1

When a dove from an unspecified group flies to free spaces or among doves that are consigned to death,1 or one of the doves dies, a second one should be taken for its pair.

א

קֵן סְתוּמָה שֶׁפָּרַח מִמֶּנָּה גּוֹזָל לָאֲוִיר. אוֹ שֶׁפָּרַח לְבֵין הָעוֹפוֹת שֶׁיָּמוּתוּ כֻּלָּן. אוֹ שֶׁמֵּת גּוֹזָל אֶחָד. יִקַּח זוּג לַשֵּׁנִי:

2

If it flies among [doves] that are fit to be offered, it is disqualified and it disqualifies one [of the group], for when a dove flies from an unspecified group to among those which will be offered, it becomes disqualified and it disqualifies another one corresponding to it.2

What is implied? A dove from a group of unspecified doves flies to an unspecified group of ten doves. If [the priest] offered five on the lower portion [of the altar] and six on the upper portion, five of the burnt-offerings from the six offered on the upper portion are acceptable3 and four of the sin-offerings from the five offered on the lower portion are acceptable. [The rationale is that] one says: "Perhaps the dove that flew is one of the five offered on the lower portion."4

Similarly, if he offered six on the lower portion and five on the upper portion, five sin-offerings and four burnt-offerings are acceptable. For one might say: "Perhaps the dove [that flew] is one of the five offered on the upper portion." Thus from the ten [from the second group], nine are acceptable and [the dove] disqualified one.

ב

פָּרַח לְבֵין הַקְּרֵבוֹת. פָּסוּל וּפוֹסֵל אֶחָד כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. שֶׁהַגּוֹזָל הַפּוֹרֵחַ מִקֵּן סָתוּם לְבֵין הַקְּרֵבוֹת פָּסוּל וּפוֹסֵל אֶחָד כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. כֵּיצַד. פָּרַח גּוֹזָל מִן הַסָּתוּם לַעֲשָׂרָה עוֹפוֹת סְתוּמוֹת. אִם עָשָׂה חֲמִשָּׁה לְמַטָּה וְשִׁשָּׁה לְמַעְלָה. הֲרֵי חָמֵשׁ עוֹלוֹת כְּשֵׁרוֹת מֵהַשִּׁשָּׁה שֶׁל מַעְלָה וְאַרְבַּע חַטָּאוֹת כְּשֵׁרוֹת מֵהַחֲמִשָּׁה עוֹפוֹת שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְמַטָּה. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁמָּא הַגּוֹזָל הַפּוֹרֵחַ הוּא אֶחָד מֵחֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁל מַטָּה. וְכֵן אִם עָשָׂה מֵהֶם שִׁשָּׁה לְמַטָּה וַחֲמִשָּׁה לְמַעְלָה נִמְצֵאת הַכָּשֵׁר חָמֵשׁ חַטָּאוֹת וְאַרְבַּע עוֹלוֹת. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁמָּא הַגּוֹזָל מֵחֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁל מַעְלָה. נִמְצֵאת הַכָּשֵׁר מֵהָעֲשָׂרָה תִּשְׁעָה הֲרֵי פָּסַל אֶחָד:

3

[The following rules apply when there is one] unspecified group of four doves and another unspecified group of four doves. If one from the first group flew to the second group, it disqualified one of the second group.5 If, after it became intermingled among them,6 one of the second group flew to the first group, it disqualifies one of the first group.7 Thus there are only two doves in the first group that are acceptable.8

ג

אַרְבָּעָה עוֹפוֹת סְתוּמוֹת וְאַרְבָּעָה עוֹפוֹת שְׁנִיּוֹת סְתוּמוֹת. פָּרַח אֶחָד מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת לַשְּׁנִיּוֹת פָּסַל אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁנִיּוֹת. אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ חָזַר אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁנִיּוֹת וּפָרַח לָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת פָּסַל אֶחָד מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת. וְנִמְצָא הַכָּשֵׁר מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת שְׁתַּיִם בִּלְבַד:

4

If, again, one of the first group flew back to the second group, even if [they continue flying back and forth] the entire day, they do not add to the number disqualified,9 for even if they become entirely intermingled with each other, half are acceptable and half are disqualified, as we explained.10

ד

חָזַר אֶחָד וּפָרַח מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת לַשְּׁנִיּוֹת אֲפִלּוּ כָּל הַיּוֹם אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף לְהַפְסִיד יֶתֶר עַל זֶה שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הֵן מְעוֹרָבוֹת כֻּלָּן זוֹ בָּזוֹ מֶחֱצָה כָּשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָּסוּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

