Chapter 8

1To your palate a shophar: Like an eagle upon the house of the Lord, for they have transgressed My covenant and they have rebelled against My Law.   אאֶל־חִכְּךָ֣ שֹׁפָ֔ר כַּנֶּ֖שֶׁר עַל־בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֑ה יַעַן עָֽבְר֣וּ בְרִיתִ֔י וְעַל־תּֽוֹרָתִ֖י פָּשָֽׁעוּ:
To your palate a shophar: The Shechinah says to the prophet: Let the voice of your palate be heard, and call like a shophar, and say: You enemies! Fly and hasten as the eagle swoops and come to the house of the Lord. To your palate a shophar, it is as though a shophar is placed to your palate. [after Jonathan]  
2To Me Israel will cry: "My God! We know You!"   בלִ֖י יִזְעָ֑קוּ אֱלֹהַ֥י יְדַֽעֲנ֖וּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
To Me… will cry: when evil befalls them…  
“My God! We know You”: Are we not Your people? Transpose it and interpret it. Israel will cry to Me, “My God! We know You!” But I will not heed them, for…  
3Israel has cast off the Good One; the enemy shall pursue him.   גזָנַ֥ח יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל ט֑וֹב אוֹיֵ֖ב יִרְדְּפֽוֹ:
Israel has cast off the Good One: Therefore, the enemy shall pursue him.  
4They set up a king, but not from Me, they removed, and I did not know; [with] their silver and their gold they made themselves idols, in order that it be cut off.   דהֵ֚ם הִמְלִיכוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א מִמֶּ֔נִּי הֵשִׂ֖ירוּ וְלֹ֣א יָדָ֑עְתִּי כַּסְפָּ֣ם וּזְהָבָ֗ם עָשׂ֚וּ לָהֶם֙ עֲצַבִּ֔ים לְמַ֖עַן יִכָּרֵֽת:
they removed: Heb. הֵשִׁירוּ, they set up princes (שָּׂרִים). Another explanation: [הֵשִּׂירוּ is like הֵסִירוּ, they removed,] they removed this one from the throne and crowned this one, and in the book of the Masorah, this is proven, for he classified it in the Masorah of those written with a “shin” and read as a “samech,” bearing the meaning of the “samech.”  
in order that it be cut off: For they had much gold, and they caused for them that the wealth be cut off from them.  
5He has forsaken [you because of] your calf, O Samaria, My wrath is kindled against them; how long will they be unable to cleanse themselves?   הזָנַח֙ עֶגְלֵ֣ךְ שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן חָרָ֥ה אַפִּ֖י בָּ֑ם עַד־מָתַ֕י לֹ֥א יֽוּכְל֖וּ נִקָּיֹֽן:
He has forsaken: The Holy One, blessed be He, has forsaken you, children of Samaria, for the iniquity of the calves in Bethel, where the kings of Israel worship.  
how long will they be unable: to empty their hearts to be cleansed of that filth.  
6For it is from Israel; a craftsman made it, and it is a no-god, for the calf of Samaria shall be splinters.   וכִּ֚י מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְה֔וּא חָרָ֣שׁ עָשָׂ֔הוּ וְלֹ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים ה֑וּא כִּֽי־שְׁבָבִ֣ים יִֽהְיֶ֔ה עֵ֖גֶל שֹֽׁמְרֽוֹן:
For it is from Israel: From each one’s silver and gold it was collected, and the craftsman made it. And the “vav” of וְהוּא is superfluous, and there are many like it, e.g. (Ezekiel 47: 11), “Its swamps and its pools shall not become healthy (וְלֹא יֵרָפְאוּ).” Here too, for its preparation is from Israel and it is made. And this “vav” may be reconciled in the following manner: וְהוּא כִּי מִיִשְׂרָאֵל Also, this calf came from them like the first calf.  
splinters: Heb. שְׁבָבִים, Jonathan renders: splinters of boards, and it is an Aramaic expression. cf. שִּׁיבָא מִכְּשּׁוּרָא (Sanhedrin 7b), a splinter of a beam.  
7For they sow wind and they will reap the tempest; it has no standing grain, a plant that will not produce flour; if it does produce, strangers will swallow it.   זכִּ֛י ר֥וּחַ יִזְרָ֖עוּ וְסוּפָ֣תָה יִקְצֹ֑רוּ קָמָ֣ה אֵֽין־ל֗וֹ צֶמַח בְּלִ֣י יַֽעֲשֶׂה־קֶּ֔מַח אוּלַ֣י יַֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה זָרִ֖ים יִבְלָעֻֽהוּ:
it has no standing grain: Their seed has no standing grain; i.e., they will not prosper with their deeds.  
if it does produce: Even if it produces flour.  
strangers will swallow it: Even if they prosper with their property, it will eventually fall into the hands of strangers.  
8Israel has been swallowed; now they are among the nations as a useless utensil.   חנִבְלַ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עַתָּה֙ הָי֣וּ בַגּוֹיִ֔ם כִּכְלִ֖י אֵֽין־חֵ֥פֶץ בּֽוֹ:
9For they went up to Assyria, a wild donkey secluded to himself, they paid hire for love.   טכִּֽי־הֵ֙מָּה֙ עָל֣וּ אַשּׁ֔וּר פֶּ֖רֶא בּוֹדֵ֣ד ל֑וֹ אֶפְרַ֖יִם הִתְנ֥וּ אֲהָבִֽים:
a wild donkey secluded to himself: He became like a wild donkey that goes alone to itself, sniffing air from place to place to wander.  
they paid hire for love: Heb. הִתְנוּ. Jonathan interprets it as an expression of a dragon; like this dragon that goes through the deserts. They sniffed the air like the dragon to acquire for themselves lovers, strange paramours. הִתְנוּ, endragonérént in O.F., like the tremors of the nostrils of a dragon, [derived from תַּנִין. According to this derivation we render: dragonlike, they sought lovers.] It may also be explained as an expression of hire.  
10Although they pay hire among the nations, now I will gather them, and they will be humbled a little from the burden of the king and the princes.   יגַּ֛ם כִּֽי־יִתְנ֥וּ בַגּוֹיִ֖ם עַתָּ֣ה אֲקַבְּצֵ֑ם וַיָּחֵ֣לּוּ מְעָ֔ט מִמַּשָּׂ֖א מֶ֥לֶךְ שָׂרִֽים:
Although they pay hire among the nations: Although they did this, that they paid for lovers of the nations.  
now I will gather them: When the time of their redemption arrives, I will not delay it.  
and they will be humbled a little from the burden of the king and the princes: And they will be humbled a little in their exile from the fear of the burden of the king and the princes, i.e. from the yoke of the kings of the nations among whom they were.  
11For Ephraim has increased altars to sin; he had altars to sin.   יאכִּֽי־הִרְבָּ֥ה אֶפְרַ֛יִם מִזְבְּח֖וֹת לַֽחֲטֹ֑א הָֽיוּ־ל֥וֹ מִזְבְּח֖וֹת לַֽחֲטֹֽא:
For Ephraim has increased: Therefore, I will humble them with the burden of the king and the princes.  
12I write for them the great things of My Law; like a strange thing they are considered.   יבאֶ֨כְתָּב־ (כתיב אֶ֨כְתָּוב) ל֔וֹ רֻבֵּ֖י (כתיב רֻבֵּ֖ו) תּֽוֹרָתִ֑י כְּמוֹ־זָ֖ר נֶחְשָֽׁבוּ:
I write for them: I constantly reprimand them through My prophets, and write for them the great things of My Law, but they are considered a strange thing.  
13As for the sacrifices they burn before Me, let them slaughter the flesh and eat it; the Lord does not desire them. Now He will remember their iniquity and visit their sins [when] they return to Egypt.   יגזִבְחֵ֣י הַבְהָבַ֗י יִזְבְּח֚וּ בָשָׂר֙ וַיֹּאכֵ֔לוּ יְהֹוָ֖ה לֹ֣א רָצָ֑ם עַתָּ֞ה יִזְכֹּ֚ר עֲו‍ֹנָם֙ וְיִפְקֹ֣ד חַטֹּאתָ֔ם הֵ֖מָּה מִצְרַ֥יִם יָשֽׁוּבוּ:
As for the sacrifices they burn before Me: Heb. זִבְחֵי הַבְהָבַי. The sacrifice of My burnt offerings that they scorch in the fire which is upon My altar.  
let them slaughter the flesh and eat [it]: Why do I need them to bring them? Let them slaughter so that they have flesh to eat and eat them, for I do not desire them.  
14Israel has forgotten his Maker, and has built temples, and Judah has increased fortified cities, and I will set fire to his cities, and it will consume her palaces.   ידוַיִּשְׁכַּ֨ח יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־עֹשֵׂ֗הוּ וַיִּ֙בֶן֙ הֵֽיכָל֔וֹת וִֽיהוּדָ֕ה הִרְבָּ֖ה עָרִ֣ים בְּצֻר֑וֹת וְשִׁלַּחְתִּ֨י־אֵ֣שׁ בְּעָרָ֔יו וְאָכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנֹתֶֽיהָ: