[The following laws apply when a person has a 100 log of wine that are tevel according to Scriptural Law.1 If he says: "The two lugim that I will separate are terumah;2 the ten are the first tithe, and the nine are the second tithe,"3 he should not begin drinking and leave over the quantity designated as terumah and the tithes at the end. Instead, he should make the separations and then drink. We do not say that the wine he left over at the end is retroactively considered as if it was set aside in the beginning.4 [The rationale for this stringency is that] the obligation [to separate] terumah and the tithes is Scriptural in origin, and with regard to [matters of] Scriptural Law, we do not say that we will consider it as if a separation has been made unless it actually has been made.5


מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ מֵאָה לוֹג שֶׁל יַיִן טָבוּל מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְאָמַר שְׁנֵי לוֹגִין שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לְהַפְרִישׁ מֵהֶן הֲרֵי הֵן תְּרוּמָה וַעֲשָׂרָה מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן וְתִשְׁעָה מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. לֹא יַתְחִיל וְיִשְׁתֶּה עַד שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ בְּסוֹף שִׁעוּר תְּרוּמָה וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת. אֶלָּא יַפְרִישׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׁתֶּה. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין זֶה שֶׁהִנִּיחַ בַּסּוֹף כְּאִלּוּ נִבְרַר תְּחִלָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחִיּוּב תְּרוּמָה וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין בְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָה נַחְשֹׁב כְּאִלּוּ נִבְרַר עַד שֶׁיִּבְרֹר:


When a person specifies that his tithes were located at the opening of a jug [of wine], he should not drink from the bottom of the barrel. If he specifies that they are at the bottom, he should not drink from the top. [The rationale is that] the liquids intermingle.6 If, by contrast, one specified [that the tithes for produce] were at the opening of a storage container, one may eat from the bottom.7 If one specified that they were located at the bottom, one may eat from the top.8


הַקּוֹבֵעַ מַעַשְׂרוֹתָיו בְּפִי הֶחָבִית לֹא יִשְׁתֶּה מִשּׁוּלֶיהָ. בְּשׁוּלֶיהָ לֹא יִשְׁתֶּה מִפִּיהָ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקִין מְעֹרָבִין. אֲבָל הַקּוֹבֵעַ בְּפִי הַמְּגוּרָה אוֹכֵל מִשּׁוּלֶיהָ. קָבַע בְּשׁוּלֶיהָ אוֹכֵל מִפִּיהָ:


A person can designate certain produce as the second tithe and then redeem it.9 [Afterwards,] he may designate that same produce as the first tithe10 for this batch of produce or terumat ma'aser for other produce.11


וְיֵשׁ לָאָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וּפוֹדֵהוּ וְעוֹשֵׂהוּ מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן עַל אוֹתָן הַפֵּרוֹת אוֹ תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר:


When a person sets aside produce to use them for the separation of tithes,12 he may continue to separate tithes relying on this produce on the assumption that it is intact, eating and drinking [from the produce from which he intended to separate tithes] until the entire quantity that was set aside has become tithes. He then gives that to a Levite. [If later] he discovers that the produce that he set aside [for tithes] has been lost, he must show concern for all the tithes that he set aside.13 He should not, however, tithe [the second time] with certainty.14


הַמַּנִּיחַ פֵּרוֹת לִהְיוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן מַעַשְׂרוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהֵן קַיָּמִין וְאוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ כָּל אוֹתָן הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁהִנִּיחַ מַעֲשֵׂר וְנוֹתֵן לַלֵּוִי. מְצָאָן שֶׁאָבְדוּ הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹשֵׁשׁ לְכָל שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ וְאֵינוֹ מְעַשֵּׂר וַדַּאי:


When a person lends money to a priest,15 a Levite,16 or a poor person,17 so that he can separate [produce] for the money [they owe] from the portions due them,18 he may continue to separate tithes on their behalf on the assumption that they are alive. He need not show concern that the priest or Levite died or the poor man became wealthy.19


הַמַּלְוֶה מָעוֹת אֶת הַכֹּהֵן וְאֶת הַלֵּוִי וְאֶת הֶעָנִי לִהְיוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עַל אוֹתָן הַמָּעוֹת מֵחֶלְקוֹ מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהֵן קַיָּמִין וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא מֵתוּ הַכֹּהֵן אוֹ הַלֵּוִי אוֹ הֶעֱשִׁיר הֶעָנִי:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


How should he make these separations on their behalf? He should separate terumah, the first tithe, or the tithe for the poor20 and give it to another person for the sake of the priest, Levite, or poor person to whom he lent money.21 If [the debtors] would frequently take these separations from him or if he was accustomed to give these separations to them alone, he need not give them to another person on their behalf.22

After [the lender] makes these separations, he calculates the worth of the produce he separated and deducts it from the loan. [He continues doing this] until he repays the entire debt. He may sell the terumah to any priest of his choice and may partake of the tithes [himself].


כֵּיצַד מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן. מַפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה אוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי מִפֵּרוֹתָיו וּמְזַכֶּה בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר לְאוֹתוֹ כֹּהֵן אוֹ הַלֵּוִי אוֹ הֶעָנִי שֶׁהִלְווּם. וְאִם הָיוּ רְגִילִין לִטּל מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא רָגִיל שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן אֶלָּא לָהֶן אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹת עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר. וְאַחַר שֶּׁמַּפְרִישׁ מְחַשֵּׁב כַּמָּה שָׁוֶה זֶה שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ וּמְנַכֶּה מִן הַמִּלְוֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפְרַע כָּל חוֹבוֹ וּמוֹכֵר הַתְּרוּמָה לְכָל כֹּהֵן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה וְאוֹכֵל הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת:


When he calculates the worth of the produce that he set aside, he has the right to consider their value according to the lower market price.23 This is not considered as interest.24 The Sabbatical year does not remit such a debt.25

If the lender desires to nullify this arrangement, he may not.26 But if [the borrowers] seek to do so, they may. If the owner despaired of receiving payment from them, he can no longer make these separations on their behalf. For we may not make separations because of [a debt that] was lost.27

If the priest, Levite, or poor person who borrowed money dies, he cannot continue to separate on their behalf unless he receives permission from the heirs.28 [Moreover, even if permission is granted,] it is effective only when [the deceased] left the heirs [a tract of] land at least the size of a needle.29 If, however, he left them only money, permission from the heir is not effective.30 If he made the loan in court on the condition that he will make the separations on their behalf for this money, it is not necessary for him to receive permission from the heirs.31

If the poor person became wealthy, he may no longer separate [the tithe for the poor] on his behalf.32 Even though he made the loan in court, [the recipient] may retain the funds in his possession.33


כְּשֶׁהוּא מְחַשֵּׁב מַה שָּׁוִים הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ לְחַשֵּׁב כַּשַּׁעַר הַזּוֹל וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ מִשּׁוּם רִבִּית. וְאֵין הַשְּׁבִיעִית מְשַׁמֶּטֶת חוֹב זֶה. וְאִם בָּא בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לַחֲזֹר אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר. אֲבָל אִם רָצוּ אֵלּוּ שֶׁלָּקְחוּ הַמָּעוֹת לַחֲזֹר חוֹזְרִין. נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ מֵהֶן הַבְּעָלִים אֵין מַפְרִישִׁין עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁאֵין מַפְרִישִׁין עַל הָאָבוּד. מֵת הַכֹּהֵן אוֹ הַלֵּוִי אוֹ הֶעָנִי שֶׁהִלְווּם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן מֵחֶלְקָן כַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזּוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּטּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ לָהֶן קַרְקַע אֲפִלּוּ מְלֹא מַחַט. אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחַ כְּסָפִים אֵין רְשׁוּת הַיּוֹרֵשׁ מוֹעֶלֶת. וְאִם הִלְוָם בְּבֵית דִּין עַל מְנָת שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ עַל מָעוֹת אֵלּוּ מֵחֶלְקָם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִטּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין. הֶעֱשִׁיר הֶעָנִי אֵין מַפְרִישִׁין עָלָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִלְווּהוּ בְּבֵית דִּין זוֹכֶה הַלָּה בְּמַה שֶּׁבְּיָדוֹ:


When an Israelite tells a Levite: "I am in possession of a kor34 of tithes for you," the Levite has the right to designate that produce as terumat ma'aser for other produce even if he did not draw it into his possession.35 If the Israelite gives it to another Levite, the first individual has nothing more than complaints against him.36


יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאָמַר לְבֶן לֵוִי כּוֹר מַעֲשֵׂר יֵשׁ לְךָ בְּיָדִי רַשַּׁאי בֶּן לֵוִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר עַל מָקוֹם אַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא מָשַׁךְ. וְאִם נְתָנוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְלֵוִי אַחֵר אֵין לוֹ עָלָיו אֶלָּא תַּרְעֹמֶת:


When a person has produce in a silo and gives a se'ah to a Levite37and a se'ah to a poor person,38 he should not set aside eight se'ah from the silo and partake of it39 unless he knows with certainty that the two se'ah of the tithes are still intact. If, however, the Levite and/or the poor person partook of them, he may set aside only an amount of grain proportionate to what remains from the two se'ah.40


מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ פֵּרוֹת בִּמְגוּרָה וְנָתַן סְאָה לְלֵוִי וּסְאָה לְעָנִי לֹא יַפְרִישׁ שְׁמֹנֶה סְאִין מִן הַמְּגוּרָה וְיֹאכְלֵם. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁשְּׁתֵּי סְאִין שֶׁל מַעַשְׂרוֹת קַיָּמִין. אֲבָל אִם אָכְלוּ מֵהֶן הַלֵּוִי וְהֶעָנִי אֵינוֹ מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן אֶלָּא לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן הַנִּשְׁאָר מִשְּׁתֵּי הַסְּאִין:


[The following laws apply when] poor people exchange the presents given them with the owner of the field, i.e., they gave him a se'ah of leket, shichachah, peah or the tithes for the poor and they took a se'ah of grain from the grain pile.41 [The grain] he takes from them is exempt from the tithes,42 even though it was prepared in the domain of the owner. [Tithes] must be separated from [the grain] they take from him even though it was given in exchange for their presents that are exempt.


עֲנִיִּים שֶׁהֶחְלִיפוּ מַתְּנוֹתֵיהֶן עִם בַּעַל הַבַּיִת כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ סְאָה שֶׁל לֶקֶט אוֹ שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה וּמַעֲשֵׂר עָנִי וְנָטְלוּ סְאָה מִן הַגֹּרֶן. זֶה שֶׁנָּטַל מֵהֶם פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בִּרְשׁוּת בַּעַל הַבַּיִת. וְזֶה שֶׁנָּטְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חֵלֶף מַתְּנוֹתֵיהֶן הַפְּטוּרִין:


[The following laws apply when] there are two baskets of tevel from which terumah was separated in front of a person and he says: "Let the tithes from this one be in the other one." The tithing of the first basket is effective. If he says, "Let the tithes from this one be in the other one and [the tithes for] the second one be in this one," the tithing of the first basket is effective, for he has established its tithes within the second basket. The tithing of the second basket is not effective because tithes cannot be set aside from the first basket because the obligation to tithe has already been discharged for the second basket from which the tithes from both must be separated.43


מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁתֵּי כַּלְכָּלוֹת שֶׁל טֶבֶל שֶׁנִּטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתָן וְאָמַר מַעַשְׂרוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה מְעֻשֶּׂרֶת. אָמַר מַעַשְׂרוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ וְזוֹ בָּזוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה מְעֵשֶּׂרֶת שֶׁהֲרֵי קָבַע מַעַשְׂרוֹתֶיהָ בַּשְּׁנִיָּה. וְאֵין הַשְּׁנִיָּה מְעֵשֶּׂרֶת שֶׁאֵין מַפְרִישִׁין מַעֲשֵׂר מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְטְרָה עַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה שֶׁעֲדַיִן הִיא חַיֶּבֶת בְּמַעֲשַׂר שְׁתֵּיהֶן:


If one says: "With regard to the tithes for these two baskets. The tithes for each one are established in the other," he has designated the tithes by name and has established the tithes within them. He therefore separates the tithes from them. He may not separate the tithes from another source.44


אָמַר מַעַשְׂרוֹת שְׁתֵּי כַּלְכָּלוֹת אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר כָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן קָבוּעַ בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ קָרָא שֵׁם וּכְבָר קָבַע מַעַשְׂרוֹתֵיהֶן בָּהֶן וּמוֹצִיא הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא עֲלֵיהֶן מַעַשְׂרוֹת מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר:


How are the tithes separated [in the above situation]? One may separate the tithes for both of them from one of them or he should separate the tithes from each one of them from itself if they were of equal [size].45 If one of them was larger than the other, one should separate the tithes for the larger one from the smaller one and the tithes for the smaller one from the larger one.46


וְכֵיצַד מְעַשְּׂרָן. מוֹצִיא מַעֲשַׂר שְׁתֵּיהֶן מֵאַחַת מֵהֶן אוֹ מְעַשֵּׂר כָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן מִמֶּנָּה אִם הָיוּ שָׁווֹת. וְאִם הָיְתָה אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה מֵחֲבֶרְתָּהּ מַפְרִישׁ מִן הַקְּטַנָּה מַעֲשַׂר הַגְּדוֹלָה וּמִן הַגְּדוֹלָה מַעֲשַׂר הַקְּטַנָּה: