Chapter 60

1For the conductor, on shushan eduth, a michtam of David, to teach.   אלַֽמְנַצֵּ֣חַ עַל־שׁוּשַׁ֣ן עֵד֑וּת מִכְתָּ֖ם לְדָוִ֣ד לְלַמֵּֽד:
on shushan eduth, a michtam of David, to teach: (Addendum: Michtam is an expression of (Song 5:11), “as finest gold (כתם פז),” a coveted thing. Our Sages, however, expounded this as referring to David, who behaved as a humble (מך) and innocent man, even when he occupied the throne. Another Aggadah explains that his wound (מכתו) was perfect (תמה), i.e., he was born circumcised (Sotah 10b). Michtam of David concerning the testimony of the Sanhedrin, who were compared to a rose (שושן) , as it is stated (Song 7:3): “Your navel is like a round basin, etc., fenced in with roses,” when he required that they teach him what to do. When he fought with Aram Naharaim and sent Joab against them, they said to Joab, “Aren’t you of the sons of Jacob? Where is the oath that he swore to Laban, ‘this pile is a witness’” (Gen. 31:52)? And he did not know what to answer. He came to David and said to David, “This is what the Arameans said to me.” They went and asked the Sanhedrin, [who] replied to them, “Did they not transgress the oath first, as it is stated (Num. 23:7): ‘From Aram has Balak king of Moab brought me’? Moreover, Cushan- Rishathaim was an Aramean.”  
2When he fought with Aram-Naharaim and with Aram-Zobah, and Joab returned and smote twelve thousand of Edom in the valley of salt.   בבְּהַצּוֹת֨וֹ | אֶ֥ת אֲרַ֥ם נַֽהֲרַיִם֘ וְאֶת־אֲרַ֪ם צ֫וֹבָ֥ה וַיָּ֚שָׁב יוֹאָ֗ב וַיַּ֣ךְ אֶת־אֱד֣וֹם בְּגֵיא־מֶ֑לַח שְׁנֵ֖ים עָשָׂ֣ר אָֽלֶף:
and Joab returned and smote of Edom, etc.: [of] the eighteen thousand stated in Scripture (II Sam. 8:13, I Chron. 18:12), Abishai slew six thousand the first time, and Joab slew twelve thousand when he returned from battling Aram.  
When he fought: Heb. בהצותו, as (Num. 26:9): “when they quarreled (בהצותם) with the Lord,” that he fought with them because they aided the Ammonites.  
3O God, You have forsaken us; You have breached us; You were angry with us. You shall restore us.   גאֱלֹהִים זְנַחְתָּ֣נוּ פְרַצְתָּ֑נוּ אָ֜נַ֗פְתָּ תְּשׁ֣וֹבֵ֥ב לָֽנוּ:
You have forsaken us; You have breached us: When Edom fell into his hand, he foresaw with the holy spirit that they are destined to rule over Israel and to levy evil decrees upon Israel. He stood up and begged for mercy on account of the subjugation of the exile.“We suffered many troubles in the time of the Judges from the enemies around us.”  
You were angry: You were angry with us. From now on, restore Your goodwill upon us.  
4You caused the land to quake; You split it; heal its breaches for it has faltered.   דהִרְעַ֣שְׁתָּה אֶ֣רֶץ פְּצַמְתָּ֑הּ רְפָ֖ה שְׁבָרֶ֣יהָ כִי־מָֽטָה:
You caused… to quake: our land, with many troops.  
You split it: Heb. פצמתה, You broke it. I saw in Dunash’s writings (p. 68) that it is Arabic, but he did not explain it. In the works of Rabbi Moshe Hadarshan, he explains it as an expression of tearing and cites evidence for that assertion (from Jer. 22:14): “And he cuts out windows,” which Jonathan translates, וּפצים. But I say that וּפצים, as Jonathan translated, is an expression of the construction of a window, as “all the entrances that have door frames (פצימין).”  
heal its breaches for it has faltered: Heb. רפה, an expression of healing. Although it is spelled with a “hey,” many words are used in this manner.  
for it has faltered: An expression of lowliness.  
5You have shown Your people harshness; You have given us to drink wine of bewilderment.   ההִרְאִ֣יתָ עַמְּךָ֣ קָשָׁ֑ה הִ֜שְׁקִיתָ֗נוּ יַ֣יִן תַּרְעֵלָֽה:
wine of bewilderment: Heb. תרעלה. [Wine] that stops up the heart and envelops it. רַעַל is an expression of envelopment, as (Nahum 2:4): “and the cypresses are enwrapped (הרעלו) ,” and the language of the Mishnah (Shab. 6:6): “Median women shawled (רעולות).”  
6You have given those who fear You trials with which to be tested, in order to beautify [Your behavior] forever.   ונָ֘תַ֚תָּה לִּֽירֵאֶ֣יךָ נֵּ֣ס לְהִתְנוֹסֵ֑ס מִפְּנֵ֖י קֹ֣שֶׁט סֶֽלָה:
You have given those who fear You trials: Trials of many troubles.  
to be tested: With which to be tested whether they would stand [steadfast] in awe of You.  
in order to beautify forever: To beautify Your standards in the world, so that when You give them goodness, the gentiles will not criticize You, but they will beautify Your judgments and say that He justly did good to them because they passed many tests for Him.  
