Chapter 18

1And it came to pass afterwards that David smote the Philistines and vanquished them, and he took Gath and its villages from the hand[s] of the Philistines.   אוַיְהִי֙ אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֔ן וַיַּ֥ךְ דָּוִ֛יד אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וַיַּכְנִיעֵ֑ם וַיִּקַּ֛ח אֶת־גַּ֥ת וּבְנֹתֶ֖יהָ מִיַּ֥ד פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים:
And it came to pass afterwards that David smote: After David stated [his intention] to build a house, and the Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, “You shall not build,” David said, “Since it is not incumbent upon me to build the house, only upon my son, I shall now prepare and arrange everything for him for [the time] when my son comes to build the House so that he has everything prepared.” And now he [the Chronicler] leaves everything and relates how he [David] prepared the building, how he fought with his enemies and designated their spoils for the construction of the House. And so is the manner of the verse, and an example is found regarding Elijah and Elisha, i.e., after he [Elisha] said, (II Ki. 2:9): “Please let there be a double portion of your spirit to me,” he [the author] leaves the entire story of the kings and proceeds to relate some of the wonders of Elisha, how they were a double portion, until he completed them all.  
2And he smote Moab, and the Moabites became vassals to David, paying tribute.   בוַיַּ֖ךְ אֶת־מוֹאָ֑ב וַיִּֽהְי֚וּ מוֹאָב֙ עֲבָדִ֣ים לְדָוִ֔יד נֹֽשְׂאֵ֖י מִנְחָֽה:
3And David smote Hadarezer, king of Zobah, in Hamath, when he went to establish his power in the Euphrates River.   גוַיַּ֥ךְ דָּוִ֛יד אֶת־הֲדַדְעֶ֥זֶר מֶֽלֶךְ־צוֹבָ֖ה חֲמָ֑תָה בְּלֶכְתּ֕וֹ לְהַצִּ֥יב יָד֖וֹ בִּֽנְהַר־פְּרָֽת:
And David smote Hadadezer, king of Zobah, in Hamath: The war took place in Hamath, and in Hamath David smote them.  
in Hamath: Heb. חֲמָתָה, like לְחַמָת, to Hamath.  
to establish his power: Its meaning is: when he went to establish his power, to restore his boundary and to establish it by the Euphrates River, for he was restoring to the boundary (sic) of the Euphrates River. An example is (Sam. II 18:18): “And Absalom took and established for himself in his lifetime, etc., and he called it Yad Absalom,” meaning the power of the boundary of Absalom. Another explanation of, “and he called it Yad Absalom” : Absalom engraved the form of the length of his hand in the middle of the monument, as it is written in that verse, that he said that this engraving was engraved after the shape of Absalom’s hand. (I heard this from Isaac the son of Rabbi Samuel in Narbonne.)  
4And David captured from him a thousand chariots and seven thousand horsemen and twenty thousand footmen; and David hamstrung all the chariot [horses] and left over of them a hundred chariots.   דוַיִּלְּכֹּד֩ דָּוִ֨יד מִמֶּ֜נּוּ אֶ֣לֶף רֶ֗כֶב וְשִׁבְעַ֚ת אֲלָפִים֙ פָּֽרָשִׁ֔ים וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִ֣ישׁ רַגְלִ֑י וַֽיְעַקֵּ֚ר דָּוִיד֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָרֶ֔כֶב וַיּוֹתֵ֥ר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ מֵ֥אָה רָֽכֶב:
and David hamstrung: because it is written (Deut. 17:16) “Only he must not get himself many horses,” (Josh. 11:6): “… you shall cripple their horses.”  
and left over of them a hundred chariots: He must not get himself many horses, but enough for his chariots is permissible.  
5And Aram of Damascus came to aid Hadarezer, king of Zobah, and David smote of Aram twenty-two thousand men.   הוַיָּבֹא֙ אֲרַ֣ם דַּרְמֶ֔שֶׂק לַֽעְז֕וֹר לַֽהֲדַדְעֶ֖זֶר מֶ֣לֶךְ צוֹבָ֑ה וַיַּ֚ךְ דָּוִיד֙ בַּֽאֲרָ֔ם עֶשְׂרִֽים־וּשְׁנַ֥יִם אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ:
And Aram of Damascus came: Heb. דַרְמֶשֶׂק, and in II Samuel (8:6), it is written: דַמֶּשֶׂק. It is customary for Scripture to speak in this manner, like from שַׁרְבִיט שֵׁבֶט, for (cf. I Kings 12: 14): “I shall flog you with whips בַּשּׁוֹטִים (Sic),” is translated שַׁרְבִיטִים. (Rabbi Isaac said this also.)  
6And David placed [garrisons] in Aram of Damascus, and the Arameans became vassals to David, paying tribute, and the Lord gave victory to David wherever he went.   ווַיָּ֚שֶׂם דָּוִיד֙ בַּֽאֲרַ֣ם דַּרְמֶ֔שֶׂק וַיְהִ֚י אֲרָם֙ לְדָוִ֔יד עֲבָדִ֖ים נֹֽשְׂאֵ֣י מִנְחָ֑ה וַיּ֚וֹשַׁע יְהֹוָה֙ לְדָוִ֔יד בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָלָֽךְ:
And David placed in Aram of Damascus: The meaning is [that he stationed] governors, and in II Samuel (8:6), it is stated explicitly: “And David placed governors in Aram of Damascus.”  
7And David took the golden quivers that were on Hadarezer's servants and brought them to Jerusalem.   זוַיִּקַּ֣ח דָּוִ֗יד אֵת שִׁלְטֵ֣י הַזָּהָ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָי֔וּ עַ֖ל עַבְדֵ֣י הֲדַדְעָ֑זֶר וַיְבִיאֵ֖ם יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
the golden quivers: Heb. שִׁלְטֵי, cuyvres , cuevres in Old French, quivers, and a like word is found in Jeremiah (51:11): “Polish the arrows, fill the quivers הַשְּׁלָטִים ”.  
8And from Tibhath and from Cun, cities of Hadarezer, David took huge quantities of copper, from which Solomon made the copper sea and the pillars and the copper vessels.   חוּמִטִּבְחַ֚ת וּמִכּוּן֙ עָרֵ֣י הֲדַדְעֶ֔זֶר לָקַ֥ח דָּוִ֛יד נְחֹ֖שֶׁת רַבָּ֣ה מְאֹ֑ד בָּ֣הּ| עָשָׂ֣ה שְׁלֹמֹ֗ה אֶת־יָ֚ם הַנְּחֹ֙שֶׁת֙ וְאֶת־הָֽעַמּוּדִ֔ים וְאֵ֖ת כְּלֵ֥י הַנְּחֹֽשֶׁת:
huge quantities of copper, from which… made, etc.: This is what I stated (verse 17:1); since David stated [his intention] to build the House, and the Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, (17:4): “You shall not build… the House,” but your son, he proceeds to tell how he prepared for him to erect the edifice.  
9And Tou, the king of Hamath, heard that David had defeated all the army of Hadarezer, the king of Zobah.   טוַיִּשְׁמַ֕ע תֹּ֖עוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ חֲמָ֑ת כִּי הִכָּ֣ה דָוִ֔יד אֶת־כָּל־חֵ֖יל הֲדַדְעֶ֥זֶר מֶֽלֶךְ־צוֹבָֽה:
10And he sent Hadoram, his son, to King David to greet him and to bless him because he had fought against Hadarezer and defeated him, for Hadarezer had been Tou's opponent in war, and [he had with him] all vessels of gold, of silver, and of copper.   יוַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח אֶת־הֲדוֹרָם־בְּנ֣וֹ אֶל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ־דָּ֠וִיד לִשְׁאָל־ (כתיב לִשְׁאָול־) ל֨וֹ לְשָׁל֜וֹם וּלְבָרְכ֗וֹ עַל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִלְחַ֚ם בַּֽהֲדַדְעֶ֙זֶר֙ וַיַּכֵּ֔הוּ כִּי־אִ֛ישׁ מִלְחֲמ֥וֹת תֹּ֖עוּ הָיָ֣ה הֲדַדְעָ֑זֶר וְכֹ֗ל כְּלֵ֛י זָהָ֥ב וָכֶ֖סֶף וּנְחֹֽשֶׁת:
for… had been Tou’s opponent in war: He was his antagonist, and this is proven above (v. 3): “And David smote Hadarezer” (note Rashi’s reading). Now what connection do they have to Hamath to wage war there? But [the matter is that] Hadarezer, the king of Zobah, went to wage war against Tou the king of Hamath in Hamath, during which David came upon him and smote him.  
and all vessels of gold, of silver, and of copper: he brought to David; and so it appears in II Samuel (8:10): “… and in his possession were vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of copper.”  
11Those also King David dedicated to the Lord, [along] with the silver and the gold that he took from all the nations; from Edom and from Moab and from the children of Ammon and from the Philistines and from Amalek.   יאגַּם־אֹתָ֗ם הִקְדִּ֞ישׁ הַמֶּ֚לֶךְ דָּוִיד֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה עִם־הַכֶּ֙סֶף֙ וְהַזָּהָ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָשָׂ֖א מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם מֵֽאֱד֚וֹם וּמִמּוֹאָב֙ וּמִבְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן וּמִפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וּמֵֽעֲמָלֵֽק:
12And Abshai the son of Zeruiah smote the Edomites in the Valley of Salt, eighteen thousand.   יבוְאַבְשַׁ֣י בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֗ה הִכָּ֚ה אֶת־אֱדוֹם֙ בְּגֵ֣יא הַמֶּ֔לַח שְׁמוֹנָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר אָֽלֶף:
13And he placed governors in Edom, and all the Edomites were vassals to David, and the Lord made David victorious wherever he went.   יגוַיָּ֚שֶׂם בֶּֽאֱדוֹם֙ נְצִיבִ֔ים וַיִּֽהְי֥וּ כָל־אֱד֖וֹם עֲבָדִ֣ים לְדָוִ֑יד וַיּ֚וֹשַׁע יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־דָּוִ֔יד בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָלָֽךְ:
And he placed governors: Heb. נְצִיבִים, governors, because he did not wish to set up a king to reign over them.  
14And David reigned over all Israel, and he administered justice and charity for all his people.   ידוַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ דָּוִ֖יד עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיְהִ֗י עֹשֶׂ֛ה מִשְׁפָּ֥ט וּצְדָקָ֖ה לְכָל־עַמּֽוֹ:
justice and charity: He retired from waging any more wars and from going forth and coming in battle, and he sat constantly and judged Israel fairly.  
15Now Joab the son of Zeruiah was over the host, and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder.   טווְיוֹאָ֥ב בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֖ה עַל־הַצָּבָ֑א וִיהֽוֹשָׁפָ֥ט בֶּן־אֲחִיל֖וּד מַזְכִּֽיר:
Now Joab, etc. was over the host: Since he retired from going with the army, he placed Joab over the host to wage all his battles. All this refers back to “… and he administered justice and charity.” The interruption with “Now Joab, etc. was over the host,” was necessary for the following reason, lest you say that since “… and David was administering justice,” [the result was that] the Israelites were no longer waging war, therefore, it says “Now Joab was over the host.”  
recorder: Heb. הַמַּזְכִּיר, lit., the reminder. This refers back to the beginning (verse 14), that he would remind [him of] which case came before the king first, and a similar instance is (Esther 6:1): “… to bring… the records (הַזִּכְרוֹנוֹת) , the chronicles.”  
16And Zadok the son of Ahitub and Abimelech the son of Ebiathar were priests, and Shavsha was scribe.   טזוְצָד֧וֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיט֛וּב וַֽאֲבִימֶ֥לֶךְ בֶּן־אֶבְיָתָ֖ר כֹּֽהֲנִ֑ים וְשַׁוְשָׁ֖א סֹפֵֽר:
and Shavsha was scribe: Ahilud was the recorder, and Shavsha would write alongside him.  
17And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and the Pelethites, and the sons of David were first at the king's hand.   יזוּבְנָיָ֙הוּ֙ בֶּן־יְה֣וֹיָדָ֔ע עַל־הַכְּרֵתִ֖י וְהַפְּלֵתִ֑י וּבְנֵֽי־דָוִ֥יד הָרִֽאשֹׁנִ֖ים לְיַ֥ד הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
over the Cherethites and the Pelethites: The meaning is that they were nations, as it is written, (Zeph. 2:5): “Woe to… the nation of Cherethites,” and from their nations were mighty warriors with David, and Benaiah was over them. Another instance of this (II Sam. 15:18): “… and all his servants passed beside him, and all the Cherethites and all the Pelethites and all the Gittites.”  
and the sons of David were first at the king’s hand: The meaning is that David’s sons were always first beside the king to perform all his necessities.