Chapter 19

1And it came to pass after this, that Nahash the king of Ammon died, and his son reigned in his stead.   אוַיְהִי֙ אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֔ן וַיָּ֕מָת נָחָ֖שׁ מֶ֣לֶךְ בְּנֵֽי־עַמּ֑וֹן וַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ בְּנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו:
2And David said, "I shall show kindness to Hanun the son of Nahash, because his father showed me kindness." And David sent emissaries to comfort him concerning his father, and David's servants came to the land of the children of Ammon, to Hanun to comfort him.   בוַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜יד אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־חֶ֣סֶד| עִם־חָנ֣וּן בֶּן־נָחָ֗שׁ כִּֽי־עָשָׂ֨ה אָבִ֚יו עִמִּי֙ חֶ֔סֶד וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח דָּוִ֛יד מַלְאָכִ֖ים לְנַֽחֲמ֣וֹ עַל־אָבִ֑יו וַיָּבֹאוּ֩ עַבְדֵ֨י דָוִ֜יד אֶל־אֶ֧רֶץ בְּנֵֽי־עַמּ֛וֹן אֶל־חָנ֖וּן לְנַֽחֲמֽוֹ:
because his father showed me kindness: when David took his father, his mother, his brothers, and his father’s household and settled them in the region of the king of Moab, as it is written (I Sam. 22:3): “And David went from there to Mizpeh Moab, and he said to the king of Moab: Let my father and mother come out now, etc.” And the children of Moab came and slew them all except Elihu, David’s brother, who fled to the land of the children of Ammon. Nahash, the king of the children of Ammon, accepted him, for they [David’s brothers] were no longer mentioned, except Elihu, as it is written in the grouping of the princes (below 27: 18): “Of Judah: Elihu of the brothers of David.” That is the meaning of “for his father showed me kindness.” And it was on the basis of that hatred that David smote Moab and abused them more than his other enemies, as it is written (II Sam. 8:2): “And David smote Moab, etc.”  
3And the princes of the children of Ammon said to Hanun, "Do you think that David honors your father because he sent you comforters? Is it not in order to investigate and to search and to spy out the land that his servants have come to you?"   גוַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֩ שָׂרֵ֨י בְנֵֽי־עַמּ֜וֹן לְחָנ֗וּן הַֽמְכַבֵּ֨ד דָּוִ֚יד אֶת־אָבִ֙יךָ֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ כִּֽי־שָׁלַ֥ח לְךָ֖ מְנַֽחֲמִ֑ים הֲלֹ֡א בַּֽ֠עֲבוּר לַחְקֹ֨ר וְלַֽהֲפֹ֚ךְ וּלְרַגֵּל֙ הָאָ֔רֶץ בָּ֥אוּ עֲבָדָ֖יו אֵלֶֽיךָ:
Do you think that David honors your father: Is it not written in their Torah (Deut. 23:7): “You shall not seek their peace or their prosperity?” Do you think that he is forsaking the commandment of his God and is coming to greet you, and that he sent comforters in honor of your father? Is it not in order to investigate, etc.?  
4And Hanun took David's servants, and he shaved them, and he cut their garments in half up to their groin and he sent them away.   דוַיִּקַּ֨ח חָנ֜וּן אֶת־עַבְדֵ֚י דָוִיד֙ וַיְגַלְּחֵ֔ם וַיִּכְרֹ֧ת אֶת־מַדְוֵיהֶ֛ם בַּחֵ֖צִי עַד־הַמִּפְשָׂעָ֑ה וַיְשַׁלְּחֵֽם:
their garments: Heb. מַדְוֵיהֶם, like (Lev. 6: 3): “The priest shall put on his linen garment (מִדּוֹ).”  
in half up to their groin: Heb. הַמִפְשָׂעָה, up to their private parts, both front and back, and in Samuel (II 10:4): “ שְׁתוֹתֵיהֶם, their private parts,” like (Isa. 20:4): “… with their private parts (שֵׁת) bared, the shame of Egypt.”  
