ח

וְכֵן עוֹלַת הָעוֹף שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ לְמַעְלָה כְּמַעֲשֵׂה חַטָּאת לְשֵׁם עוֹלָה אוֹ כְּמַעֲשֵׂה חַטָּאת לְשֵׁם חַטָּאת פְּסוּלָה. כְּמַעֲשֵׂה עוֹלָה לְשֵׁם חַטָּאת כְּשֵׁרָה. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא עָלְתָה לַבְּעָלִים לְשֵׁם חוֹבָה:

9

All of these fowl that are disqualified because of the place [in the altar] where their blood was presented, because of the difference in the manner in which [melikah] is performed, or the intent for which they are offered, are not considered as a fowl that has become a nevelah with regard to the laws of ritual impurity. Similarly, when a sin-offering or a burnt-offering of fowl becomes piggul,27 impure,28 or notar29 it does not cause impurity in one's gut30 as does a fowl that has become a nevelah, for all of these became disqualified [after having entered] the Temple Courtyard.31

ט

כָּל אֵלּוּ הָעוֹפוֹת שֶׁנִּפְסְלוּ מִפְּנֵי מְקוֹם עֲשִׂיָּתָן אוֹ מִפְּנֵי שִׁנּוּי מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן אוֹ שִׁנּוּי שְׁמָם. אֵינָן כְּנִבְלַת הָעוֹף לְטֻמְאָה. וְכֵן חַטַּאת הָעוֹף אוֹ עוֹלַת הָעוֹף שֶׁנִּתְפַּגְּלָה אוֹ נִטְמְאָה אוֹ נַעֲשֵׂית נוֹתָר אֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה בְּבֵית הַבְּלִיעָה כְּנִבְלַת הָעוֹף. שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלָן בְּקֹדֶשׁ:

10

When a sin-offering of fowl is brought because of a doubt, it should be offered as required, but not eaten.32 Instead, it should be burnt like all other sacrificial animals that become disqualified.33

When is such a sacrifice brought because of a doubt? When there is an unresolved question whether a woman is a zavah,34 impure because of childbirth,35 or the like. There is no concept of an animal being brought as a sin-offering because of a doubt, because if a person is unsure whether or not he committed a sin, he should bring a conditional guilt-offering, as will be explained in Hilchot Shegagot.36

י

חַטַּאת הָעוֹף הַבָּאָה עַל הַסָּפֵק נַעֲשֵׂית כְּמִצְוָתָהּ וְאֵינָהּ נֶאֱכֶלֶת אֶלָּא תִּשָּׂרֵף כְּכָל פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין. וְכֵיצַד תָּבוֹא עַל הַסָּפֵק. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה סְפֵק זָבָה אוֹ סְפֵק יוֹלֶדֶת וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְאֵין לָנוּ חַטַּאת בְּהֵמָה עַל סָפֵק. שֶׁאִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם חָטָא אִם לֹא חָטָא יָבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁגָגוֹת:

11

[The following rules apply when] a sin-offering of fowl is brought because of a doubt and then it is discovered that the woman is definitely obligated to bring [the sacrifice]. If she realized this before melikah was performed on the [the dove], it should be offered with certainty and eaten.37 If she did not discover this until after melikah was performed, the sprinkling and presentation of its blood [on the altar] should be completed. Then it should be burnt,38 so that it will not be said that a sin-offering of fowl brought because of a doubt is eaten. For at the outset, [this offering] was brought because of a doubt.

יא

חַטַּאת הָעוֹף הַבָּאָה עַל הַסָּפֵק וְנוֹדַע שֶׁהִיא חַיֶּבֶת בָּהּ וַדַּאי. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִמְלְקָה נוֹדַע לָהּ תֵּעָשֶׂה וַדָּאִית וְתֵאָכֵל. וְאִם אַחַר שֶׁנִּמְלְקָה נוֹדַע לָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹמֵר הַזָּיַת דָּמָהּ וְתַמְצִיתוֹ וְתִשָּׂרֵף כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ חַטַּאת הָעוֹף הַבָּאָה עַל הַסָּפֵק תֵּאָכֵל שֶׁהֲרֵי בַּתְּחִלָּה עַל סָפֵק בָּאָה:

12

If, after melikah was performed, she discovered that she was not obligated to bring a sacrifice, it should be buried.39

יב

נוֹדַע לָהּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ חַיֶּבֶת בָּהּ מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּמְלְקָה הֲרֵי זוֹ תִּקָּבֵר: