Chapter 4

1And he made the copper altar twenty cubits long, twenty cubits wide, and ten cubits high.   אוַיַּ֨עַשׂ מִזְבַּ֣ח נְחֹ֔שֶׁת עֶשְׂרִ֚ים אַמָּה֙ אָרְכּ֔וֹ וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים אַמָּ֖ה רָחְבּ֑וֹ וְעֶ֥שֶׂר אַמּ֖וֹת קוֹמָתֽוֹ:
2And he made the molten sea, ten cubits from brim to brim; it was round all about, and the height thereof was five cubits, and a line of thirty cubits did encompass it round about.   בוַיַּ֥עַשׂ אֶת־הַיָּ֖ם מוּצָ֑ק עֶ֣שֶׂר בָּֽ֠אַמָּה מִשְּׂפָת֨וֹ אֶל־שְׂפָת֜וֹ עָג֣וֹל| סָבִ֗יב וְחָמֵ֚שׁ בָּֽאַמָּה֙ קֽוֹמָת֔וֹ וְקָו֙ שְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים בָּֽאַמָּ֔ה יָסֹ֥ב אֹת֖וֹ סָבִֽיב:
ten cubits from brim to brim: Ten by ten in its center, circular around.  
and a line of thirty cubits did encompass it round about: Whatever has a circumference of three handbreadths has a diameter of one handbreadth.  
and the height thereof was five cubits: its depth.  
3And the likeness of oxen was beneath it, round about, encompassing it; ten cubits encompassing the sea round about; the oxen were cast in two rows, when it was cast.   גוּדְמ֣וּת בְּקָרִים֩ תַּ֨חַת ל֜וֹ סָבִ֚יב| סָבִיב֙ סֽוֹבְבִ֣ים אֹת֔וֹ עֶשֶׂר בָּֽאַמָּ֔ה מַקִּיפִ֥ים אֶת־הַיָּ֖ם סָבִ֑יב שְׁנַ֚יִם טוּרִים֙ הַבָּקָ֔ר יְצוּקִ֖ים בְּמֻֽצַקְתּֽוֹ:
And the likeness of oxen was beneath it: And he cast the forms of the likeness of oxen from it to stand upon, and they were fastened to it, as is stated at the end of the verse: “The oxen were cast when it was cast.”  
round about, encompassing it; ten cubits encompassing the sea: It is not elucidated here what the thing that encompassed them was, but in I Kings (7:24) it is written: “And under the brim were ornamental knobs encompassing it round about, for ten cubits, encompassing the sea round about.” Knobs are like those made for cups, round pomels (apple-shaped) knobs, for the sake of beauty, and beneath its brim and round about, they stood in the three lowest cubits, which were square, and the two round upper ones. And it is impossible to contain [that which Scripture says] (ibid. verse 26): “it contained two thousand bath,” which are the equivalent of one hundred fifty purifying pools, except in this matter, as is delineated in Erubin (13a). And it is impossible to say that the upper ones were square and the lower ones were round, because that which is written: “it was round all about,” refers to its brim, and that which Scripture states about these knobs, “ten cubits” on each side, but where it was round, it is impossible to say, “ten cubits around.”  
two rows: the knobs were cast when it was cast; all were cast together, not that he attached the knobs after its casting, with nails or with glue, called soldure in Old French, soldering.  
4It stood on twelve oxen, three facing northward, three facing westward, three facing southward, and three facing eastward, and the sea was above them, and all their hind parts were inward.   דעוֹמֵ֞ד עַל־שְׁנֵ֧ים עָשָׂ֣ר בָּקָ֗ר שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה פֹנִ֣ים| צָפ֡וֹנָה וּשְׁלוֹשָׁה֩ פֹנִ֨ים יָ֜מָּה וּשְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה פֹנִ֣ים נֶ֗גְבָּה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פֹּנִ֣ים מִזְרָ֔חָה וְהַיָּ֥ם עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם מִלְמָ֑עְלָה וְכָל־אֲחֹֽרֵיהֶ֖ם בָּֽיְתָה:
and all their hind parts were inward: The hind parts of all these oxen were facing inward (to) their bottom; those in the north their hind parts were facing opposite those in the south, and those in the east opposite those in the west.  
