Chapter 22

1So said the Lord: Go down to the house of the king of Judah and speak this word there.   אכֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה רֵ֖ד בֵּֽית־מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה וְדִבַּרְתָּ֣ שָׁ֔ם אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה:
2And say; Listen to the word of the Lord, O king of Judah, who sits on the throne of David, you and your servants and your people who come in these gates.   בוְאָֽמַרְתָּ֙ שְׁמַ֣ע דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֔ה מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה הַיּשֵׁ֖ב עַל־כִּסֵּ֣א דָוִ֑ד אַתָּ֚ה וַֽעֲבָדֶ֙יךָ֙ וְעַמְּךָ֔ הַבָּאִ֖ים בַּשְּׁעָרִ֥ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
3So said the Lord: Perform justice and charity, and rescue the robbed from the hand of the robber, and to a stranger, an orphan, and a widow do no wrong, do no violence, and shed no innocent blood in this place.   גכֹּ֣ה | אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה עֲשׂ֚וּ מִשְׁפָּט֙ וּצְדָקָ֔ה וְהַצִּ֥ילוּ גָז֖וּל מִיַּ֣ד עָשׁ֑וֹק וְגֵר֩ יָת֨וֹם וְאַלְמָנָ֚ה אַל־תֹּנוּ֙ אַל־תַּחְמֹ֔סוּ וְדָ֣ם נָקִ֔י אַל־תִּשְׁפְּכ֖וּ בַּמָּק֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
do no wrong: This means taunting with words.  
4For if you will do this thing, there will come into the gates of this house kings descended from David, sitting on his throne, riding in chariots and with horses, he and his servants and his people.   דכִּ֚י אִם־עָשׂוֹ֙ תַּֽעֲשׂ֔וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּ֑ה וּבָ֣אוּ בְשַֽׁעֲרֵ֣י הַבַּ֣יִת הַזֶּ֡ה מְלָכִים֩ יֹֽשְׁבִ֨ים לְדָוִ֜ד עַל־כִּסְא֗וֹ רֹֽכְבִים֙ בָּרֶ֣כֶב וּבַסּוּסִ֔ים ה֥וּא וַֽעֲבָדָ֖יו (כתיב וַֽעֲבָדָ֖ו) וְעַמּֽוֹ:
5But if you do not hearken to these words, I swear by Myself, says the Lord, that this house will become a waste.   הוְאִם֙ לֹ֣א תִשְׁמְע֔וּ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה בִּ֚י נִשְׁבַּ֙עְתִּי֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּי־לְחָרְבָּ֥ה יִֽהְיֶ֖ה הַבַּ֥יִת הַזֶּֽה:
6For so said the Lord concerning the house of the king of Judah; You are [as] Gilead to me, O head of the Lebanon, that I will surely make you a desert, cities not inhabited.   וכִּֽי־כֹ֣ה | אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה עַל־בֵּית֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה גִּלְעָ֥ד אַתָּ֛ה לִ֖י רֹ֣אשׁ הַלְּבָנ֑וֹן אִם־לֹ֚א אֲשִֽׁיתְךָ֙ מִדְבָּ֔ר עָרִ֖ים לֹ֥א נוֹשָֽׁבוּ (כתיב נוֹשָֽׁבֻה) :
You are [as] Gilead to Me, etc.: Even if you are as dear to Me as the Temple, which is high on the mountain peaks, I swear that I will make you a desert.  
You are [as] Gilead: The Temple from which balm and healing emanate to the whole world.  
7And I will prepare for you destroyers, each one with his weapons, and they will cut your choice cedars and cast them upon the fire.   זוְקִדַּשְׁתִּ֥י עָלֶ֛יךָ מַשְׁחִתִ֖ים אִ֣ישׁ וְכֵלָ֑יו וְכָֽרְתוּ֙ מִבְחַ֣ר אֲרָזֶ֔יךָ וְהִפִּ֖ילוּ עַל־הָאֵֽשׁ:
And I will prepare: and I will prepare.  
and they will cut your choice cedars: Since he compares him to the Lebanon, this expression is appropriate.  
8And many nations will pass by this city, and they will say each one to his friend, "For what [reason] did the Lord do so to this great city?"   חוְעָֽבְרוּ֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים עַ֖ל הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֑את וְאָֽמְרוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֔הוּ עַל־מֶ֨ה עָשָׂ֚ה יְהֹוָה֙ כָּ֔כָה לָעִ֥יר הַגְּדוֹלָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת:
9And they will say, "Because they forsook the covenant of the Lord their God, and they prostrated themselves to other gods and worshipped them."   טוְאָ֣מְר֔וּ עַל אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָֽזְב֔וּ אֶת־בְּרִ֥ית יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּֽשְׁתַּֽחֲו֛וּ לֵֽאלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִ֖ים וַיַּֽעַבְדֽוּם:
10Weep not for the dead, neither bemoan him: weep for him who goes away, for he will return no more, nor see his native land.   יאַל־תִּבְכּ֣וּ לְמֵ֔ת וְאַל־תָּנֻ֖דוּ ל֑וֹ בְּכ֚וּ בָכוֹ֙ לַֽהֹלֵ֔ךְ כִּ֣י לֹ֚א יָשׁוּב֙ ע֔וֹד וְרָאָ֖ה אֶת־אֶ֥רֶץ מוֹלַדְתּֽוֹ:
Weep not for the dead: Namely, for Jehoiakim, who will die before the gate, when they drag him into exile.  
weep for him who goes: For Jehoiachin and for Zedekiah. Deduce from here that Jehoiakim’s death, concerning which it is stated (infra 36: 30): “And his carcass shall be cast to the heat by day and to the cold at night,” is preferable to the life of Jehoiachin, about whom it is stated (52:34): “And his meals, regular meals, etc.”  
11For so said the Lord concerning Shallum son of Josiah, king of Judah, who ruled instead of Josiah his father, who left this place; he shall not return there again.   יאכִּי־כֹ֣ה אָמַר־יְ֠הֹוָה אֶל־שַׁלֻּ֨ם בֶּן־יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֜הוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֗ה הַמֹּלֵךְ֙ תַּחַת יֹאשִׁיָּ֣הוּ אָבִ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָצָ֖א מִן־הַמָּק֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה לֹֽא־יָשׁ֥וּב שָׁ֖ם עֽוֹד:
concerning Shallum: That is Zedekiah, and that is what he was called in I Chron. (3:14): “the fourth Shallum.” And he called him the Fourth, meaning the fourth to assume the kingship of Josiah’s sons, for first Jehoaha, reigned, then Jehoiakim, and after him Jehoiachin, and after him Zedekiah.  
who left: Even though he hadn’t left yet, he prophesied as if he had already left.  
12For, in the place where they exiled him, there he will die, and this land he will no longer see.   יבכִּ֗י בִּמְק֛וֹם אֲשֶׁר־הִגְל֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ שָׁ֣ם יָמ֑וּת וְאֶת־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּ֖את לֹֽא־יִרְאֶ֥ה עֽוֹד:
13Woe to him who builds his house without righteousness and his upper chambers without justice, who makes his fellowman work without wages and his hire he does not give him.   יגה֣וֹי בֹּנֶ֚ה בֵיתוֹ֙ בְּֽלֹא־צֶ֔דֶק וַֽעֲלִֽיּוֹתָ֖יו בְּלֹ֣א מִשְׁפָּ֑ט בְּרֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ יַֽעֲבֹ֣ד חִנָּ֔ם וּפֹֽעֲל֖וֹ לֹ֥א יִתֶּן־לֽוֹ:
Woe to him who builds his house: He is saying this about Jehoiakim, who was a wicked man, and the end of the section proves this: “Therefore, so said the Lord about Jehoiakim.”  
14Who says, "I will build myself a wide house with spacious upper chambers, and he cuts out windows for himself, and it is ceiled with cedar and painted with vermilion.   ידהָֽאֹמֵ֗ר אֶבְנֶה־לִּי֙ בֵּ֣ית מִדּ֔וֹת וַֽעֲלִיּ֖וֹת מְרֻוָּחִ֑ים וְקָ֚רַֽע לוֹ֙ חַלּוֹנָ֔י וְסָפ֣וּן בָּאָ֔רֶז וּמָשׁ֖וֹחַ בַּשָּׁשַֽׁר:
a wide house: a large house. Cf. (Num. 13: 32) “Men of great stature (אַנֹשֵי מִדּוֹת) ,” who have what to measure.  
and he cuts out… for himself: And he widens for himself (Some emend: And he opens for himself) Comp. (supra 4:30) “that you enlarge (וַתִּקְרְעִי) … with paint.” Also (Isaiah 63:19), “Had You rent (קָרַעְתְּ) the heavens, had You descended.” They are all an expression of opening.  
and ceiled with cedar: He covers the roof with cedars.  
and painted with vermilion: painted with dyes, so does Jonathan render. בּשָּׁשַּׁר is a color of a type used for painting. Another explanation: וּמָשּׁוֹח ַבִּשָּׁשַּׁר is like a cord used for measuring (חוּט הַמִּשְּׁחָה) ([a] lignant en sinople in O.F.), drawing green lines, delineate with a green color.  
15Shall you reign, for you compete with the cedar? Your father-did he not eat and drink and perform justice and righteousness? Then it was well with him.   טוהֲתִֽמְלֹ֔ךְ כִּ֥י אַתָּ֖ה מְתַֽחֲרֶ֣ה בָאָ֑רֶז אָבִ֜יךָ הֲל֧וֹא אָכַ֣ל וְשָׁתָ֗ה וְעָשָׂ֚ה מִשְׁפָּט֙ וּצְדָקָ֔ה אָ֖ז ט֥וֹב לֽוֹ:
Shall you reign: Will you live long that you contend to make your rule oppressive to let all know that you are a king?  
your father: Josiah, who demeaned himself with humility, did he not eat and drink and enjoy pleasure all the days of his life?  
16He judged the cause of the poor and needy, then it was good. Is not that the knowledge of Me? says the Lord.   טזדָּ֛ן דִּין־עָנִ֥י וְאֶבְי֖וֹן אָ֣ז ט֑וֹב הֲלוֹא־הִ֛יא הַדַּ֥עַת אֹתִ֖י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
17For your eyes and your heart are on nothing but your gain and on innocent blood to shed and on the oppression and on the crushing to do.   יזכִּ֣י אֵ֚ין עֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ וְלִבְּךָ֔ כִּ֖י אִם־עַל־בִּצְעֶ֑ךָ וְעַ֚ל דַּֽם־הַנָּקִי֙ לִשְׁפּ֔וֹךְ וְעַל־הָעֹ֥שֶׁק וְעַל־הַמְּרוּצָ֖ה לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:
on your gain: to steal money.  
the crushing: the crushing of the poor, and עֹשֶק, oppression proves it, for ‘oppressed’ and ‘crushed’ are always juxtaposed in the language of the Scriptures. Cf. (I Sam. 12:3) “Whom did I oppress or whom did I crush?”  
18Therefore, so said the Lord about Jehoiakim, king of Judah; They will not lament him, [saying], "Hoe, brother!" or "Hoe, sister!" they will not lament him, "Hoe, lord!" or "Hoe, his glory!"   יחלָכֵ֞ן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶל־יְהוֹיָקִ֚ים בֶּן־יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֙הוּ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה לֹֽא־יִסְפְּד֣וּ ל֔וֹ ה֥וֹי אָחִ֖י וְה֣וֹי אָח֑וֹת לֹֽא־יִסְפְּד֣וּ ל֔וֹ ה֥וֹי אָד֖וֹן וְה֥וֹי הֹדֹֽה:
Hoe, his glory!: Woe for his glory.  
19A donkey's burial shall he be buried, dragged and tossed past the gates of Jerusalem.   יטקְבוּרַ֥ת חֲמ֖וֹר יִקָּבֵ֑ר סָח֣וֹב וְהַשְׁלֵ֔ךְ מֵהָ֖לְאָה לְשַֽׁעֲרֵ֥י יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
A donkey’s burial: As they drag the carcass of a donkey, so will they drag his carcass. The word יֹשַגְּרוּן used by Targum Jonathan means, they will drag.  
20Ascend to the Lebanon and cry, and on the Bashan give forth your voice, and cry for Avarim for all your lovers have been broken.   כעֲלִ֚י הַלְּבָנוֹן֙ וּֽצֳעָ֔קִי וּבַבָּשָׁ֖ן תְּנִ֣י קוֹלֵ֑ךְ וְצַֽעֲקִי֙ מֵֽעֲבָרִ֔ים כִּ֥י נִשְׁבְּר֖וּ כָּל־מְאַֽהֲבָֽיִךְ:
Ascend the Lebanon and cry: Go up to the Temple and cry.  
and on Bashan give forth your voice: On Bashan which will be destroyed. And Jonathan paraphrased: And in the gates of the Temple Mount. And I do not know how to explain how the expression ‘Bashan’ fits to the gates of the Temple Mount, unless it is because of the doors which they make from the terebinths of Bashan, and that is the name of a place, or the expression, ‘Bashan’ denotes a place of a wide valley. So is the area of the Temple Mount an open area around the Temple.  
and cry for Avarim: And cry for Megizatha. They are place names.  
21I spoke to you in your peaceful times. You said, "I will not heed." This is your way since your youth, for you did not hearken to My voice.   כאדִּבַּ֚רְתִּי אֵלַ֙יִךְ֙ בְּשַׁלְו‍ֹתַ֔יִךְ אָמַ֖רְתְּ לֹ֣א אֶשְׁמָ֑ע זֶ֚ה דַרְכֵּךְ֙ מִנְּעוּרַ֔יִךְ כִּ֥י לֹֽא־שָׁמַ֖עַתְּ בְּקוֹלִֽי:
in your peaceful times: when you lived in peace.  
22All your shepherds shall be broken by the wind, and your lovers shall go into captivity, for then you shall be ashamed and confounded because of all your evil.   כבכָּל־רֹעַ֙יִךְ֙ תִּרְעֶה־ר֔וּחַ וּֽמְאַֽהֲבַ֖יִךְ בַּשְּׁבִ֣י יֵלֵ֑כוּ כִּ֣י אָ֚ז תֵּבֹ֙שִׁי֙ וְנִכְלַ֔מְתְּ מִכֹּ֖ל רָֽעָתֵֽךְ:
All your shepherds: All your kings.  
shall be broken by the wind: The east wind shall break them.  
23You, who abide in the Lebanon, who nest in the cedars, how gracious shall you be when pangs come to you, the pain of a woman in travail?   כגיֹשַׁבְתְּ֙ (כתיב ישַׁבְתְּי֙) בַּלְּבָנ֔וֹן מְקֻנַּ֖נְתְּ (כתיב מְקֻנַּ֖נְתְּי) בָּֽאֲרָזִ֑ים מַה־נֵּחַנְתְּ֙ (כתיב נֵּחַנְתְּי֙) בְּבֹא־לָ֣ךְ חֲבָלִ֔ים חִ֖יל כַּֽיֹּלֵדָֽה:
who nest in the cedars: For you placed your nest in the towers of the cedar houses to build wide houses.  
how gracious shall you be: What grace have you found because of the height of your towers, in the eyes of your plunderers, when birth pangs come upon you. And Menahem interpreted נֵחַנְתְּ as an expression of camping, but Dunash interpreted it as an expression of grace.  
24As I live, says the Lord, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, be a signet on My right hand, from there I will remove you.   כדחַי־אָנִי֘ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה֒ כִּ֣י אִם־יִֽהְיֶ֞ה כָּנְיָ֚הוּ בֶן־יְהֽוֹיָקִים֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה חוֹתָ֖ם עַל־יַ֣ד יְמִינִ֑י כִּ֥י מִשָּׁ֖ם אֶתְּקֶֽנְךָּ:
a signet: Engraved and sealed in the flesh of My arm.  
I will remove you: Cf. (supra 12:3) “Draw them out (התִקֵם) like sheep to the slaughter” (Jos. 8:6) “Until we have drawn (התִקֵינוּ) them.” And the ‘nun’ is superfluous. And, according to the Midrash Aggadah (Pesikta d’Rav Kahana, p. 163a): In the place to which he was removed (נִתַּק), there he was rectified (נִתְקַן) , for he repented in Babylon, and the Holy One, blessed be He, applied for absolution of the oath He had sworn, “Inscribe this man childless.” and Zerubbabel was born to him in Babylon, and it was said to him through the prophet (Haggai 2:23), “On that day… I will take you, Zerubbabel, and I will make you as a signet,” directed toward what He said to his father, “Though… be a signet on My right arm,… I will remove him (sic).”  
