1

It is a positive commandment for a priest1 who serves [in the Temple] to sanctify his hands and feet2 and afterwards perform service,3 as [Exodus 30:19] states: "And Aaron and his sons will wash their hands and their feet from it." A priest who serves4 without having sanctified his hands and feet in the morning5is liable for death at the hand of heaven,6 as [ibid.:20] states: "They shall wash with water and not die." Their service - whether that of a High Priest or an ordinary priest - is invalid.

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְקַדֵּשׁ כֹּהֵן הָעוֹבֵד יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַעֲבֹד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ל יט) "וְרָחֲצוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת רַגְלֵיהֶם". וְכֹהֵן שֶׁעָבַד וְלֹא קִדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו שַׁחֲרִית חַיָּב מִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ל כ) "יִרְחֲצוּ מַיִם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ". וַעֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה בֵּין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בֵּין כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט:

2

Which source teaches that his service is invalid? [Ibid.:21] states: "It will be an eternal statute for him and his generations," and with regard to the Priestly garments [ibid. 25:43] also uses the expression: "An eternal statute."7 Just as [a priest] who is lacking the priestly garments invalidates his service, as we explained,8so, too, one who did not wash his hands invalidates his service.

ב

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁעֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כח מג) "חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ". וּבְבִגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה הוּא אוֹמֵר חֻקַּת עוֹלָם. מָה מְחֻסַּר בְּגָדִים מְחַלֵּל עֲבוֹדָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אַף מִי שֶׁלֹּא רָחַץ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו מְחַלֵּל עֲבוֹדָה:

3

A priest does not have to sanctify [himself] between every service [that he performs]. Instead, he consecrates [his hands and feet] once in the morning and may continue serving throughout the day and [the subsequent] night,9 provided he does not: a) depart from the Temple;10 b) sleep;11 c) urinate;12 or divert his attention [from his hands and feet]. If he does any of the above, he must sanctify his hands and feet again.

ג

אֵין הַכֹּהֵן צָרִיךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ בֵּין כָּל עֲבוֹדָה וַעֲבוֹדָה. אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת מְקַדֵּשׁ בַּבֹּקֶר וְעוֹבֵד וְהוֹלֵךְ כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ וְכָל הַלַּיְלָה. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְלֹא יִישַׁן וְלֹא יָטִיל מַיִם וְלֹא יַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ. וְאִם עָשָׂה אֶחָד מֵאַרְבַּעְתָּן צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ:

4

If a priest departed from the Temple, returned and then performed service without sanctifying [his hands and feet], his service is acceptable13 if he did not divert his attention.14 This general principle was followed in the Temple: No person would enter the Temple Courtyard to perform service15 unless he immersed [in the mikveh] even though he was ritually pure.

ד

יָצָא מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְחָזַר וְעָבַד וְלֹא קִדֵּשׁ אִם לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְזֶה הַכְּלָל הָיָה בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ אֵין אָדָם נִכְנָס לָעֲזָרָה לַעֲבוֹדָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁהוּא טוֹבֵל:

5

Anyone who defecates must immerse himself [in a mikveh].16 Anyone who urinates must sanctify his hands and feet.

[The following rules apply when] one goes outside the walls of the Temple Courtyard. If he departed [with the intent of] staying outside for an extended time, he must immerse [in a mikveh].17 If [his intent] was to return immediately, when he returns, all that is necessary is that he sanctify his hands and feet. If he did not immerse, nor sanctified his hands and feet and carried out [sacrificial] service, his service is acceptable18 since he did not divert his attention, not did he defecate or urinate. If he merely placed his hands outside the Temple Courtyard, he is not required to sanctify them again.

ה

וְכָל הַמֵּסִיךְ אֶת רַגְלָיו טָעוּן טְבִילָה. וְכָל הַמֵּטִיל מַיִם טָעוּן קִדּוּשׁ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם. יָצָא חוּץ לְחוֹמַת הָעֲזָרָה אִם לִשְׁהוֹת בַּחוּץ יָצָא כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר טָעוּן טְבִילָה וְאִם לַחְזֹר מִיָּד יָצָא] כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר טָעוּן קִדּוּשׁ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם בִּלְבַד. וְאִם לֹא טָבַל וְלֹא קִדֵּשׁ וְעָבַד הוֹאִיל וְלֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ וְלֹא הִסִּיךְ רַגְלָיו וְלֹא הֵטִיל מַיִם עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. הוֹצִיא יָדָיו חוּץ לְחוֹמַת הָעֲזָרָה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ:

6

If [only] a person's hands become ritually impure,19 he may immerse them and they are ritually pure. He need not sanctify them again.

If his body became impure because he partook of impure foods or drank impure beverages and immersed himself, even though he does not have to wait until nightfall [to become ritually pure],20 he must sanctify [his hands and feet] after immersing himself, for everyone who immerses himself must sanctify his hands and feet [before] serving. If he did not sanctify [his hands and feet], his service is not desecrated since he did not divert his attention.

ו

נִטְמְאוּ יָדָיו מַטְבִּילָן וְהֵן טְהוֹרוֹת. וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ. נִטְמָא גּוּפוֹ בַּאֲכִילַת אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִין אוֹ שְׁתִיַּת מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין וְטָבַל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ חוֹזֵר וּמְקַדֵּשׁ אַחַר טְבִילָה. שֶׁכָּל טוֹבֵל מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ עוֹבֵד. וְאִם לֹא קִדֵּשׁ הוֹאִיל וְלֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ לֹא חִלֵּל:

7

When a High Priest does not immerse himself nor sanctify his hands and feet between his changes of clothes and between his different services on Yom Kippur21and [continues] serving, his service is acceptable.22 [The rationale is that] since those immersions and sanctifications are not applicable equally to Aaron and his sons,23 as [Exodus 30:19] states: "And Aaron and his sons will wash from it." Only an obligation that is equally applicable to all the priests is an indispensable obligation, i.e., the first sanctification of one's hands.

ז

כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁלֹּא טָבַל וְלֹא קִדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו בֵּין בְּגָדִים לִבְגָדִים וּבֵין עֲבוֹדָה לַעֲבוֹדָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְעָבַד עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. הוֹאִיל וְאוֹתָן הַטְּבִילוֹת וְהַקִּדּוּשִׁין אֵינָן שָׁוִים בְּאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו וְנֶאֱמַר (שמות ל יט) "וְרָחֲצוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מִמֶּנּוּ" דָּבָר הַשָּׁוֶה בְּכָל הַכֹּהֲנִים מְעַכֵּב שֶׁהוּא קִדּוּשׁ רִאשׁוֹן:

8

If a person sanctified his hands on one day, he must sanctify them again on the following day even though he did not sleep at all that night, for the hands are disqualified because of the passage of the night. [Even] if he sanctified his hands at night and offered fats on [the altar's pyre] the entire night,24 he must go back and sanctify [his hands] on the next day25 for that day's service.

ח

קִדֵּשׁ יָדָיו הַיּוֹם צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ לְמָחָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָשַׁן כָּל הַלַּיְלָה. שֶׁהַיָּדַיִם נִפְסָלוֹת בְּלִינָה. קִדֵּשׁ בַּלַּיְלָה וְהִקְטִיר הַחֲלָבִים כָּל הַלַּיְלָה צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ בַּיּוֹם לַעֲבוֹדַת הַיּוֹם:

9

If a priest sanctified his hands and his feet for the removal of the altar's ashes,26 even though he sanctifies them before sunrise,27 he does not have to sanctify them again after daybreak, because he sanctified them at the beginning of the day's service.

ט

קִדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו לִתְרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְקַדֵּשׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּעֲלֶה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ אַחַר שֶׁהֵאִיר הַיּוֹם שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּתְחִלַּת עֲבוֹדָה קִדֵּשׁ:

10

It is a mitzvah to sanctify [one's hands and feet] from the basin.28 If, however, one sanctifies them from a sacred utensil, the sanctification is effective. Sanctification may not, however, be performed with an ordinary utensil.29 If one sanctified [his hands and feet] with a sacred utensil outside the Temple30 or did so with an ordinary utensil within the Temple and then performed service, his service is disqualified. One does not sanctify his hands and feet inside the basin or a sacred utensil, but from them, as [implied by the verse]: "Aaron and his son's will wash from it;" ["from it"] and not "inside of it." If one sanctified [his hands and feet] in such a utensil and performed service, he did not desecrate it.

י

מִצְוָה לְקַדֵּשׁ מִמֵּי הַכִּיּוֹר וְאִם קִדֵּשׁ מֵאֶחָד מִכְּלֵי הַשָּׁרֵת הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. אֲבָל כְּלֵי הַחל אֵינָם מְקַדְּשִׁין. קִדֵּשׁ בִּכְלִי שָׁרֵת בַּחוּץ אוֹ בִּכְלִי חֹל בִּפְנִים וְעָבַד עֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. וְאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין בְּתוֹךְ הַכִּיּוֹר אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלֵי הַשָּׁרֵת אֶלָּא מֵהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ל יט) "וְרָחֲצוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מִמֶּנּוּ" וְלֹא בְּתוֹכוֹ. וְאִם קִדֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ וְעָבַד לֹא חִלֵּל:

11

If one immerses his hands and feet in the waters of a mikveh31 or even a spring, this is not considered as sanctification. One must wash them from a utensil. One may sanctify them using any sacred utensil whether or not it contains a revi'it.32

יא

הִטְבִּיל יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַעְיָן אֵין זֶה קִדּוּשׁ כְּלָל עַד שֶׁיִּרְחַץ בִּכְלִי. וּבְכָל כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְקַדְּשִׁין בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן רְבִיעִית בֵּין שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן רְבִיעִית:

12

All water is acceptable for the sanctification, whether water from a spring or water from a mikveh, provided its appearance has not changed and it is [thus] acceptable for immersion.33 Mud that can be poured, from which a cow would drink,34 can be used to fill the measure of the basin. This is the general rule: Any water that can be used to make up the measure of a mikveh can be used to make up the measure of the basin.35

יב

כָּל הַמֵּימוֹת כְּשֵׁרִים לְקִדּוּשׁ בֵּין מַיִם חַיִּים בֵּין מֵי מִקְוֶה. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתַּנֶּה מַרְאֵיהֶן. אֶלָּא יִהְיוּ כַּמַּיִם הַכְּשֵׁרִים לִטְבִילָה. טִיט הַנָּרוֹק שֶׁהַפָּרָה שׁוֹחָה וְשׁוֹתָה מִמֶּנּוּ מַשְׁלִים לְמֵי כִּיּוֹר. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל הַמַּשְׁלִים לְמֵי מִקְוֶה מַשְׁלִים לְמֵי כִּיּוֹר:

13

How much water must there be in the basin? At least enough for four priests to sanctify [their hands and feet] from it, as [indicated by Exodus 30:19 which] mentions "Aaron and his sons." Together with him, there were Elazar, Itamar, and Pinchas, a total of four.36

יג

כַּמָּה מַיִם צְרִיכִין לִהְיוֹת בַּכִּיּוֹר אֵין פָּחוֹת מִכְּדֵי לְקַדֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אַרְבָּעָה כֹּהֲנִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ל יט) "אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו" וְהָיוּ אֶלְעָזָר וְאִיתָמָר וּפִינְחָס עִמָּהֶם הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעָה:

14

The water in the basin is disqualified if left [in it] overnight, as we explained.37What would be done [to prevent the water from being disqualified]? The basin would be submerged in a mikveh38 or a spring and on the following day, it would be raised or it would be filled each day in the morning.

יד

מֵי כִּיּוֹר נִפְסָלִין בְּלִינָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין. מְשַׁקְּעִים אוֹתוֹ בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה אוֹ בְּמַעְיָן וּלְמָחָר מַעֲלִין אוֹתוֹ אוֹ מְמַלְּאִין אוֹתוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם בַּבֹּקֶר:

15

The "sea" fashioned by Solomon39 had the status of a mikveh,40 because a channel of water from the Spring of Aitem41 would pass through it.42 Therefore,43 its waters were not disqualified with the passage of night like the water of the basin and [indeed,] the basin was filled from it.

טו

הַיָּם שֶׁעָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה כְּמִקְוֶה הָיָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאַמָּה שֶׁל מַיִם הָיְתָה עוֹבֶרֶת בְּתוֹכוֹ מֵעֵין עֵיטָם. לְפִיכָךְ לֹא הָיוּ מֵימָיו נִפְסָלִין בְּלִינָה כְּמֵי הַכִּיּוֹר וּמִמֶּנּוּ הָיוּ מְמַלְּאִין הַכִּיּוֹר:

16

How is the mitzvah of sanctification performed? [A priest would] put his right hand on his right foot and his left hand on his left foot and bend over and sanctify them.44 All the substances that are considered as intervening with regard to immersion,45 are intervening with regard to the sanctification of hands.