5And they went and told David about the men, and he sent [people] to meet them, for the men were very much ashamed. And the king said, "Remain in Jericho until your beards grow, and [then] you shall return. "   הוַיֵּלְכוּ֩ וַיַּגִּ֨ידוּ לְדָוִ֚יד עַל־הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח לִקְרָאתָ֔ם כִּי־הָי֥וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים נִכְלָמִ֣ים מְאֹ֑ד וַיֹּ֚אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ שְׁב֣וּ בִֽירֵח֔וֹ עַ֛ד אֲשֶׁר־יְצַמַּ֥ח זְקַנְכֶ֖ם וְשַׁבְתֶּֽם:
6And the children of Ammon saw that they had become odious to David, and Hanun and the children of Ammon sent a thousand talents of silver to hire chariots and riders from Aram-Naharaim and from Aram-Maacah and from Zobah.   ווַיִּרְאוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן כִּ֥י הִתְבָּֽאֲשׁ֖וּ עִם־דָּוִ֑יד וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח חָ֠נוּן וּבְנֵ֨י עַמּ֜וֹן אֶ֣לֶף כִּכַּר־כֶּ֗סֶף לִשְׂכֹּ֣ר לָ֠הֶם מִן־אֲרַ֨ם נַֽהֲרַ֜יִם וּמִן־אֲרַ֚ם מַֽעֲכָה֙ וּמִצּוֹבָ֔ה רֶ֖כֶב וּפָרָשִֽׁים:
from Aram Naharaim and from Aram- Maacah: There were many Arameans, and that is the meaning of Aram-Maacah - the Arameans dwelling in Maacah. Some Arameans dwelt by the Euphrates River, and [likewise] Aram-Zobah; but Aram, without a surname, is the main part of the nation. Similarly, the Ammonites dwelling in Ammon are called Ammonites, but the main part of the nation was in other places, and so, the children of Esau in the land of Seir, but the main part [of the nation] dwelt in Edom.  
7And they hired for themselves thirty-two thousand chariots and the king of Maacah and his people, and they came and encamped before Medeba, and the children of Ammon gathered from their cities and came to war.   זוַיִּשְׂכְּר֣וּ לָהֶ֡ם שְׁנַיִם֩ וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֨ים אֶ֜לֶף רֶ֗כֶב וְאֶת־מֶ֚לֶךְ מַֽעֲכָה֙ וְאֶת־עַמּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֕אוּ וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י מֵֽידְבָ֑א וּבְנֵ֣י עַמּ֗וֹן נֶֽאֶסְפוּ֙ מֵעָ֣רֵיהֶ֔ם וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ לַמִּלְחָמָֽה:
8And David heard [of it], and he sent Joab and the entire host of the mighty warriors.   חוַיִּשְׁמַ֖ע דָּוִ֑יד וַיִּשְׁלַח֙ אֶת־יוֹאָ֔ב וְאֵ֥ת כָּל־צָבָ֖א הַגִּבּוֹרִֽים:
9And the children of Ammon came out, and they prepared the battle at the entrance of the city, and the kings who had come were by themselves in the field.   טוַיֵּֽצְאוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן וַיַּֽעַרְכ֥וּ מִלְחָמָ֖ה פֶּ֣תַח הָעִ֑יר וְהַמְּלָכִ֣ים אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֔אוּ לְבַדָּ֖ם בַּשָּׂדֶֽה:
were by themselves in the field: They divided their armies into two battle arrays: the children of Ammon were in one array at the entrance of the city against all Israel, and the kings who were with them in the second array were by themselves in the field behind Israel.  
10And Joab saw that the battle front was before and behind him, and he chose of all the choice men of Israel, and he put [them] in array against the Arameans.   יוַיַּ֣רְא יוֹאָ֗ב כִּי־הָֽיְתָ֧ה פְנֵֽי־הַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה אֵלָ֖יו פָּנִ֣ים וְאָח֑וֹר וַיִּבְחַ֗ר מִכָּל־בָּחוּר֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיַּֽעֲרֹ֖ךְ לִקְרַ֥את אֲרָֽם:
11And the rest of the people he gave into the hands of Abshai his brother, and they put themselves in array against the children of Ammon.   יאוְאֵת֙ יֶ֣תֶר הָעָ֔ם נָתַ֕ן בְּיַ֖ד אַבְשַׁ֣י אָחִ֑יו וַיַּ֣עַרְכ֔וּ לִקְרַ֖את בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן:
into the hands of Abshai: To Abishai, who is called Abshai throughout the entire Book of Chronicles, both in the written text and in the reading, except for these two cases, which are exceptions to the rule according to the Masorah. The reason that he is called Abshai in this entire Book is because it was written in David’s honor, and it is not honor to call his nephew Abishai, meaning: “I, too, am as esteemed as David because my [grand] father was Jesse [Yishai]” Therefore, in this entire Book, he is called Abshai, and in the entire Book of Samuel he is called Abishai, except once, where he is called Abshai: (II Sam. 10: 10): “And the rest of the people he gave over to Abshai his brother.” This is according to the Masorah, because Jesse was the father of his mother, Zeruiah, who was his mother.  
12And he said, "If the Arameans will be too strong for me, then you shall be my aid, and if the children of Ammon will be too strong for you, then I shall aid you.   יבוַיֹּ֗אמֶר אִם־תֶּֽחֱזַ֚ק מִמֶּ֙נִּי֙ אֲרָ֔ם וְהָיִ֥יתָ לִּ֖י לִתְשׁוּעָ֑ה וְאִם־בְּנֵ֥י עַמּ֛וֹן יֶֽחֶזְק֥וּ מִמְּךָ֖ וְהֽוֹשַׁעְתִּֽיךָ:
13Be strong, and let us strengthen ourselves on behalf of our people and on behalf of the cities of our God, and may the Lord do what is good in His eyes."   יגחֲזַ֚ק וְנִתְחַזְּקָה֙ בְּעַד־עַמֵּ֔נוּ וּבְעַ֖ד עָרֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וַֽיהֹוָ֔ה הַטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינָ֖יו יַֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
14And Joab and the people that were with him drew forward to do battle against the Arameans, and they fled before him.   ידוַיִּגַּ֨שׁ יוֹאָ֜ב וְהָעָ֧ם אֲשֶׁר־עִמּ֛וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י אֲרָ֖ם לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וַיָּנ֖וּסוּ מִפָּנָֽיו:
15And [when] the children of Ammon saw that the Arameans had fled, they too fled from before Abshai his brother, and they came to the city, and Joab came to Jerusalem.   טווּבְנֵ֨י עַמּ֚וֹן רָאוּ֙ כִּי־נָ֣ס אֲרָ֔ם וַיָּנ֣וּסוּ גַם־הֵ֗ם מִפְּנֵי֙ אַבְשַׁ֣י אָחִ֔יו וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ הָעִ֑ירָה וַיָּבֹ֥א יוֹאָ֖ב יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
16And the Arameans saw that they were smitten before Israel, and they sent emissaries and brought out the Arameans who were on the other side of the river and Shophach the general of the army of Hadarezer was before them.   טזוַיַּ֣רְא אֲרָ֗ם כִּ֣י נִגְּפוּ֘ לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַֽיִּשְׁלְחוּ֙ מַלְאָכִ֔ים וַיּוֹצִ֣יאוּ אֶת־אֲרָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר מֵעֵ֣בֶר הַנָּהָ֑ר וְשׁוֹפַ֛ךְ שַׂר־צְבָ֥א הֲדַדְעֶ֖זֶר לִפְנֵיהֶֽם:
and Shophach the general: And in Samuel (ad loc.) it is written: “and Shobach the general.” Our Rabbis explained in Sotah (42b): “Shobach, because he was as tall as a dovecote (שׁוֹבָ). Shophach, because he would shed (שׁוֹפֵ) blood like water.”  
17And it was told to David, and he gathered together all Israel, and he crossed the Jordan and came to them, and set himself against them, and David set himself in battle array against the Arameans, and they fought with him.   יזוַיֻּגַּ֣ד לְדָוִ֗יד וַיֶּֽאֱסֹ֚ף אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַיַּֽעֲבֹ֣ר הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וַיָּבֹ֣א אֲלֵהֶ֔ם וַיַּֽעֲרֹ֖ךְ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם וַיַּֽעֲרֹ֨ךְ דָּוִ֜יד לִקְרַ֚את אֲרָם֙ מִלְחָמָ֔ה וַיִּלָּֽחֲמ֖וּ עִמּֽוֹ:
18And the Arameans fled from before Israel, and David slew of the Arameans [the men of] seven thousand chariots and forty thousand foot soldiers, and he put Shophach the general to death.   יחוַיָּ֣נָס אֲרָם֘ מִלִּפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיַּֽהֲרֹ֨ג דָּוִ֜יד מֵֽאֲרָ֗ם שִׁבְעַ֚ת אֲלָפִים֙ רֶ֔כֶב וְאַרְבָּעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִ֣ישׁ רַגְלִ֑י וְאֵ֛ת שׁוֹפַ֥ךְ שַׂר־הַצָּבָ֖א הֵמִֽית:
19And the servants of Hadarezer saw that they were smitten before Israel, and they made peace with David and served him, and Aram no longer wished to aid the children of Ammon.   יטוַיִּרְא֞וּ עַבְדֵ֣י הֲדַדְעֶ֗זֶר כִּ֚י נִגְּפוּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיַּשְׁלִ֥ימוּ עִם־דָּוִ֖יד וַיַּֽעַבְדֻ֑הוּ וְלֹֽא־אָבָ֣ה אֲרָ֔ם לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־עַמּ֖וֹן עֽוֹד: