Chapter 46

1That the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning the nations.   אאֲשֶׁ֨ר הָיָ֧ה דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־יִרְמְיָ֥הוּ הַנָּבִ֖יא עַל־הַגּוֹיִֽם:
2Concerning Egypt, concerning the army of Pharaoh-neco, the king of Egypt which was on the Euphrates in Carchemish, whom Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon smote in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah the king of Judah.   בלְמִצְרַ֗יִם עַל־חֵ֨יל פַּרְעֹ֚ה נְכוֹ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁר־הָיָ֥ה עַל־נְהַר־פְּרָ֖ת בְּכַרְכְּמִ֑שׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִכָּ֗ה נְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ בָּבֶ֔ל בִּשְׁנַת֙ הָֽרְבִיעִ֔ית לִיהֽוֹיָקִ֥ים בֶּן־יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֖הוּ מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה:
3Make ready shield and buckler and draw near to battle.   געִרְכ֚וּ מָגֵן֙ וְצִנָּ֔ה וּגְשׁ֖וּ לַמִּלְחָמָֽה:
shield: Heb. מגן. It is made of leather, and it is boiled, and when he goes forth to battle, he anoints it with oil.  
and buckler: Heb. וצנה, [made] of wood, in the likeness of our shields.  
4Harness the steeds, and mount, you riders, and stand with helmets, polish the spears, don the coats of mail.   דאִסְר֣וּ הַסּוּסִ֗ים וַֽעֲלוּ֙ הַפָּ֣רָשִׁ֔ים וְהִֽתְיַצְּב֖וּ בְּכֽוֹבָעִ֑ים מִרְקוּ֙ הָֽרְמָחִ֔ים לִבְשׁ֖וּ הַסִּרְיֹנוֹֽת:
polish the spears: Heb. מרקו. Cf.“It shall be scoured (וּמֹרַק) and rinsed” (Lev. 6:21), (forbir in O.F., to furbish).  
5Why do I see them breaking retreating, and their heroes are crushed and have fled and were not freed? There is terror all around, says the Lord.   המַדּ֣וּעַ רָאִ֗יתִי הֵ֣מָּה חַתִּים֘ נְסוֹגִ֣ים אָחוֹר֒ וְגִבּֽוֹרֵיהֶ֣ם יֻכַּ֔תּוּ וּמָנ֥וֹס נָ֖סוּ וְלֹ֣א הִפְנ֑וּ מָג֥וֹר מִסָּבִ֖יב נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
them breaking: The Egyptians.  
and were not freed?: [They were] no longer freed to stand in battle; they had no free time.  
6The swift shall not flee, neither shall the mighty man escape; northward by the Euphrates River, they stumbled and fell.   ואַל־יָנ֣וּס הַקַּ֔ל וְאַל־יִמָּלֵ֖ט הַגִּבּ֑וֹר צָפ֙וֹנָה֙ עַל־יַ֣ד נְהַר־פְּרָ֔ת כָּֽשְׁל֖וּ וְנָפָֽלוּ:
7Who is this that would come up like the Nile; like the rivers its waters would toss themselves?   זמִי־זֶ֖ה כַּיְאֹ֣ר יַֽעֲלֶ֑ה כַּנְּהָר֕וֹת יִתְגָּֽעֲשׁ֖וּ מֵימָֽיו:
Who… would come up like the Nile: Who was wont to bring up troops around him like the waters of a river, to flood its environs.  
8Egypt would come up like the Nile, and like the rivers, the water would toss itself, and he said, "I will go up, I will cover the land, I will destroy the city and those who dwell therein.   חמִצְרַ֙יִם֙ כַּיְאֹ֣ר יַֽעֲלֶ֔ה וְכַנְּהָר֖וֹת יִתְגֹּ֣עֲשׁוּ מָ֑יִם וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אַֽעֲלֶה֙ אֲכַסֶּה־אֶ֔רֶץ אֹבִ֥ידָה עִ֖יר וְיֹ֥שְׁבֵי בָֽהּ:
would come up like the Nile: Was accustomed to coming up.  
I will destroy: Heb. אֹבִידָה, like אֲאַבֵּד.  
9Ascend, you horses, and rush madly you chariots, and let the mighty men come forth, Cush and Put, the shield bearers, and the Ludim who grasp and bend the bow.   טעֲל֚וּ הַסּוּסִים֙ וְהִתְהֹֽלְל֣וּ הָרֶ֔כֶב וְיֵֽצְא֖וּ הַגִּבּוֹרִ֑ים כּ֚וּשׁ וּפוּט֙ תֹּֽפְשֵׂ֣י מָגֵ֔ן וְלוּדִ֕ים תֹּֽפְשֵׂ֖י דֹּ֥רְכֵי קָֽשֶׁת:
and rush madly: Heb. והתהללו, an expression of folly.  
10And that day shall be for the Lord God of Hosts a day of vengeance, to avenge Himself against His adversaries, and the sword shall consume and shall be sated, and its thirst shall be quenched by their blood, for the Lord God of Hosts shall have a massacre in the north land by the Euphrates River.   יוְֽהַיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא לַֽאדֹנָ֧י יֱהֹוִ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת י֚וֹם נְקָמָה֙ לְהִנָּקֵ֣ם מִצָּרָ֔יו וְאָכְלָ֥ה חֶ֙רֶב֙ וְשָׂ֣בְעָ֔ה וְרָֽוְתָ֖ה מִדָּמָ֑ם כִּ֣י זֶ֠בַח לַאדֹנָ֨י יֱהֹוִ֧ה צְבָא֛וֹת בְּאֶ֥רֶץ צָפ֖וֹן אֶל־נְהַר־פְּרָֽת:
and its thirst shall be quenched: Heb. ורותה, an expression of satiety. [Another interpretation: It] is an expression of drunkenness; cf. שֵּׁכַר, strong drink, which we translate מְרַוֵי.  
in the north land: For Pharaoh marched on Nebuchadnezzar in Carchemish, and there he fell and his mighty men were slain, and he fled from the battle.  
11Go up to Gilead and take balm, O virgin daughter of Egypt; in vain have you increased medicines, you have no cure.   יאעֲלִ֚י גִלְעָד֙ וּקְחִ֣י צֳרִ֔י בְּתוּלַ֖ת בַּת־מִצְרָ֑יִם לַשָּׁוְא֙ הִרְבֵּ֣ית (כתיב הִרְבֵּ֣יתי) רְפֻא֔וֹת תְּעָלָ֖ה אֵ֥ין לָֽךְ:
12Nations have heard your disgrace, and your cry has filled the earth, for a mighty man has stumbled upon a mighty man; together they have both fallen."   יבשָֽׁמְע֚וּ גוֹיִם֙ קְלוֹנֵ֔ךְ וְצִוְחָתֵ֖ךְ מָֽלְאָ֣ה הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּֽי־גִבּ֚וֹר בְּגִבּוֹר֙ כָּשָׁ֔לוּ יַחְדָּ֖יו נָפְל֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶֽם:
a mighty man has stumbled upon a mighty man: When they were fleeing they would stumble over each other.  
13The word that the Lord spoke to Jeremiah the prophet, concerning the coming of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon to smite the land of Egypt.   יגהַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־יִרְמְיָ֖הוּ הַנָּבִ֑יא לָב֗וֹא נְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ בָּבֶ֔ל לְהַכּ֖וֹת אֶת־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
concerning the coming of Nebuchadnezzar: This was a second blow, [viz.] that Nebuchadnezzar laid Egypt waste in the twenty-seventh year of his reign (Ezek. 29:17), as we learned in Seder Olam (ch. 26).  
14Proclaim it in Egypt and let it be heard in Migdol, and let it be heard in Noph and in Tahpanhes, say, "Stand fast and prepare yourself, for the sword has devoured round about you."   ידהַגִּ֚ידוּ בְמִצְרַ֙יִם֙ וְהַשְׁמִ֣יעוּ בְמִגְדּ֔וֹל וְהַשְׁמִ֥יעוּ בְנֹ֖ף וּבְתַחְפַּנְחֵ֑ס אִמְר֗וּ הִתְיַצֵּב֙ וְהָכֵ֣ן לָ֔ךְ כִּֽי־אָֽכְלָ֥ה חֶ֖רֶב סְבִיבֶֽיךָ:
“Stand fast and prepare yourself”: for the war. והכן means “and prepare.”  
15Why have your mighty men been swept away? None of them stood, for the Lord pushed him down.   טומַדּ֖וּעַ נִסְחַ֣ף אַבִּירֶ֑יךָ לֹ֣א עָמַ֔ד כִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה הֲדָפֽוֹ:
been swept away?: Heb. נסחף. Your mighty men have been swept away and have slid. Cf.“sweeping (סֹחֵף) rain” (Prov. 28:3);“His field has been inundated (נסתחפה)” (Kethuboth 1:6). Menahem (Machbereth p. 126) classified it as an expression of complete destruction, and so did he classify סחף מטר. Dunash, however, interprets מטר סחף like מטר סועף, cutting rain. Cf.“Lops off (מְסָעֵף) the branches with a saw” (Isa. 10:33).  