One may not sanctify his hands while sitting, because [the sanctification] is comparable to the Temple service and the Temple service may be performed only when standing, as [Deuteronomy 18:5] states: "To stand and to serve."46

טז

כֵּיצַד מִצְוַת קִדּוּשׁ. מַנִּיחַ יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְיָדוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית וְשׁוֹחֶה וּמְקַדֵּשׁ. וְכָל הַחוֹצֵץ בִּטְבִילָה חוֹצֵץ בְּקִדּוּשׁ יָדַיִם. וְאֵינוֹ מְקַדֵּשׁ כְּשֶׁהוּא יוֹשֵׁב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כַּעֲבוֹדָה. וְאֵין עֲבוֹדָה אֶלָּא מְעֻמָּד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח ה) "לַעֲמֹד לְשָׁרֵת":

17

Anyone who performs service while he is seated, desecrates his service and disqualifies it. He does not receive lashes, because the warning against doing so stems from a positive commandment.47

Similarly, anyone involved with one of the Temple services must be standing on the floor.48 If there was anything intervening between himself and the ground,49 e.g., he was standing on a utensil, an animal, or a colleague's foot, [his service] is invalid. Similarly, if there was anything intervening between his hand and the utensil with which he was performing the service, it is invalid.50

יז

וְכָל הָעוֹבֵד וְהוּא יוֹשֵׁב חִלֵּל וַעֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאַזְהָרָה שֶׁלּוֹ מִכְּלָל עֲשֵׂה הִיא. וְכֵן כָּל הָעוֹסֵק בַּעֲבוֹדָה מֵעֲבוֹדַת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עוֹמֵד עַל הָרִצְפָּה. וְאִם הָיָה דָּבָר חוֹצֵץ בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַקַּרְקַע כְּגוֹן שֶׁעָמַד עַל גַּבֵּי כֵּלִים אוֹ בְּהֵמָה אוֹ עַל רַגְלֵי חֲבֵרוֹ פָּסַל. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה דָּבָר חוֹצֵץ בֵּין יָדוֹ וּבֵין הַכְּלִי שֶׁעוֹבֵד בּוֹ פָּסַל:

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The Temple service may be performed only with one's right hand.51 If one performed service with his left hand, it is invalid. He is not liable for lashes.52

[The following laws apply when] one of [a priest's] feet are on a utensil and one is on the floor, one is on a stone [that was not embedded in the floor] and one was on the floor. We evaluate [the situation]. Whenever he would be able to stand on his one foot if the utensil or the stone were taken away, his service is acceptable.53 If not, his service is invalid.54

If he received [blood from a sacrifice] with his right hand and his left hand is supporting it, his service is acceptable, because we do not pay attention to [something that is] a [mere] support.55

יח

וְאֵין עֲבוֹדָה אֶלָּא בְּיָמִין. וְאִם עָבַד בִּשְׂמֹאל פְּסוּלָה וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. רַגְלוֹ אַחַת עַל הַכֶּלִי וְרַגְלוֹ אַחַת עַל הָרִצְפָּה [רַגְלוֹ אַחַת עַל הָאֶבֶן וְרַגְלוֹ אַחַת עַל הָרִצְפָּה] רוֹאִין כּל שֶׁאִלּוּ יִנָּטֵל הַכְּלִי אוֹ הָאֶבֶן יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד עַל רַגְלוֹ אַחַת עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְאִם לָאו עֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. קִבֵּל בְּיָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל מְסַיַּעְתּוֹ עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. שֶׁהַמְסַיֵּעַ אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין עָלָיו:

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When one of the stones of the Temple Courtyard has become loosened, one should not stand upon it during one's Temple service until it is affixed in the ground.56 If he performed service, his service is acceptable,57 since it is located in its place.

יט

נִתְנַדְּדָה אֶבֶן מֵאַבְנֵי הָעֲזָרָה לֹא יַעֲמֹד עָלֶיהָ בִּשְׁעַת עֲבוֹדָה עַד שֶׁתְּחֻבַּר בָּאָרֶץ. וְאִם עָבַד עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה הוֹאִיל וּבִמְקוֹמָהּ עוֹמֶדֶת: