Chapter 7

1When I would heal Israel, the iniquity of Ephraim and the evils of Samaria are revealed, for they commit falsehood, and a thief comes, and a troop makes a raid without.   אכְּרָפְאִ֣י לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְנִגְלָ֞ה עֲו‍ֹ֚ן אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ וְרָע֣וֹת שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן כִּ֥י פָֽעֲל֖וּ שָׁ֑קֶר וְגַנָּ֣ב יָב֔וֹא פָּשַׁ֥ט גְּד֖וּד בַּחֽוּץ:
When I would heal Israel: When I wish to save them and heal them, their iniquities are revealed before Me, for they constantly commit falsehood, and thieves come constantly from them and steal their neighbors’ property, and also their bands spread out with lawlessness, to rob the people.  
2They do not say in their heart that I remember all their evil. Now their deeds have surrounded them; they were before My face.   בוּבַל־יֹֽאמְרוּ֙ לִלְבָבָ֔ם כָּל־רָֽעָתָ֖ם זָכָ֑רְתִּי עַתָּה֙ סְבָב֣וּם מַֽעַלְלֵיהֶ֔ם נֶ֥גֶד פָּנַ֖י הָיֽוּ:
They do not say in their heart: They do not lay it up to their heart that all their evil is inscribed before Me as a remembrance.  
3With their evil, they make the king glad, and with their lies, princes.   גבְּרָֽעָתָ֖ם יְשַׂמְּחוּ־מֶ֑לֶךְ וּבְכַֽחֲשֵׁיהֶ֖ם שָׂרִֽים:
they make the king glad: Their king desires the evil that they do.  
4They are all adulterers like an oven heated by the baker; the arouser rests from kneading the dough until it leavens.   דכֻּלָּם֙ מְנַֽ֣אֲפִ֔ים כְּמ֣וֹ תַנּ֔וּר בֹּעֵ֖רָה מֵֽאֹפֶ֑ה יִשְׁבּ֣וֹת מֵעִ֔יר מִלּ֥וּשׁ בָּצֵ֖ק עַד־חֻמְצָתֽוֹ:
like an oven heated by the baker: that was heated by the baker, so does their lust burn within them.  
he rests from awakening: Heb. יִשְׁבּוֹתמֵעִיר. Jonathan translated what he translated: I cannot reconcile it with the wording of the verse, and, according to its apparent meaning, their temptation, which arouses them, rests.  
from the kneading the dough until it leavens: From the time he thinks of the evil in his heart, how he will do it, he rests and sleeps until morning, when he can do it, just as the baker rests from the kneading of the dough until it leavens, when he can bake it. And so it is stated in Micah (2: 1): “Woe is to those who plan iniquity and work evil on their beds; when the morning lights up, they do it.”  
5The day of our king, the princes became ill from the heat of the wine; he withdrew his hand with the scorners.   הי֣וֹם מַלְכֵּ֔נוּ הֶֽחֱל֥וּ שָׂרִ֖ים חֲמַ֣ת מִיָּ֑יִן מָשַׁ֥ךְ יָד֖וֹ אֶת־לֹֽצְצִֽים:
The day of our king: The day we crown our king.  
the princes became ill: Our princes became ill.  
from the heat of the wine: From the heat of the wine which burns within them, and the king withdraws his hand from the good and proper people to join the scorners.  
6For they have made ready their heart like an oven with their ambush; all night their baker sleeps, in the morning he burns like a flaming fire.   וכִּי־קֵֽרְב֧וּ כַתַּנּ֛וּר לִבָּ֖ם בְּאָרְבָּ֑ם כָּל־הַלַּ֙יְלָה֙ יָשֵׁ֣ן אֹֽפֵהֶ֔ם בֹּ֕קֶר ה֥וּא בֹעֵ֖ר כְּאֵ֥שׁ לֶֽהָבָֽה:
For they have made ready their heart like an oven with their ambush: They prepared and readied their heart with their ambush, like an oven which they prepare and heat in order to bake.  
all night their baker sleeps: Their baker, who heats the oven after they have prepared their heart and have thought of the execution of the evil, how they would do it.  
their baker sleeps: i.e., until morning they sleep, and in the morning they burn like fire until they consummate their evil.  
7They are all heated like an oven and they devour their judges; all their kings have fallen, none of them calls to Me.   זכֻּלָּ֚ם יֵחַ֙מּוּ֙ כַּתַּנּ֔וּר וְאָֽכְל֖וּ אֶת־שֹֽׁפְטֵיהֶ֑ם כָּל־מַלְכֵיהֶ֣ם נָפָ֔לוּ אֵין־קֹרֵ֥א בָהֶ֖ם אֵלָֽי:
and they devour their judges: They slew their Sanhedrin because they protested against them, and what happened to them?  
All their kings have fallen because: “none of them calls to me.” And in the Palestinian Talmud in tractate Avodah Zarah (1:1) it is expounded as follows: On the day they crowned Jeroboam, “the princes became ill from the heat of wine” as is explained. They came to him and said to him, “Get up! Make idols for us.” He replied, “Now is the time of evening, and all the people are drinking” ; i.e., it is a time of drunkenness. Perhaps now you are drunk, and tomorrow you will recant. “Go and return in the morning.” They went and returned in the morning. That is what is written: “For they have made ready etc.” He said to them, “I fear your Sanhedrin.” They replied, “We will kill them.” I.e. what is written: “And they devour their judges.” “He draws his hand etc.” When he saw a righteous man, he would seat two scorners next to him, and they would say to him, “Which generation was the most beloved of all generations?” And he would reply, “The generation of the desert.” And they would say to him, “Did they not worship idols?” And he would reply, “Since they were beloved, they were not punished.” And they would say to him, “Quiet! The king wants to do that.”  
8Ephraim mingles with the peoples; Ephraim was as a cake which was not turned over.   חאֶפְרַ֕יִם בָּֽעַמִּ֖ים ה֣וּא יִתְבּוֹלָ֑ל אֶפְרַ֛יִם הָיָ֥ה עֻגָ֖ה בְּלִ֥י הֲפוּכָֽה:
mingles: He will mingle in exile with the nations.  
as a cake which was not turned over: Jonathan renders: as a cake which, before being turned over, was consumed. עֻגָה is a cake which they bake on the coals.  
9Strangers have consumed his strength, but he did not know; also weakness was cast into him, but he did not know.   טאָֽכְל֚וּ זָרִים֙ כֹּח֔וֹ וְה֖וּא לֹ֣א יָדָ֑ע גַּם־שֵׂיבָה֙ זָ֣רְקָה בּ֔וֹ וְה֖וּא לֹ֥א יָדָֽע:
but he did not know: He did not lay it up to his heart that the kings of Aram consumed him in the days of Jehoahaz, as it is said: (II Kings 13:7) “For he had not left to Jehoahaz etc. and made them like dust to trample.” Nonetheless, Jeroboam his son did not repent of his father’s evil.  
also weakness was cast: Heb. שֵׂיבָה, lit. ripe old age. Jonathan rendered. Also weakness reached them, but they did not contemplate it.  
10And the pride of Israel was humbled before him, and they did not return to the Lord their God, and did not seek Him despite this.   יוְעָנָ֥ה גְאֽוֹן־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּפָנָ֑יו וְלֹֽא־שָׁ֙בוּ֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א בִקְשֻׁ֖הוּ בְּכָל־זֹֽאת:
And the pride of Israel was humbled before Him: Heb. וְעָנָה. And the glory of Israel was humbled and they saw; an expression of humility, and this is not a future tense but a past tense. Comp. (Isa. 6:3) “And one called (וְקָרָא) to the other.” I heard that one called to the other. Also (Gen. 37:3) “and he made (וְעָשָׂה) for him a woolen shirt.” This too is a past tense. They have already been diminished and humbled, and, despite this, they did not return to the Lord.  
11And Ephraim was like a silly dove without a heart; they called upon Egypt, they went to Assyria.   יאוַיְהִ֣י אֶפְרַ֔יִם כְּיוֹנָ֥ה פוֹתָ֖ה אֵ֣ין לֵ֑ב מִצְרַ֥יִם קָרָ֖אוּ אַשּׁ֥וּר הָלָֽכוּ:
without a heart: to discern between what was good for them and what was bad for them.  
they called upon Egypt: To those who have always harmed them, they call for aid.  
they went to Assyria: They went to the king of Assyria that he should aid them.  
12When they go, I will spread My net over them; like the fowl of the heaven I will bring them down. I will chastise them as I let their congregation hear.   יבכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵלֵ֗כוּ אֶפְר֚וֹשׂ עֲלֵיהֶם֙ רִשְׁתִּ֔י כְּע֥וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם אֽוֹרִידֵ֑ם אַיְסִירֵ֕ם כְּשֵׁ֖מַע לַֽעֲדָתָֽם:
When they go: to Egypt.  
I will spread My net over them; like the fowl of the heaven: For the eagle and the hawk ascend higher than he and they bring them down to the earth, so will I bring them down in Egypt through Nebuchadnezzar. Another explanation: like the fowl of the heaven that is caught in a net hung on poles, and after they are in the net, they bring down the net.  
I will chastise them as I let their congregation hear: I will bring chastisements upon them according to all that I let them hear through Jeremiah the prophet, that they are destined to say to him (42:2-6) “And pray in our behalf etc. And let the Lord your God tell etc. Whether good or bad etc.” And he said to them (verse 15f.), “If you direct your faces to come to Egypt etc. the sword that you fear will overtake you there,” and the entire section.  
I will chastise them: Heb. אַיְסִירֵם, an expression of chastisements (יִסּוּרִין) and Menahem (Machbereth Menahem pp. 128f.) explained [it as] an expression of binding. Comp. (Jer. 30:8) “and I will break your thongs (מוֹסְרוֹתֶי),” but Dunash (Teshuvoth Dunash p. 34) interpreted [it as] an expression of chastisements (יִסּוּרִין). Comp. (Lev. 26:18) “to chastise you (לְיַסְרָה).” And the second “yud” in אַיְסִירֵם is added, as it is added in (יַיְשִׁירוּ) (Prov. 4:25) “and your eyelids look straight (יַיְשִירוּ) ahead of you.”  
13Woe is to them for they have wandered away from Me; plunder to them for they have rebelled against Me. I would redeem them, but they spoke lies about Me.   יגא֚וֹי לָהֶם֙ כִּֽי־נָדְד֣וּ מִמֶּ֔נִּי שֹׁ֥ד לָהֶ֖ם כִּי־פָ֣שְׁעוּ בִ֑י וְאָֽנֹכִ֣י אֶפְדֵּ֔ם וְהֵ֕מָּה דִּבְּר֥וּ עָלַ֖י כְּזָבִֽים:
I would redeem them: I wanted to redeem them from the evil in which they are [found].  
but they spoke lies about Me: They said to Jeremiah, (Jer. 43:2) “You speak falsely; the Lord our God did not send you to say, ‘You shall not come to Egypt.’”  
14And they did not cry out to Me with their heart, therefore they will wail on their beds; because of the corn and the wine which they store up, they turn away from Me.   ידוְלֹֽא־זָֽעֲק֚וּ אֵלַי֙ בְּלִבָּ֔ם כִּ֥י יְיֵלִ֖ילוּ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָ֑ם עַל־דָּגָ֧ן וְתִיר֛וֹשׁ יִתְגּוֹרָר֖וּ יָס֥וּרוּ בִֽי:
therefore, they will wail on their beds: Because, therefore, a wail will come to them. So did Jonathan render it.  
they store up: They have many granaries of corn; therefore, they turn away and rebel against Me.  
15But I chastised them, I strengthened their arms, yet to Me they attribute evil.   טווַֽאֲנִ֣י יִסַּ֔רְתִּי חִזַּ֖קְתִּי זְרֽוֹעֹתָ֑ם וְאֵלַ֖י יְחַשְּׁבוּ־רָֽע:
But I chastised them, I strengthened their arms: with My fear, through My prophets, to hearken to them with what they were chastising them, and their arms would be strengthened.  
16They will return, but to no avail; they were like a deceitful bow; their princes shall fall by the sword, from the fury of their tongue. This is their derision in the land of Egypt.   טזיָשׁ֣וּבוּ | לֹ֣א עָ֗ל הָיוּ֙ כְּקֶ֣שֶׁת רְמִיָּ֔ה יִפְּל֥וּ בַחֶ֛רֶב שָֽׂרֵיהֶ֖ם מִזַּ֣עַם לְשׁוֹנָ֑ם ז֥וֹ לַעְגָּ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
They will return, but to no avail: Heb. עָל. They returned to Egypt, but it did not avail them. Therefore, עָל is vowelized with a “kamatz.” Comp. (II Sam. 23: 1) “The word of the man raised up high (עָל) ,” which is an expression of raising up and is not attached to the following word.  
they were like a deceitful bow: which, when one wishes to shoot with it toward the north, shoots toward the south.  
their princes shall fall by the sword: Jonathan son of Kareah and all the officers of the armies who returned to Egypt.  
from the fury of their tongue: The harsh language with which they replied to Jeremiah.  
This is their derision: which they will deride them in the land of Egypt. Why have you returned to us to bring retribution upon us? Is it not written concerning you, “ (Ex. 14:13)” You shall no longer continue to see them" ?