Chapter 8

1And it came to pass after this, that David smote the Philistines and he subdued them; and David took Metheg-ammah from the hands of the Philistines.   אוַֽיְהִי֙ אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֔ן וַיַּ֥ךְ דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וַיַּכְנִיעֵ֑ם וַיִּקַּ֥ח דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־מֶ֥תֶג הָאַמָּ֖ה מִיַּ֥ד פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים:
Metheg-ammah: Now in I Chronicles 18:1, it is written: “And David took Gath out of the hand of the Philistines.” It (Gath) is called Metheg-ammah (lit., an ox goad) because it was the rod that governed over all of the Philistines. [It was] a metropolis of Kings; since we do not find among all the Philistine lords of Gaza, Ashdod, Ekron, and Ashkelon, a name of a kingdom except in Gath where we find Achish the king of Gath.  
metheg: Agojjlon in French.  
ammah: a wooden ox-goad.  
2And he smote Moab, and measured them off with a line, making them lie down on the ground; and he measured two cord-lengths to put to death, and one full cord-length to keep alive. And the Moabites became as servants to David, bringing presents.   בוַיַּ֣ךְ אֶת־מוֹאָ֗ב וַֽיְמַדְּדֵ֚ם בַּחֶ֙בֶל֙ הַשְׁכֵּ֣ב אוֹתָ֣ם אַ֔רְצָה וַיְמַדֵּ֚ד שְׁנֵֽי־חֲבָלִים֙ לְהָמִ֔ית וּמְלֹ֥א הַחֶ֖בֶל לְהַחֲי֑וֹת וַתְּהִ֚י מוֹאָב֙ לְדָוִ֔ד לַעֲבָדִ֖ים נֹשְׂאֵ֥י מִנְחָֽה:
and he measured two cord lengths: because they had killed his father, mother, and brothers. For it states, “And he led them before the king of Moab” (I Sam. 22:4) and we do not find mention of their departure from there.  
3And David smote Hadadezer the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to extend his dominion to the Euphrates River.   גוַיַּ֣ךְ דָּוִ֔ד אֶת־הֲדַדְעֶ֥זֶר בֶּן־רְחֹ֖ב מֶ֣לֶךְ צוֹבָ֑ה בְּלֶכְתּ֕וֹ לְהָשִׁ֥יב יָד֖וֹ בִּֽנְהַר־ ( פְּרָֽת קרי ולא כתיב ) :
as he went: as Hadadezer went.  
to extend his dominion: To be interpreted like its Targum: ‘To modify his border.’ For he conquered of the territory outside the border of his country and extended his border.  
4And David captured from him, one thousand and seven hundred horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen; and David houghed all the chariots [horses] and left over of them for a hundred chariots.   דוַיִּלְכֹּ֨ד דָּוִ֜ד מִמֶּ֗נּוּ אֶ֚לֶף וּשְׁבַע־מֵאוֹת֙ פָּרָשִׁ֔ים וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִ֣ישׁ רַגְלִ֑י וַיְעַקֵּ֚ר דָּוִד֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָרֶ֔כֶב וַיּוֹתֵ֥ר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ מֵ֥אָה רָֽכֶב:
and David houghed all the chariots (horses): because of the commandment: “He shall not multiply horses unto himself” (Deut. 17:16).  
And left over of them for a hundred chariots: which he needed for his cavalry. Now a chariot consists of four horses as it is stated; “A chariot for six hundred shekels of silver and a horse for a hundred and fifty.” (II Chron. 1:17) from here it is derived that a chariot consists of four horses.  
5And Aram of Damascus came to aid Hadadezer, king of Zobah; and David smote of Aram, twenty-two thousand men.   הוַתָּבֹא֙ אֲרַ֣ם דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק לַעְזֹ֕ר לַהֲדַדְעֶ֖זֶר מֶ֣לֶךְ צוֹבָ֑ה וַיַּ֚ךְ דָּוִד֙ בַּֽאֲרָ֔ם עֶשְׂרִֽים־וּשְׁנַ֥יִם אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ:
6And David placed governors in Aram of Damascus; and the Arameans became servants to David, paying tribute to him. And the Lord helped David wherever he went.   ווַיָּ֨שֶׂם דָּוִ֚ד נְצִבִים֙ בַּאֲרַ֣ם דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק וַתְּהִ֚י אֲרָם֙ לְדָוִ֔ד לַעֲבָדִ֖ים נוֹשְׂאֵ֣י מִנְחָ֑ה וַיּ֚שַׁע יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־דָּוִ֔ד בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָלָֽךְ:
7And David took the quivers of gold that were on the servants of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem.   זוַיִּקַּ֣ח דָּוִ֗ד אֵ֚ת שִׁלְטֵ֣י הַזָּהָ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָי֔וּ אֶ֖ל עַבְדֵ֣י הֲדַדְעָ֑זֶר וַיְבִיאֵ֖ם יְרוּשָׁלָֽםִ:
the quivers of gold: these are the quivers of gold in which arrows are placed similar to the saying (lit., what you say): “make bright the arrows fill up the quivers” (Jer. 51:11). All these chapters are connected to the previous chapter dealing with the holy Temple, since from all these battles David assembled [the] objects dedicated for the needs of the Temple.  
8And from Betah, and from Berotai, the cities of Hadadezer, King David took huge quantities of copper.   חוּמִבֶּ֥טַח וּמִבֵּֽרֹתַ֖י עָרֵ֣י הֲדַדְעָ֑זֶר לָקַ֞ח הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ דָּוִ֛ד נְח֖שֶׁת הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד:
9And Toi, the king of Hamath heard that David had defeated all the army of Hadadezer.   טוַיִּשְׁמַ֕ע תֹּ֖עִי מֶ֣לֶךְ חֲמָ֑ת כִּ֚י הִכָּ֣ה דָוִ֔ד אֵ֖ת כָּל־חֵ֥יל הֲדַדְעָֽזֶר:
10And Toi sent Joram, his son, to King David to greet him and to bless him, because he had fought against Hadadezer and defeated him: for Hadadezer had been Toi's opponent in war, and in his possession were vessels of silver and vessels of gold and vessels of copper.   יוַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח תֹּ֣עִי אֶת־יֽוֹרָם־בְּנ֣וֹ אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ־דָּ֠וִד לִשְׁאָל־ל֨וֹ לְשָׁל֜וֹם וּֽלְבָרֲכ֗וֹ עַל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִלְחַ֚ם בַּהֲדַדְעֶ֙זֶר֙ וַיַּכֵּ֔הוּ כִּי־אִ֛ישׁ מִלְחֲמ֥וֹת תֹּ֖עִי הָיָ֣ה הֲדַדְעָ֑זֶר וּבְיָד֗וֹ הָי֛וּ כְּלֵֽי־כֶ֥סֶף וּכְלֵֽי־זָהָ֖ב וּכְלֵ֥י נְחֽשֶׁת:
11These also the king David dedicated to the Lord, [along] with the silver and the gold that he dedicated from all the nations that he had conquered.   יאגַּם־אֹתָ֕ם הִקְדִּ֛ישׁ הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ דָּוִ֖ד לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה עִם־הַכֶּ֚סֶף וְהַזָּהָב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִקְדִּ֔ישׁ מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר כִּבֵּֽשׁ:
12From Aram, and from Moab, and from the children of Ammon, and from the Philistines, and from Amalek, and from the spoils of Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah.   יבמֵאֲרָ֚ם וּמִמּוֹאָב֙ וּמִבְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן וּמִפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וּמֵֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק וּמִשְּׁלַ֛ל הֲדַדְעֶ֥זֶר בֶּן־רְחֹ֖ב מֶ֥לֶךְ צוֹבָֽה:
13And David made for himself a name when he returned from smiting the Arameans in the Valley of Salt, eighteen thousand men.   יגוַיַּ֚עַשׂ דָּוִד֙ שֵׁ֔ם בְּשֻׁב֕וֹ מֵהַכּוֹת֥וֹ אֶת־אֲרָ֖ם בְּגֵיא־מֶ֑לַח שְׁמוֹנָ֥ה עָשָֹ֖ר אָֽלֶף:
and David made for himself a name: For he buried the dead that were killed of Edom. Now this resulted in a good name for Israel for (granting) burial to their enemies. Similarly it is stated concerning the battle of Gog and Magog; “and all the people of the land shall bury them; and it shall be for them for a name.” (Ezek 39:13). And how do we know that David buried them? Because it is written in the Book of Kings (Kings I, 2:15): “For when David was in Edom and Joab the captain of the hosts had gone up to bury the slain.”  
eighteen thousand: Now in the book of Psalms 60:2 it states, “twelve thousand.” From here it must be concluded that there were two battles.  
14And he placed governors in Edom; throughout all of Edom he placed governors, and all of Edom became servants to David. And the Lord saved David wherever he went.   ידוַיָּ֨שֶׂם בֶּאֱד֜וֹם נְצִבִ֗ים בְּכָל־אֱדוֹם֙ שָֹ֣ם נְצִבִ֔ים וַיְהִ֥י כָל־אֱד֖וֹם עֲבָדִ֣ים לְדָוִ֑ד וַיּ֚וֹשַׁע יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־דָּוִ֔ד בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָלָֽךְ:
governors: officers to collect taxes.  
15And David reigned over all Israel; and David administered justice and charity for all his people.   טווַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ דָּוִ֖ד עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיְהִ֣י דָוִ֗ד עֹשֶֹ֛ה מִשְׁפָּ֥ט וּצְדָקָ֖ה לְכָל־עַמּֽוֹ:
and David administered justice… and Joab the son of Zeruyah was over the host.: David caused Joab to be successful over the host because he executed justice and charity, and Joab caused David to execute justice and charity because he would judge and Joab would enforce and chastise for him. Also, because Joab was engaged in the battles David was not busied with them, and was (lit., his heart was) left free to judge righteously.  
recorder: He would call out which case came to him first so that it be decided first.  
16And Joab the son of Zeruyah was over the host; and Yehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder.   טזוְיוֹאָ֥ב בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֖ה עַל־הַצָּבָ֑א וִיהוֹשָׁפָ֥ט בֶּן־אֲחִיל֖וּד מַזְכִּֽיר:
17And Zadok the son of Ahitub, and Ahimelech the son of Ebiathar were [the] priests; and Seraiah was scribe.   יזוְצָד֧וֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיט֛וּב וַאֲחִימֶ֥לֶךְ בֶּן־אֶבְיָתָ֖ר כֹּהֲנִ֑ים וּשְׂרָיָ֖ה סוֹפֵֽר:
18And Benayahu the son of Yehoyada [was over] the archers and the slingers; and David's sons were chief officers.   יחוּבְנָיָ֙הוּ֙ בֶּן־יְה֣וֹיָדָ֔ע וְהַכְּרֵתִ֖י וְהַפְּלֵתִ֑י וּבְנֵ֥י דָוִ֖ד כֹּהֲנִ֥ים הָיֽוּ:
the archers and the slingers: Jonathan interprets: and Benayahu the son of Yahayada was appointed over the archers and the slingers. Now our Rabbis have said כרתי and פלתי [refer to the] Urim and Tumim.  
Were chief officers.: lit. כהנים (priests).