5And its thickness was a handbreadth, and its brim was like the work of the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies; it contained baths; it contained three thousand.   הוְעָבְי֣וֹ טֶ֔פַח וּשְׂפָתוֹ֙ כְּמַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה שְׂפַת־כּ֔וֹס פֶּ֖רַח שֽׁוֹשַׁנָּ֑ה מַֽחֲזִ֣יק בַּתִּ֔ים שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֖ים יָכִֽיל:
And its thickness was a handbreadth: [i.e.] its bottom and its walls, but at its mouth it was thin, spread out and flattened.  
like the work of the brim of a cup: used for drinking, upon which is depicted a lily flower.  
it contained three thousand: It contained this amount, but in I Kings (7:26) it is written: “It contained two thousand baths.” The heaped measure was a third, for a bath is three seah, as is said: (Ezek. 45:11): “The ephah and the bath shall have one volume.” Thus you have six thousand seah. This equals a hundred and fifty purifying pools for four thousand seah equal a hundred mikvaoth. And we find also for the remaining two thousand seah fifty mikvaoth, and even if you divide the vessel according to the measure that the Rabbis computed, namely a cubit by a cubit by the height of three cubits for a mikvah, you will find the same: for the height of three cubits, which was square, and which was ten by ten from its brim to its brim, are a hundred mikvaoth, and for the height of two cubits, where it was round, ten by ten from its brim to its brim around equal fifty mikvaoth, because a square is a fourth more than a circle.  
6And he made ten lavers, and he placed five on the right and five on the left, to wash with them; the performance of the burnt offering they would rinse with them, and the sea was for the priests to wash therein.   ווַיַּ֣עַשׂ כִּיּוֹרִים֘ עֲשָׂרָה֒ וַ֠יִּתֵּן חֲמִשָּׁ֨ה מִיָּמִ֜ין וַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֚ה מִשְּׂמֹאול֙ לְרָחְצָ֣ה בָהֶ֔ם אֶת־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה הָֽעוֹלָ֖ה יָדִ֣יחוּ בָ֑ם וְהַיָּ֕ם לְרָחְצָ֥ה לַכֹּֽהֲנִ֖ים בּֽוֹ:
And he made ten lavers: in addition to Moses’.  
and he placed five on the right: of Moses’ laver.  
and five on the left to wash with them: This is the sanctification of the hands and feet.  
the performance of the burnt offering they would rinse with them: With the water of the laver they would rinse the innards of the burnt offering, and only the burnt offering, but not the peace offering, because it was eaten by the owners and throughout the city. The lavers were for sanctification and the sea for immersion.  
7And he made the ten golden candelabra according to their regulations, and he placed five in the Heichal, five from the right and five from the left.   זוַ֠יַּעַשׂ אֶת־מְנֹר֧וֹת הַזָּהָ֛ב עֶ֖שֶׂר כְּמִשְׁפָּטָ֑ם וַיִּתֵּן֙ בַּֽהֵיכָ֔ל חָמֵ֥שׁ מִיָּמִ֖ין וְחָמֵ֥שׁ מִשְּׂמֹֽאול:
And he made the ten golden candelabra according to their regulations: Why is it stated in connection with the candelabra, “according to their regulations”? Because he informs us why he made ten candelabra, and everything he deduced from the Torah: the flowers, the knobs, the almond-shaped cups enumerated in the chapter were seventy, meaning that for each of the ten candelabra were seven lamps. (This is how my mother’s brother, my uncle, Rabbi Klonimos the son of Rabbi Judah explained it, and it is a midrash), and its seven lamps corresponded to the seven planets: Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars.  
and placed them in the Heichal, five from the right: of Moses’ candelabrum.  
and five from the left: but they were all in the south.  
8And he made ten tables and placed them in the Heichal, five from the right and five from the left, and he made a hundred golden basins.   חוַיַּ֣עַשׂ שֻׁלְחָנוֹת֘ עֲשָׂרָה֒ וַיַּנַּח֙ בַּֽהֵיכָ֔ל חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה מִיָּמִ֖ין וַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֣ה מִשְּׂמֹ֑אול וַיַּ֛עַשׂ מִזְרְקֵ֥י זָהָ֖ב מֵאָֽה:
from the left: of the table in the north.  
and he made a hundred golden basins: with which to sprinkle the blood on the altar.  
9And he made the priests' court and the large court, and doors for the forecourt, and he overlaid their doors with copper.   טוַיַּ֙עַשׂ֙ חֲצַ֣ר הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֔ים וְהָֽעֲזָרָ֖ה הַגְּדוֹלָ֑ה וּדְלָת֧וֹת לַֽעֲזָרָ֛ה וְדַלְתֽוֹתֵיהֶ֖ם צִפָּ֥ה נְחֹֽשֶׁת:
And he made the priests’ court: This is known as the הַכֹּהֲנִים ְעֶזרַת.  
and the large court: This is the court of the Israelites.  
10And he placed the sea from the right side eastward opposite the south.   יוְאֶת־הַיָּ֗ם נָתַ֞ן מִכֶּ֧תֶף הַיְמָנִ֛ית קֵ֖דְמָה מִמּ֥וּל נֶֽגְבָּה:
from the right side eastward, opposite the south: He distanced it from the east, from opposite the entrance to the south of the forecourt, because it is neither respectful nor fitting that they should immerse themselves opposite the entrance of the vestibule.  