7In order that Your beloved ones should be rescued, save Your right hand and answer me.   זלְמַעַן יֵחָֽלְצ֥וּן יְדִידֶ֑יךָ הֽוֹשִׁ֖יעָה יְמִֽינְךָ֣ וַֽעֲנֵֽנִי (כתיב וַֽעֲנֵֽנִו) :
should be rescued: Should be saved from harm.  
save Your right hand: which You brought back so that their enemies should overpower them.  
and answer me: For, if You answer me, they will be rescued, because I fight against them [the enemies] for them [Israel].  
8God spoke in His Sanctuary; I will exult, I will divide a portion, and I will measure the valley of Succoth.   חאֱלֹהִ֚ים | דִּבֶּ֥ר בְּקָדְשׁ֗וֹ אֶֽ֫עֱלֹ֥זָה אֲחַלְּקָ֥ה שְׁכֶ֑ם וְעֵ֖מֶק סֻכּ֣וֹת אֲמַדֵּֽד:
God spoke in His Sanctuary: that He would gather the exiles and his [David’s] seed would rule over them. Another explanation: God spoke in His Sanctuary [saying] that I would be king over them.  
I will exult: in His salvation. In another explanation, I found: God spoke in His Sanctuaryto help me, as it is written (II Sam. 3: 18): “For (sic) by the hand of My bondsman David shall I deliver My people Israel.”  
I will divide a portion: I will divide for them a portion of the property of their enemies.  
and I will measure the valley of Succoth: I do not know of what nation this Succoth is, and I do not know where the Succoth is that Israel came to when they traveled from Rameses. In other commentaries I found (this is not in all editions): I will divide ShechemI will restore to them the heritage of their father Jacob. Another explanation:  
And I will measure the valley of Succoth: when I divide it for Israel. Shechem and Succoth were at the edge of the land of Canaan, as we find Jacob’s entry to the land through Succoth and Shechem. Another explanation:  
and I will measure the valley of Succoth: Succoth is an expression of shapes and imaginations, as is written (II Kings 17:30): “Succoth-Benoth.”  
I will measure: I measure their form, as is written (II Sam. 8:2): “two cord-lengths to put to death and one full cord-length to keep alive.”  
9Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine, and Ephraim is the strength of my head; Judah is my lawgiver.   טלִ֚י גִלְעָ֨ד | וְלִ֬י מְנַשֶּׁ֗ה וְ֖אֶפְרַיִם מָע֣וֹז רֹאשִׁ֑י יְ֜הוּדָ֗ה מְחֹֽקְקִי:
Gilead is mine: to reign over them.  
my lawgiver: My ministers. מחקקי is an expression of administration, that he makes the law and sends scrolls and commands, as (Gen. 49:10): “The scepter will not turn away from Judah, nor the lawgiver from between his feet.”  
10Moab is my washbasin; on Edom I will throw my lock; Philistia, join me.   ימוֹאָ֚ב | סִ֬יר רַחְצִ֗י עַל־אֱ֖דוֹם אַשְׁלִ֣יךְ נַֽעֲלִ֑י עָ֜לַ֗י פְּלֶ֣שֶׁת הִתְרוֹעָֽעִי:
Moab is my washbasin: I will use them as a copper pot prepared for washing therein.  
my lock: Heb. נעלי, my imprisonment.  
join me: Join my kingdom to be subordinate to me, for Gath, and also Gaza, which David vanquished, are of the land of the Philistines.  
11Who will bring me to a fortified city?-He Who led me to Edom?   יאמִ֣י יֽ֖וֹבִילֵנִי עִ֣יר מָצ֑וֹר מִ֖י נָחַ֣נִי עַד־אֱדֽוֹם:
Who will bring me to a fortified city: then to a fortified city, to conquer the city of Rome; if You will not help me against the fortress of Edom, who will bring me and who will lead me upon them? (Shem Ephraim suggests this emendation: If You will not help me now to conquer Edom, upon which You have now led me.) In other commentaries, I found as follows: upon the fortresses of Edom, upon whom You have led me now.  
12Is it not You, O God, Who has forsaken us, and [Who] does not go forth, O God, with our hosts?   יבהֲלֹֽא־אַתָּ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֣ים זְנַחְתָּ֑נוּ וְלֹֽא־תֵצֵ֥א אֱ֜לֹהִ֗ים בְּצִבְאוֹתֵֽינוּ:
and [Who does] not go forth: and You do not go forth.  
13Give us aid against the adversary, but the salvation of man is futile.   יגהָֽבָה־לָּ֣נוּ עֶזְרָ֣ת מִצָּ֑ר וְ֜שָׁ֗וְא תְּשׁוּעַ֥ת אָדָֽם:
14Through God we shall gather might, and He will trample our adversaries.   ידבֵּֽאלֹהִ֥ים נַֽעֲשֶׂה־חָ֑יִל וְ֜ה֗וּא יָב֥וּס צָרֵֽינוּ:
will trample: [as translated.]