16He made many stumbling blocks, yea, they joined one another, and they said, "Arise, and let us return to our own people and to the land of our birth, before the oppressing sword."   טזהִרְבָּ֖ה כּוֹשֵׁ֑ל גַּם־נָפַ֞ל אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֗הוּ וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ ק֣וּמָה | וְנָשֻׁ֣בָה אֶל־עַמֵּ֗נוּ וְאֶל־אֶ֙רֶץ֙ מֽוֹלַדְתֵּ֔נוּ מִפְּנֵ֖י חֶ֥רֶב הַיּוֹנָֽה:
He made many stumbling blocks: The Holy One, blessed be He, Who pushed him down, made many stumbling blocks for him.  
yea, they joined: Heb. נפל [lit. fell]. They joined one another, saying, Arise and let us go back to our own people, whence we came to wage war.  
the oppressing sword: Heb. חרב. Jonathan renders: The sword of the enemy, which is like intoxicating wine. היונה. An expression of wine (יין). Another interpretation: It is an expression of oppression (אונאה).  
17There they called out, "Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who made a lot of noise, has allowed the appointed time to pass by!"   יזקָֽרְא֖וּ שָׁ֑ם פַּרְעֹ֚ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ שָׁא֔וֹן הֶֽעֱבִ֖יר הַמּוֹעֵֽד:
There they called out: In the battle, they proclaimed publicly a reproachful byword.  
“Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who made a lot of noise”: Who would raise the sound of his noise, the noises to boast with his armies.  
has allowed the appointed time to pass by: For he had appointed a set time to go forth and wage war, and he did not go forth, and the day of the appointed time passed by.  
18As long as I live, says the King, Whose name is the Lord of Hosts, that as sure as Tabor is among the mountains, and Carmel is by the sea, it shall come about.   יחחַי־אָ֙נִי֙ נְאֻם־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמ֑וֹ כִּי כְּתָב֣וֹר בֶּֽהָרִ֔ים וּכְכַרְמֶ֖ל בַּיָּ֥ם יָבֽוֹא:
that as sure as Tabor is among the mountains: Just as it is a true fact that Tabor is fast among the mountains and Mount Carmel is by the sea, so is it true that this thing shall come upon Egypt.  
19O you daughter who lives in Egypt, make for yourself equipment for exile, for Noph shall become waste and desolate without an inhabitant.   יטכְּלֵ֚י גוֹלָה֙ עֲשִׂ֣י לָ֔ךְ יוֹשֶׁ֖בֶת בַּת־מִצְרָ֑יִם כִּֽי־נֹף֙ לְשַׁמָּ֣ה תִֽהְיֶ֔ה וְנִצְּתָ֖ה מֵאֵ֥ין יוֹשֵֽׁב:
equipment for exile: When a person embarks on a journey, he prepares for himself a flask and an earthenware cup with which to drink.  
desolate: Heb. ונצחה, an expression of desolation (ציה).  
20Egypt was a fair heifer; destruction from the north is coming, yea it is coming!   כעֶגְלָ֥ה יְפֵֽה־פִיָּ֖ה מִצְרָ֑יִם קֶ֥רֶץ מִצָּפ֖וֹן בָּ֥א בָֽא:
a fair heifer: A beautiful kingdom.  
destruction: peoples that kill [acc. to Jonathan]. קֶרֶץ is an expression of cutting. Cf.“I… was cut (קֹרצתי) out of clay” (Job 33: 6).  
from the north: From Babylon.  
21Also her princes who are in her midst are like fattened calves, for they too turn around and flee together, they do not hold their ground, for the day of their calamity has come upon them, the time of their visitation.   כאגַּם־שְׂכִרֶ֚יהָ בְקִרְבָּהּ֙ כְּעֶגְלֵ֣י מַרְבֵּ֔ק כִּֽי־גַם־הֵ֧מָּה הִפְנ֛וּ נָ֥סוּ יַחְדָּ֖יו לֹ֣א עָמָ֑דוּ כִּ֣י י֥וֹם אֵידָ֛ם בָּ֥א עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם עֵ֥ת פְּקֻדָּתָֽם:
Also her princes: Heb. שְׂכִרֶיהָ, her princes. Cf.“with the great razor (הַשְׂכִירָה) ” (Isa. 7: 20).  
fattened: (kopla in O.F., couple in modern French).  
turn around: Turned their back to seek to flee.  
22Its voice shall go like [that of] the snake, for they will march with an army and will come against her with axes as if they were hewers of wood.   כבקוֹלָ֖הּ כַּנָּחָ֣שׁ יֵלֵ֑ךְ כִּֽי־בְחַ֣יִל יֵלֵ֔כוּ וּבְקַרְדֻּמּוֹת֙ בָּ֣אוּ לָ֔הּ כְּחֹֽטְבֵ֖י עֵצִֽים:
Its voice shall go like [that of] the snake: The “snake” comes to teach us about Egypt but ends by learning. For we learn from here that when the Holy One, blessed be He, said to the serpent, “You shall walk on your belly” (Gen. 3:14), He severed his feet, and his voice went to the end of the world. So we learned in the ‘Thirty-two Methods of Rabbi Eliezer the son of Rabbi Jose the Galilean’ (Method 12).  
for they will march with an army: against her.  
23They will cut down her forest, says the Lord, for they are innumerable, for they are more numerous than locusts and they are uncountable.   כגכָּֽרְת֚וּ יַעְרָהּ֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּ֖י לֹ֣א יֵֽחָקֵ֑ר כִּ֚י רַבּוּ֙ מֵֽאַרְבֶּ֔ה וְאֵ֥ין לָהֶ֖ם מִסְפָּֽר:
They will cut down her forest: They have power to cut down her forest.  
for they are innumerable: [lit. it shall not be fathomed, i.e.,] the number of their host.  
24The daughter of Egypt has been put to shame; she has been delivered into the hand[s] of the people of the north.   כדהֹבִ֖ישָׁה בַּת־מִצְרָ֑יִם נִתְּנָ֖ה בְּיַ֥ד עַם־צָפֽוֹן:
25The Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel has said: Lo I will visit upon Amon of No and upon Pharaoh and upon Egypt, and upon their gods and upon their kings, both upon Pharaoh and upon those who put their trust in him.   כהאָמַר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל הִנְנִ֚י פוֹקֵד֙ אֶל־אָמ֣וֹן מִנֹּ֔א וְעַל־פַּרְעֹה֙ וְעַל־מִצְרַ֔יִם וְעַל־אֱלֹהֶ֖יהָ וְעַל־מְלָכֶ֑יהָ וְעַ֨ל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְעַ֥ל הַבֹּֽטְחִ֖ים בּֽוֹ:
upon Amon: Heb. אל אמון, [lit. to Amon,] upon Amon, upon the prince Amon. There are some that are an expression of greatness. Cf.“Are you greater than the greatness of No (מִנֹא אָמוֹן) ?” (Nahum 3:8).  
of No: The great Alexandria (les seigneurs d’Alexandria in O.F.).  
26And I will deliver them into the hand[s] of those who seek their lives and into the hand[s] of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon, and into the hand[s] of his servants-and after that it will be inhabited again as in the days of old, says the Lord.   כווּנְתַתִּ֗ים בְּיַד֙ מְבַקְשֵׁ֣י נַפְשָׁ֔ם וּבְיַ֛ד נְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֥ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל וּבְיַד־עֲבָדָ֑יו וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֛ן תִּשְׁכֹּ֥ן כִּֽימֵי־קֶ֖דֶם נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
and after that: At the end of forty years, as Ezekiel stated (29:1 3ff.).  
27You fear not, O Jacob My servant, and be not dismayed, O Israel! for behold, I will redeem you from afar and your children from the land of their captivity, and Jacob shall return and be quiet and at ease, and there shall be none who disturb his rest.   כזוְ֠אַתָּה אַל־תִּירָ֞א עַבְדִּ֚י יַֽעֲקֹב֙ וְאַל־תֵּחַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּ֠י הִֽנְנִ֚י מֽוֹשִֽׁעֲךָ֙ מֵֽרָח֔וֹק וְאֶת־זַרְעֲךָ֖ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ שִׁבְיָ֑ם וְשָׁ֧ב יַעֲק֛וֹב וְשָׁקַ֥ט וְשַֽׁאֲנַ֖ן וְאֵ֥ין מַֽחֲרִֽיד:
You fear not: The righteous men who were in Egypt, who were exiled there against their will.  
28You fear not, My servant Jacob, says the Lord, for I am with you, for I will make a full end of all the nations where I have driven you, but of you I will not make a full end, but I will chastise you justly, and I will not completely destroy you.   כחאַ֠תָּה אַל־תִּירָ֞א עַבְדִּ֚י יַֽעֲקֹב֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּ֥י אִתְּךָ֖ אָ֑נִי כִּי֩ אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֨ה כָלָ֜ה בְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִ֣ם | אֲשֶׁ֧ר הִדַּחְתִּ֣יךָ שָׁ֗מָּה וְאֹֽתְךָ֙ לֹֽא־אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֣ה כָלָ֔ה וְיִסַּרְתִּ֙יךָ֙ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֔ט וְנַקֵּ֖ה לֹ֥א אֲנַקֶּֽךָּ:
justly: With sparing justice, little by little.  
completely destroy: Heb. ונקה [lit. clean,] an expression of sweeping and destroying, and Jonathan too rendered it an expression of destroying.