25And I will deliver you into the hand[s] of those who seek your life and into the hand[s] of those you fear and into the hand[s] of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon, and into the hand[s] of the Chaldees.   כהוּנְתַתִּ֗יךָ בְּיַד֙ מְבַקְשֵׁ֣י נַפְשֶׁ֔ךָ וּבְיַ֛ד אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה יָג֖וֹר מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם וּבְיַ֛ד נְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֥ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל וּבְיַ֥ד הַכַּשְׂדִּֽים:
26And I will cast you and your mother who bore you, to another land where you were not born, and there you shall die.   כווְהֵֽטַלְתִּ֣י אֹֽתְךָ֗ וְאֶת־אִמְּךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְלָדַ֔תְךָ עַל הָאָ֣רֶץ אַחֶ֔רֶת אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יֻלַּדְתֶּ֖ם שָׁ֑ם וְשָׁ֖ם תָּמֽוּתוּ:
And I will cast: an expression of throwing.  
27But to the land to which they long to return there, there they shall not return.   כזוְעַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־הֵ֛ם מְנַשְּׂאִ֥ים אֶת־נַפְשָׁ֖ם לָשׁ֣וּב שָׁ֑ם שָׁ֖מָּה לֹ֥א יָשֽׁוּבוּ:
they long: This is an expression of consolation, that their soul lifts itself to console itself and to say, “We will again return to our land.”  
28Is this man, Coniah, a despised, shattered image, or a vessel in which there is no use? Why were he and his seed cast away, thrown to a land they know not?   כחהַעֶ֨צֶב נִבְזֶ֜ה נָפ֗וּץ הָאִ֚ישׁ הַזֶּה֙ כָּנְיָ֔הוּ אִ֨ם־כְּלִ֔י אֵ֥ין חֵ֖פֶץ בּ֑וֹ מַדּ֚וּעַ הֽוּטְלוּ֙ ה֣וּא וְזַרְע֔וֹ וְהֻ֨שְׁלְכ֔וּ עַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יָדָֽעוּ:
Is… a despised… image: It is a rhetorical question. Is this man a broken and despised image, that he was cast away from My face like a vessel in which there is no use?  
shattered: broken. Cf. (Psalms 2:8) “Like a potter’s vessel you shall shatter them (תְּנַפְּצֵם).” [Others annotated: הַעֶצֶב is like the idols (הָעֲצַבִּים).“We may swathe (מְעַצְּבִין) an infant” in Tractate Shabbath 22:6. That is to say, “Are you despised and broken in your eyes like a small infant who is being swathed (emmailloter in French)? This one is not worthy.”  
cast away: thrown, an expression of throwing that has no restoration. Comp. (Psalms 37:24), “If he falls, he will not be cast off (יוּטָל).”  
29O land, land, land, hearken to the word of the Lord.   כטאֶ֥רֶץ אֶ֖רֶץ אָ֑רֶץ שִׁמְעִ֖י דְּבַר־יְהֹוָֽה:
O land, land, land: A land that is a land among lands, the most esteemed of all of them. Another explanation: Eretz Israel had three lands in it. Judea, Transjordania, and Galilee.  
30So said the Lord: Inscribe this man childless, a man who will not prosper in his days, for no man of his seed shall prosper, sitting on the throne of David or ruling anymore in Judah.   לכֹּ֣ה | אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה כִּתְב֞וּ אֶת־הָאִ֚ישׁ הַזֶּה֙ עֲרִירִ֔י גֶּ֖בֶר לֹֽא־יִצְלַ֣ח בְּיָמָ֑יו כִּי֩ לֹ֨א יִצְלַ֜ח מִזַּרְע֗וֹ אִישׁ ישֵׁב֙ עַל־כִּסֵּ֣א דָוִ֔ד וּמוֹשֵׁ֥ל ע֖וֹד בִּֽיהוּדָֽה:
a man who will not prosper in his days: Inscribe him.