11And Huram made the pots, the shovels, and the basins, and Huram finished doing the work that he did for King Solomon in the House of God.   יאוַיַּ֣עַשׂ חוּרָ֔ם אֶת־הַ֨סִּיר֔וֹת וְאֶת־הַיָּעִ֖ים וְאֶת־הַמִּזְרָק֑וֹת וַיְכַ֣ל חוּרָ֗ם (כתיב חיּרָ֗ם) לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־הַמְּלָאכָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֛ה לַמֶּ֥לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה בְּבֵ֥ית הָֽאֱלֹהִֽים:
And Huram made the pots: Copper pots, made to gather the ashes to put them into the pots.  
12Two pillars and the two bowls and chapiters atop the pillars, and the networks were two to cover the two bowls of the chapiters, which were atop the pillars.   יבעַמּוּדִ֣ים שְׁנַ֔יִם וְהַגֻּלּ֧וֹת וְהַכֹּֽתָר֛וֹת עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הָֽעַמּוּדִ֖ים שְׁתָּ֑יִם וְהַשְּׂבָכ֣וֹת שְׁתַּ֔יִם לְכַסּ֗וֹת אֶת־שְׁתֵּי֙ גֻּלּ֣וֹת הַכֹּֽתָר֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הָֽעַמּוּדִֽים:
and the two bowls and chapiters atop the pillars: for the two pillars.  
and the networks were two: These are the chains mentioned above (3:16), and the proof that it is so is that neither here nor in Kings does he mention the chains anywhere.  
to cover the two bowls of the chapiters: to cover the hollow of the chapiters with chains, and those branches were like palm branches, as I explained (ad loc.).  
13And the four hundred pomegranates for the two networks, two rows of pomegranates to one network, to cover the two bowls of the chapiters, which were before the pillars.   יגוְאֶת־הָֽרִמּוֹנִ֛ים אַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת לִשְׁתֵּ֣י הַשְּׂבָכ֑וֹת שְׁנַ֨יִם טוּרִ֚ים רִמּוֹנִים֙ לַשְּׂבָכָ֣ה הָֽאֶחָ֔ת לְכַסּ֗וֹת אֶת־שְׁתֵּי֙ גֻּלּ֣וֹת הַכֹּֽתָר֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽעַמּוּדִֽים:
And the four hundred pomegranates: Above (ad loc.), he states: “and he made a hundred pomegranates.” How so? We must explain it in this manner: He surely made four hundred pomegranates, as is stated here, and where it is stated [that he made] a hundred, it means a hundred for each row, for there were four rows, as it is stated: “two rows of pomegranates to one network,” and so two rows of pomegranates to the other network, totaling four rows, and the pomegranates were strung within the networks, which were set and inserted to cover the two bowls of the chapiters.  
14And he made the bases, and he made the lavers on the bases.   ידוְאֶת־הַמְּכֹנ֖וֹת עָשָׂ֑ה וְאֶת־הַכִּיֹּר֥וֹת עָשָׂ֖ה עַל־הַמְּכֹנֽוֹת:
And he made the bases: But in I Kings (7:27), it is written: “And he made the ten bases of copper.” The bases are the bases of the laver, and there their work is explained.  
15The one sea, and the twelve oxen under it.   טואֶת־הַיָּ֖ם אֶחָ֑ד וְאֶת־הַבָּקָ֥ר שְׁנֵֽים־עָשָׂ֖ר תַּחְתָּֽיו:
16And the pots, and the shovels, and the forks and all their vessels, his father Huram made for King Solomon for the House of the Lord, of burnished copper.   טזוְאֶת־הַ֠סִּירוֹת וְאֶת־הַיָּעִ֚ים וְאֶת־הַמִּזְלָגוֹת֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵיהֶ֔ם עָשָׂ֞ה חוּרָ֥ם אָבִ֛יו לַמֶּ֥לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה לְבֵ֣ית יְהֹוָ֑ה נְחֹ֖שֶׁת מָרֽוּק:
And the pots, and the shovels, and the forks: Although we already mentioned it above, he repeats it again, to let us know that they were copper, and also to let us know about the forks, which were not mentioned above.  
burnished: Heb. מָרוּק, similar to (Jer. 46:4): “polish (מִרְקוּ) the spears,” ; (Lev. 6:21): “it shall be scoured (וּמרַק) and rinsed with water.” In I Kings (7:45), it is written מְמרָט, like (Lev. 13:40): “whose head will become bald (יִמָּרֵט) ,” and the Targum renders: fine copper.  
17In the plain of the Jordan did Solomon cast them in the thickness of the ground, between Succoth and Zeredathah.   יזבְּכִכַּ֚ר הַיַּרְדֵּן֙ יְצָקָ֣ם הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ בַּֽעֲבֵ֖י הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה בֵּ֥ין סֻכּ֖וֹת וּבֵ֥ין צְרֵדָֽתָה:
in the thickness of the ground: The Targum renders: clay, ardille in Old French.  
between Succoth and Zeredathah: In I Kings (7: 46) it says Zarethan. Zeredathah was the place of Jeroboam, (11:26): “And Jeroboam the son of Nebat, an Ephraimite of Zeredah, whose mother’s name was Zeruah, a widow.” Since a corpse conveys ritual contamination in a tent, and a mezora likewise, and so it is with an idol, as we learned at the end of the third chapter of Abodah Zarah (Mishnah 8). “A widow” means that he widowed [isolated] Israel from its God.“From Zeredah” means that he narrowed the Torah and did not broaden it; i.e., מִן הַצְרֵדָתָה, means הֵצַר דַּת אֱלֹהֵינוּ he narrowed the law of our God. My uncle of blessed memory explained it to me in this manner.  
18And Solomon made all these vessels of great abundance, for the weight of the copper was not found out.   יחוַיַּ֧עַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹ֛ה כָּל־הַכֵּלִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה לָרֹ֣ב מְאֹ֑ד כִּ֛י לֹ֥א נֶחְקַ֖ר מִשְׁקַ֥ל הַנְּחֹֽשֶׁת:
19And Solomon made all these vessels, which were in the House of God; the golden altar, the tables, and the showbread upon them.   יטוַיַּ֣עַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר בֵּ֣ית הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים וְאֵת֙ מִזְבַּ֣ח הַזָּהָ֔ב וְאֶת־הַ֨שֻּׁלְחָנ֔וֹת וַֽעֲלֵיהֶ֖ם לֶ֥חֶם הַפָּנִֽים:
20And the candelabra and their lamps to kindle them as is required, before the Debir, of refined gold.   כוְאֶת־הַמְּנֹר֞וֹת וְנֵרֹֽתֵיהֶ֗ם לְבַֽעֲרָ֧ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֛ט לִפְנֵ֥י הַדְּבִ֖יר זָהָ֥ב סָגֽוּר:
And the candelabra and their lamps: To remove [the false idea] from the hearts of those who explain that the lamps were made from the body of the candelabrum and attached to it, because it is written: “and the candelabra and their lamps.” Since Scripture mentions the lamps separately and not the remaining work of the candelabrum separately, namely the cups and the flowers, we deduce that the lamps were not attached, and since they were not attached to it, they appeared like a different work, and it was necessary to mention the lamps, but the other works, which were attached to it, he does not mention because they are called by the name of the candelabrum, and [the reason] he made ten candelabra, ten tables, ten lavers, the cherubim, and all that he made is explained in the Baraitha of Rabbi Phinehas the son of Jair (Midrash Tadshe , ch. 2).  
21And the flower and the lamps and the tongs were gold, it was fine gold.   כאוְהַפֶּ֧רַח וְהַנֵּר֛וֹת וְהַמֶּלְקָחַ֖יִם זָהָ֑ב ה֖וּא מִכְל֥וֹת זָהָֽב:
And the flower: Our Rabbis explained that this corresponds to the flower that Moses added in the section, “Behaalothecha” : (Num. 8:4) “to its rootstock, to its flower, etc.,” which is not mentioned in “Terumah.”  
and the tongs were gold: with which they would lift up the wick from the lamp containing oil.  
it was fine gold: Refined and purified gold, fin in Old French, refined, pure, and in Menahoth (29a) it is explained: out of all the gold that Solomon had, out of the abundance of gold that entered the candelabrum to refine it and purify it and to fulfill the commandment of making a candelabrum of pure gold.  
22And the musical instruments, and the basins, and the spoons, and the censers of refined gold, and the entrance to the House, its inner doors to the Holy of Holies, and the doors of the House to the Heichal were gold.   כבוְהַֽמְזַמְּר֧וֹת וְהַמִּזְרָק֛וֹת וְהַכַּפּ֥וֹת וְהַמַּחְתּ֖וֹת זָהָ֣ב סָג֑וּר וּפֶ֣תַח הַ֠בַּיִת דַּלְתוֹתָ֨יו הַפְּנִֽימִיּ֜וֹת לְקֹ֣דֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁ֗ים וְדַלְתֵ֥י הַבַּ֛יִת לַהֵיכָ֖ל זָהָֽב:
And the musical instruments: Heb. וְהַמְזַמְּרוֹת.  
and the basins: with which to sprinkle the blood on the altar.  
and the spoons: for th e spoons of frankincense (Lev. 24:7).  
and the censers: with which to gather up the part of the ashes that is separated [from the rest and cast beside the altar, as in Lev. 6:31, (and the rest of the ashes) to pick up from the altar, (ibid. 16:12): “And he shall take a full censer, etc.”