5

[The following rules apply when there is one] unspecified group of two doves, a second group of four doves, a third of six, a fourth of eight, a fifth of ten, a sixth of twelve, and a seventh of fourteen. If one of the first group flew to the second,11 one of the second12 flew to the third, one of the third to the fourth, one of the fourth to the fifth, one of the fifth to the sixth, and one of the sixth to the seventh - and then, one flew back from group to group until one returned to the first group from which the original one had flown, one dove is disqualified in the first movement from group to group and one is disqualified in the return. Thus the first and second groups do not have any [acceptable doves]; the third group has two; the fourth, four; the fifth, six; the sixth, eight, and the seventh, twelve.13

If one of the doves flew from [group] to [group] a second time and then one flew back from the last [group], going from group to group until it reaches the first, one dove is disqualified in the movement from group to group and one is disqualified in the return. The third14 and the fourth groups do not have any [acceptable doves]; the fifth group has two; the sixth, four, and the seventh, ten.

If one of the doves flew from [group] to [group] a third time and then one flew a fourth time, going from group to group, one dove is disqualified in the movement from group to group and one is disqualified in the return. Thus the fifth and the sixth are disqualified entirely and the seventh has eight acceptable doves remaining, i.e., when the fourteen doves are offered [on the altar], seven on the upper portion and seven on the lower portion, eight will be acceptable and six will be disqualified because of the intermingling of the doves that flew back and forth.

ה

צִבּוּר אֶחָד יֵשׁ בּוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹפוֹת. וּבַשֵּׁנִי אַרְבָּעָה. וּבַשְּׁלִישִׁי שִׁשָּׁה. וּבָרְבִיעִי שְׁמוֹנָה. וּבַחֲמִישִׁי עֲשָׂרָה. וּבַשִּׁשִּׁי שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר. וּבַשְּׁבִיעִי אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר. וּפָרַח גּוֹזָל מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לַשְּׁנִיָּה. וְאֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁנִיָּה לַשְּׁלִישִׁית. וּמִשְּׁלִישִׁית לִרְבִיעִית. מֵרְבִיעִית לַחֲמִישִׁית. וּמֵחֲמִישִׁית לַשִּׁשִּׁית. וּמִשִּׁשִׁית לִשְׁבִיעִית. וְחָזַר אֶחָד וּפָרַח מִצִּבּוּר לְצִבּוּר עַד שֶׁחָזַר לָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁפָּרַח מִמֶּנָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה. פּוֹסֵל אֶחָד בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ וְאֶחָד בַּחֲזִירָתוֹ. הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה אֵין לָהֶם כְּלוּם. וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית יֵשׁ לָהּ שְׁנֵי עוֹפוֹת. וְהָרְבִיעִית יֵשׁ לָהּ אַרְבָּעָה. וְהַחֲמִישִׁית יֵשׁ לָהּ שִׁשָּׁה. וְהַשִּׁשִּׁית יֵשׁ לָהּ שְׁמוֹנָה. וְהַשְּׁבִיעִית יֵשׁ לָהּ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר. חָזַר אֶחָד וּפָרַח פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ וְחָזַר אֶחָד וּפָרַח מִן הָאַחֲרוֹנָה לְשֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִמֶּנָּה עַד שֶׁחָזַר לָרִאשׁוֹנָה. פּוֹסֵל אֶחָד בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ וְאֶחָד בַּחֲזִירָתוֹ. הַשְּׁלִישִׁית וְהָרְבִיעִית אֵין לָהֶם כְּלוּם. וְהַחֲמִישִׁית יֵשׁ לָהּ שְׁנֵי עוֹפוֹת כְּשֵׁרִים. וְהַשִּׁשִּׁית יֵשׁ לָהּ אַרְבָּעָה. הַשְּׁבִיעִית יֵשׁ לָהּ עֲשָׂרָה. פָּרַח פַּעַם שְׁלִישִׁית גּוֹזָל מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ. וְחָזַר פַּעַם רְבִיעִית מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ. פּוֹסֵל אֶחָד בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ וְאֶחָד בַּחֲזִירָתוֹ. וְהַחֲמִישִׁית וְהַשִּׁשִּׁית נִפְסְלוּ כֻּלָּן. וְהַשְּׁבִיעִית נִשְׁאֲרוּ לָהּ שְׁמוֹנָה עוֹפוֹת כְּשֵׁרִין. כְּשֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר שֶׁבַע לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה יִהְיוּ שְׁמוֹנָה מֵהֶן כְּשֵׁרִין וְהַשִּׁשָּׁה פְּסוּלִין מִפְּנֵי תַּעֲרֹבֶת גּוֹזָלוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁפָּרְחוּ בַּהֲלִיכָה וּבַחֲזָרָה:

6

[The following laws apply when there was] a group of doves that was unspecified and another group [in which the doves for the sin-offering and the burnt-offering] had already been specified. If one of the doves from the unspecified group flew to the group that had been specified, [the owner of the unspecified group] should take a partner for the remaining dove.15

If [the above group became intermingled and then of the doves] returned [to the unspecified group] or [at the outset,] one of the doves from the specified group flew to the unspecified group and it was not known whether it was the one designated as a burnt-offering or the one designated as the sin-offering,16 all of the doves in the unspecified group should be consigned to death. [The rationale is that] if it was the one designated as a burnt-offering that became intermingled, all of the sin-offerings [in that group] are disqualified.17 And if it was the one designated as a sin-offering that became intermingled, all of the burnt-offerings [in that group] are disqualified. Therefore,18 they should all be consigned to death.

ו

קֵן סְתוּמָה וְקֵן מְפֹרֶשֶׁת. פָּרַח מִן הַסְּתוּמָה לַמְּפֹרֶשֶׁת. יִקַּח זוּג לְשֵׁנִי. חָזַר אוֹ שֶׁפָּרַח אֶחָד מִן הַמְפֹרֶשֶׁת לַסְּתוּמָה. וְלֹא יָדַע זֶה שֶׁפָּרַח אִם הָיָה עוֹלָה אוֹ חַטָּאת. יָמוּתוּ כָּל הָעוֹפוֹת שֶׁבַּסְּתוּמָה. שֶׁאִם נִתְעָרְבָה בָּהֶן עוֹלָה כָּל הַחַטָּאוֹת שֶׁבָּהּ פְּסוּלוֹת. וְאִם חַטָּאת נִתְעָרְבָה כָּל הָעוֹלוֹת שֶׁבָּהּ פְּסוּלוֹת לְפִיכָךְ יָמוּתוּ כֻּלָּן:

7

[The following laws apply when there were] a group of doves that were designated as sin-offerings on one side, others designated as burnt-offerings on the other side, and an unspecified group in the middle. If one of the unspecified group flew to the group on one side and another, to the other group, nothing is lost. Instead, the owner should say: "The one which flew to the sin offerings is a sin-offering. The one which flew to the burnt-offerings is a burnt-offering."19

If, after they became intermingled, one from each of the sides returned to the center, the two in the center should be consigned to death, for they are a burnt-offering and a sin-offering mixed together and those on the sides should be offered - these as sin-offerings and these as burnt-offerings - as was their original state.

If those [which returned to] the center flew to the sides, they must all be consigned to death for perhaps20 the burnt-offering became intermingled with the sin-offerings and the sin-offering became intermingled with the burnt-offerings.

ז

חַטָּאת מִכָּאן וְעוֹלָה מִכָּאן וּסְתוּמָה בָּאֶמְצַע. פָּרַח מִן הָאֶמְצַע לַצְּדָדִין אֵילָךְ אֶחָד וְאֵילָךְ אֶחָד. לֹא הִפְסִיד כְּלוּם. אֶלָּא יֹאמַר זֶה שֶׁהָלַךְ אֵצֶל הַחַטָּאוֹת חַטָּאת וְזֶה שֶׁהָלַךְ אֵצֶל הָעוֹלוֹת עוֹלָה. חָזַר אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ וּפָרַח אֶחָד מִכָּאן וְאֶחָד מִכָּאן לָאֶמְצַע. הַשְּׁנַיִם הָאֶמְצָעִיִּים יָמוּתוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן חַטָּאת וְעוֹלָה מְעֹרָבִין. וְהַצְּדָדִין אֵלּוּ יִקָּרְבוּ חַטָּאת וְאֵלּוּ יִקָּרְבוּ עוֹלָה כְּשֶׁהָיוּ. פָּרַח מִן הָאֶמְצָעִית לַצְּדָדִין כֻּלָּן יָמוּתוּ. שֶׁמָּא עוֹלָה נִתְעָרְבָה בַּחַטָּאוֹת וְחַטָּאת בָּעוֹלוֹת: