One may rub the surface of figs and grapes [of tevel];1 this does not cause a [significant] loss.2 Whatever is forbidden for non-priests to partake of with regard to terumah, e.g., the seeds or the like,3 may not be eaten from tevel, from the tithes from which terumat ma'aser has not been separated, or from the second tithe and consecrated property that were not redeemed. Whatever non-priests may partake of with regard to terumah is also permitted to be eaten from tevel, from the tithes from which terumat ma'aser has not been separated, and from the second tithe and consecrated property that were not redeemed.


מַחְלִיקִין בִּתְאֵנִים וַעֲנָבִים שֶׁל טֶבֶל וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם הֶפְסֵד. וְכָל שֶׁאָסוּר לְזָרִים לְאָכְלוֹ בִּתְרוּמָה כְּגוֹן הַגַּרְעִינִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן כָּךְ אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ מִן הַטֶּבֶל וּמִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ וּמִמַּעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ. וְכָל שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְזָרִים לְאָכְלוֹ בִּתְרוּמָה מִדְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ כָּךְ מֻתָּר בְּטֶבֶל וּבְמַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ:


We4 may not kindle impure tevel,5 even during the week. Needless to say, this applies on Sabbath.6 [This is implied by Numbers 18:8]: "the watch of My terumah."7 Just as pure terumah may not be used until after it has been separated, so too, we may not benefit from impure terumah until after it was separated.


אֵין מַדְלִיקִין בְּטֶבֶל טָמֵא אֲפִלּוּ בְּחל וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח ח) "אֶת מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי" מַה תְּרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה אֵין לְךָ בָּהּ אֶלָּא מִשְּׁעַת הֲרָמָתָהּ אַף תְּרוּמָה טְמֵאָה אֵין לְךָ לֵהָנוֹת בָּהּ אֶלָּא מִשְּׁעַת הֲרָמָתָהּ וְאֵילָךְ:


We may not cover tevel with earth,8 nor may we sow it. It is forbidden to sow even produce for which the work associated with their preparation has not been completed9 until it has been tithed.10

When does the above apply? With regard to grains, legumes, and the like.11 If, however, one uproots saplings that contain fruit and replants them in another place in his field,12 it is permitted. It is not considered as sowing tevel, for he did not gather the fruit.13

Similarly, when one uproots turnips and radishes and replants them elsewhere, if he intends to add to their bulk, it is permitted.14 If one plants them so that they will produce stalks so that he can take their seed, it is forbidden [to plant them without tithing],15 because it is like sowing wheat or barley that is tevel.


אֵין מְחַפִּין בְּטֶבֶל וְאֵין זוֹרְעִין אֶת הַטֶּבֶל וַאֲפִלּוּ פֵּרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן אָסוּר לִזְרֹעַ מֵהֶן עַד שֶׁיְּעַשֵּׂר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּתְבוּאָה וְקִטְנִיּוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. אֲבָל הָעוֹקֵר שְׁתִילִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן פֵּרוֹת מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר וְאֵינוֹ כְּזוֹרֵעַ טֶבֶל שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא אָסַף הַפֵּרוֹת. וְכֵן הָעוֹקֵר לֶפֶת וּצְנוֹנוֹת וּשְׁתָלָם בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהוֹסִיף בְּגוּפָן מֻתָּר. וְאִם שְׁתָלָן כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּקַשּׁוּ וְיִקַּח הַזֶּרַע שֶׁלָּהֶן אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּזוֹרֵעַ חִטִּים אוֹ שְׂעוֹרִים שֶׁל טֶבֶל:


[The following laws apply when a person] sows a litra of produce16 that was separated as tithes, but terumat ma'aser had not been separated from it. If it increased and it is now 10 litra, [the entire new crop] is required to be tithed.17 A tenth18 should be separated for the [original] litra from other produce19 according to the appropriate reckoning.20

If one separated [terumah and tithes] from a litra of onions and sowed them, one should not separate the tithes according to the reckoning of the increase, but according to the entire sum of the crop.21


לִיטְרָא מַעֲשֵׂר טָבוּל שֶׁזְּרָעָהּ וְהִשְׁבִּיחָהּ וַהֲרֵי הִיא עֶשֶׂר לִיטְרִין חַיֶּבֶת בְּמַעֲשֵׂר. וְאוֹתָהּ לִיטְרָא מְעַשֵּׂר עָלֶיהָ מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן. לִיטְרָא בְּצָלִים שֶׁתִּקְּנָם וּזְרָעָם אֵינוֹ מְעַשֵּׂר לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן הַתּוֹסֶפֶת אֶלָּא מְעַשֵּׂר לְפִי כֻּלּוֹ:


There is an unresolved doubt regarding the ruling when stalks of produce whose seed does not decompose that reached a third of their growth,22 were [gathered,] their stack was straightened, and he tithed them,23 he subsequently sowed them, and they increased in size. [One might say that] there is a Rabbinic obligation to tithe them, because they increased in size.24 [But one might say] that there is no obligation25 since the seed which continues to exist and did not decompose was tithed. [The laws governing these species] do not resemble [those that apply to] onions, because it is not common practice to sow onions.26


זֵרְעוֹנִים שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ שְׁלִישׁ וּמְרָחָן וְעִשְּׂרָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ זְרָעָן וְהוֹסִיפוּ וְאֵין זַרְעָם כָּלֶה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם חַיָּבִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂר מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם הוֹאִיל וְהוֹסִיפוּ. אוֹ אֵין חַיָּבִין שֶׁהֲרֵי הַזֶּרַע שֶׁעֲדַיִן הוּא קַיָּם וְלֹא אָבַד מְעֻשָּׂר הוּא. וְאֵין אֵלּוּ דּוֹמִים לִבְצָלִים שֶׁהַבְּצָלִים אֵין דַּרְכָּן לְהִזָּרַע:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


[The following laws apply when one] sows tevel, whether a crop whose seed decomposes27 or a crop whose seed does not decompose.28 If it is possible for him to gather it [before it takes root in the ground], we penalize him29 and [require him to] gather it. [If the seed decomposes], should it grow, we do not require him to uproot [the plants].30 [The growths] are considered as ordinary produce.31

If the produce is of a type whose seed does not decompose, even the produce that grows from the growths - indeed, even until the third generation - is forbidden. The fourth generation is permitted. Why are the growths forbidden? Because of the terumat ma'aser and the terumah within them.32 These same laws apply when one sows produce separated as the tithes from which terumat ma'aser was not separated.

It is forbidden to sell tevel except when there is a necessity to do so and [then,] only to a Torah scholar.33 It is forbidden to send [presents] of tevel, even from one Torah scholar to another, perhaps one will rely on the other34 and thus cause tevel to be eaten.


הַזּוֹרֵעַ אֶת הַטֶּבֶל בֵּין דָּבָר שֶׁזַּרְעוֹ כָּלֶה בֵּין דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין זַרְעוֹ כָּלֶה אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְלָקְטוֹ קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ וּמְלַקְּטוֹ. וְאִם צָמַח אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לַעֲקֹר וְהַגִּדּוּלִין חֻלִּין. וְאִם הָיָה דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין זַרְעוֹ כָּלֶה אֲפִלּוּ גִּדּוּלֵי גִּדּוּלִין אֲסוּרִין עַד שָׁלֹשׁ גֳּרָנוֹת וְהָרְבִיעִי מֻתָּר. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הַגִּדּוּלִין אֲסוּרִין מִפְּנֵי תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וּתְרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁבָּהּ. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּזוֹרֵעַ מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ. אֵין מוֹכְרִין אֶת הַטֶּבֶל אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ וּלְחָבֵר. וְאָסוּר לִשְׁלֹחַ אֶת הַטֶּבֶל וַאֲפִלּוּ חָבֵר לְחָבֵר שֶׁמָּא יִסְמְכוּ זֶה עַל זֶה וְיֵאָכֵל הַטֶּבֶל:


[The following rules apply when a person] sells produce35 to a colleague, but then remembers that it is tevel and although he afterwards runs to pursue him to make the appropriate separations,36 he cannot find him. If he knows that the produce no longer exists - it was already lost or consumed - he does not have to separate tithes for it.37 If there is a doubt whether it exists or do not exists, he should separate tithes for it from other produce.38


הַמּוֹכֵר פֵּרוֹת לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁהֵם טֶבֶל וְרָץ אַחֲרָיו לְתַקְּנוֹ וְלֹא מְצָאוֹ. אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵין קַיָּמִין וְשֶׁכְּבָר אָבְדוּ אוֹ נֶאֶכְלוּ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְעַשֵּׂר עֲלֵיהֶם. וְאִם סָפֵק שֶׁהֵם קַיָּמִין אוֹ אֵין קַיָּמִין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹצִיא עֲלֵיהֶן מַעַשְׂרוֹת מִפֵּרוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת:


[The following rule applies when there is a dispute when] a person sells produce to a purchaser.] The seller says: "I sold them with the stipulation that they were tevel."39 The purchaser said: "I purchased tithed produce from you."40 We compel the seller to make the appropriate separations.41 [This is a] penalty imposed upon him for selling tevel.42


הַמּוֹכֵר פֵּרוֹת לַחֲבֵרוֹ מוֹכֵר אוֹמֵר עַל מְנָת שֶׁהֵן טֶבֶל מָכַרְתִּי. וְלוֹקֵחַ אוֹמֵר לֹא לָקַחְתִּי מִמְּךָ אֶלָּא מְעֵשָּׂרִין. כּוֹפִין אֶת הַמּוֹכֵר לְתַקֵּן. קְנָס הוּא לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמָּכַר טֶבֶל:


One may not pay a debt from tevel, for this resembles a sale.43


אֵין פּוֹרְעִין חוֹב מִן הַטֶּבֶל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹכְרוֹ:


[The following laws apply when a person's] crops were seized by the king's authorities while they were tevel. If [they were taken] because he owed this amount,44 he must separate the tithes for this produce.45 If they were taken from him by force, he does not have to separate tithes for them.


מִי שֶׁלָּקְחוּ בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת פֵּרוֹתָיו וְהֵם טְבָלִים. אִם מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לָהֶן צָרִיךְ לְהוֹצִיא עֲלֵיהֶן מַעַשְׂרוֹת. וְאִם לָקְחוּ בְּאֹנֶס אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְעַשֵּׂר עֲלֵיהֶם:


When a person purchases tevel from two sources,46 he may separate the tithes from one for the other.47 When a person receives a field from a Jew or from a gentile as part of a sharecropping agreement,48 he should make the division [of the produce] in the presence of the owner of the field and give him his share then, so that he knows that he received tevel.49

[Different rules apply, however, when a person] rents a field from a Jew on the condition that he pay the owner a specific amount of produce. If he pays him with produce from the field he rented, [the renter] must separate terumah.50 Afterwards, he gives him the measure he stipulated he would give him and the owner of the field must separate the tithe himself.51 If, however, [the renter] pays the owner from the produce of another field or with another type of produce, [the renter] must first separate the tithes and then pay [the owner].52


הַלּוֹקֵחַ טֶבֶל מִשְּׁנֵי מְקוֹמוֹת מְעַשֵּׂר מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ מִן הַנָּכְרִי חוֹלֵק וְנוֹתֵן לְבַעַל הַשָּׂדֶה בְּפָנָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדַע שֶׁטֶּבֶל נָטַל. אֲבָל הַחוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אִם נָתַן לוֹ מִזֶּרַע אוֹתָהּ שָׂדֶה תּוֹרֵם וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתֵן לוֹ מִזּוֹ שֶׁקָּצַץ לִתֵּן לוֹ וּבַעַל הַשָּׂדֶה מְעַשֵּׂר לְעַצְמוֹ. וְאִם נָתַן לוֹ מִזֶּרַע שָׂדֶה אַחֶרֶת אוֹ מִמִּין אַחֵר מוֹצִיא הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתֵן לוֹ:


When a person rents a field from a gentile on the condition that he pay him a specific amount of produce, he must tithe the produce before giving it to him. This is a penalty imposed upon him so that he will not rent the field from the gentile.53 In this way, the field will lie fallow [before the gentile]54 and, of necessity, he will sell it to a Jew.55

Similarly, when a person accepts his ancestral field from a gentile as a sharecropper,56 he was penalized and required to tithe the produce before giving the gentile his share of produce after it was tithed. [This measure was instituted] so that a person should not jump at the opportunity to receive it because it was his ancestral field. In this manner, it will remain fallow before the gentile so that he will sell it to a Jew.


הַחוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם מְעַשֵּׂר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתֵן לוֹ. קְנָס קְנָסוּהוּ בָּזֶה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַחְכֹּר מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם, וְנִמְצֵאת הַשָּׂדֶה בּוּרָה לְפָנָיו עַד שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ וְיִמְכְּרֶנָּה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכֵן הַמְקַבֵּל שְׂדֵה אֲבוֹתָיו מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם קְנָסוּהוּ שֶׁיְּעַשֵּׂר וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן חֶלְקוֹ לְעַכּוּ''ם מְעֻשָּׂר כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקְפֹּץ וִיקַבְּלָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא שְׂדֵה אֲבוֹתָיו עַד שֶׁתִּשָּׁאֵר לְפָנָיו בּוּרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֶנָּה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל:


What is meant by a chokar and what is meant by a mekabel?57 A chokar hires the field for a specific amount of produce - these-and-these many se'ah - whether the field produced a lot or a little. A mekabel hires the field for a percentage of its yield, half, a third, or whichever amount they agree on. A sochar is one who rents the land for [a sum of] money.58


אֵי זֶהוּ חוֹכֵר וְאֵי זֶהוּ מְקַבֵּל. חוֹכֵר שֶׁחוֹכֵר הַקַּרְקַע בְּדָבָר קָצוּב מִן הַזֶּרַע בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ סְאָה בֵּין עָשְׂתָה הַרְבֵּה בֵּין עָשְׂתָה מְעַט. מְקַבֵּל הוּא שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל אוֹתָהּ בְּחֵלֶק מִמַּה שֶּׁתֵּעָשֶׂה חֶצְיוֹ אוֹ שְׁלִישׁוֹ אוֹ מַה שֶּׁיִּתְּנוּ בֵּינֵיהֶן. שׂוֹכֵר הוּא שֶׁשּׂוֹכֵר הַקַּרְקַע בְּמָעוֹת:


When two people receive a field as sharecroppers together, they inherit the field, or join as partners with regard to it, one may tell the other: "Take the wheat in this-and-this place and I will take the wheat from that-and-that place. You [take] the wine in this-and-this place and I will take the wine from that-and-that place."59 He should not say: "You take the wheat and I will take the barley. You take the wine and I will take the oil," for that constitutes selling tevel.


שְׁנַיִם שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ שָׂדֶה בַּאֲרִיסוּת אוֹ יָרְשׁוּ אוֹ נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ יָכוֹל הָאֶחָד לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ טֹל אַתָּה חִטִּים שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי וַאֲנִי חִטִּים שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אַתָּה יַיִן שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי וַאֲנִי יַיִן שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי. אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר טֹל אַתָּה חִטִּים וַאֲנִי שְׂעוֹרִים אַתָּה יַיִן וַאֲנִי שֶׁמֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמּוֹכְרִין אֶת הַטֶּבֶל:


When a priest or a Levite purchased produce from an Israelite after the tasks [associated with their preparation] were completed,60 we expropriate the terumah and tithes from their possession and give them to other priests and Levites. This is a penalty imposed on them so that they will not hurry to the grainheaps and winepresses and purchase tevel to grab the presents of their priestly brethren.61 If, however, they purchase [the produce] before [these] tasks are completed, we do not expropriate [the presents] from their possession.62


כֹּהֵן אוֹ לֵוִי שֶׁלָּקְחוּ פֵּרוֹת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אַחַר שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן מוֹצִיאִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה וְהַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת מִידֵיהֶן וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתָם לְכֹהֲנִים וְלִלְוִיִּם אֲחֵרִים. קְנָס הוּא לָהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקְפְּצוּ לָגֳרָנוֹת וּלְגִתּוֹת וְיִקְנוּ טְבָלִים כְּדֵי לְהַפְקִיעַ מַתְּנוֹת אֲחֵיהֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים. וְאִם קָנוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּן אֵין מוֹצִיאִים מִיָּדָם:


When a priest or Levite sold produce that was detached to an Israelite63 before the tasks [associated with their preparation] were completed - and certainly, if they sold the produce while it was attached - the terumah or the tithes belong to [the priest or Levite].64 If they sold it after these tasks were completed, the terumah and the tithes belong to the purchaser.65 He must separate them and may give them to the priest or Levite of his choice.


כֹּהֵן אוֹ לֵוִי שֶׁמָּכְרוּ פֵּרוֹת תְּלוּשִׁין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּן וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם מָכְרוּ בִּמְחֻבָּר הֲרֵי הַתְּרוּמָה אוֹ הַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלָּהֶם. וְאִם מָכְרוּ אַחַר גְּמַר מְלָאכָה הֲרֵי הַתְּרוּמָה וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ וּמַפְרִישׁ וְנוֹתֵן לְכָל כֹּהֵן אוֹ לֵוִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה:


When a priest or Levite receive a field from an Israelite under a sharecropping agreement, they should divide the terumah and the tithes, as they divide up the ordinary produce. The Israelite should take his portion and give it to the priest or Levite of his choice. When, however, an Israelite receives a field from a priest or a Levite under a sharecropping agreement, the terumah and/or the tithes belong to the owner of the field.66 The remainder of the presents67 should be divided.


כֹּהֵן וְלֵוִי שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ שָׂדֶה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּשֵׁם שֶׁחוֹלְקִין בְּחֻלִּין כָּךְ חוֹלְקִין בִּתְרוּמָה וּבְמַעַשְׂרוֹת וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נוֹטֵל חֶלְקוֹ וְנוֹתֵן לְכָל כֹּהֵן אוֹ לֵוִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. אֲבָל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁקִּבֵּל שָׂדֶה מִכֹּהֵן אוֹ מִלֵּוִי הַתְּרוּמָה אוֹ הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לְבַעַל הַשָּׂדֶה וּשְׁאָר הַמַּתָּנוֹת חוֹלְקִין:


When a person - whether an Israelite from a priest or Levite or a priest or Levite from an Israelite - receive olives68 to produce oil, they should divide the terumah and the tithes, as they divide up the ordinary produce. [The rationale is that] oil is an important [commodity].69


הַמְקַבֵּל זֵיתִים לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֶן שֶׁמֶן בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל מִכֹּהֵן אוֹ לֵוִי בֵּין כֹּהֵן אוֹ לֵוִי מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּשֵׁם שֶׁחוֹלְקִין בְּחֻלִּין כָּךְ חוֹלְקִין בִּתְרוּמָה וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶן חָשׁוּב הוּא:


When a priest sells a field to an Israelite and tells him: "[I am selling it] on the condition that the tithes from it belong to me forever," they belong to him.70 [The rationale is that] saying "on the condition that" is tantamount to setting aside for himself [the portion of the field] where the tithes [grow].71

If the priest [who sold the land] dies, his son is like all other priests.72 If [the priest] told [the purchaser]: "[I am selling it] on the condition that the tithes from it belong to me and my son," [when] he dies, his son73 should take [the tithes]. If he sold it "...on the condition throughout the time it is in your possession," should the purchaser sell it to another person - even if he later buys it back, the priest is no longer entitled to those tithes.


כֹּהֵן שֶׁמָּכַר שָׂדֶה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַר לוֹ עַל מְנָת שֶׁהַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלָּהּ שֶׁלִּי לְעוֹלָם הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁלּוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר עַל מְנָת נַעֲשֶׂה כְּמִי שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר מְקוֹם הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. וְאִם מֵת הַכֹּהֵן הֲרֵי בְּנוֹ כִּשְׁאָר הַכֹּהֲנִים. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ עַל מְנָת שֶׁהַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת לִי וְלִבְנִי מֵת הוּא יִטְלֵם בְּנוֹ. עַל מְנָת שֶׁהַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת שֶׁלִּי כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא לְפָנֶיךָ מְכָרָהּ לְאַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָזַר וּלְקָחָהּ אֵין לַכֹּהֵן אוֹתָם הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת:


When an Israelite received a field under a sharecropping agreement from a priest or Levite and stipulated that [the agreement is being made] "on the condition that the tithes are mine74 for four or five years," this is permitted.75 "...On the condition that they are mine forever," this is forbidden. [The rationale is that] one priest cannot make another priest.76

Similarly, if a Levite owed money to an Israelite, the Israelite may not collect produce from others and set aside the tithes for himself until he repays his debt.77 For a Levite cannot make his creditor a Levite so that he can collect the tithes from others.78


יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁקִּבֵּל שָׂדֶה מִכֹּהֵן וְלֵוִי וְאָמַר לוֹ עַל מְנָת שֶׁהַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת שֶׁלִּי אַרְבַּע אוֹ חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים מֻתָּר. עַל מְנָת שֶׁהֵן שֶׁלִּי לְעוֹלָם אָסוּר שֶׁאֵין כֹּהֵן עוֹשֶׂה כֹּהֵן. וְכֵן בֶּן לֵוִי שֶׁהָיָה עָלָיו חוֹב לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִהְיֶה יִשְׂרָאֵל זֶה גּוֹבֶה מֵאֲחֵרִים וּמַפְרִישׁ עַד שֶׁיִּפְרַע כְּנֶגֶד חוֹבוֹ שֶׁאֵין לֵוִי זֶה עוֹשֶׂה בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁלּוֹ כְּלֵוִי אַחֵר שֶׁיִּגְבֶּה מַעֲשֵׂר מֵאֲחֵרִים:


When an Israelite inherits tevel that was found in a grainheap whose edges had been straightened79 from his maternal grandfather who was a priest who in turn inherited it from his maternal grandfather who was an Israelite, [the Israelite who was the heir] may separate the tithes and keep them as his own. [The rationale is that] presents which are fit to be separated are considered as if they have already been separated although in actual fact they were not separated.80


יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיָּרַשׁ טֶבֶל מְמֹרַח מֵאֲבִי אִמּוֹ כֹּהֵן וְאוֹתוֹ אֲבִי אִמּוֹ יְרָשׁוֹ מֵאֲבִי אִמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲרֵי זֶה מַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ מַעַשְׂרוֹתָיו וְהֵן שֶׁלּוֹ. שֶׁהַמַּתָּנוֹת הָרְאוּיוֹת לִיתָרֵם כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּרְמוּ הֵן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הוּרְמוּ:


When a person gives his field81 to a gentile or to someone upon whom we cannot rely with regard to the tithes82 in a sharecropping arrangement, he must separate the tithes in lieu of them even though [the produce] had not reached the "phase of tithing" [when the arrangement was made].83

If he entered into such an arrangement with a common person [different rules apply]. If [the arrangement began] before the crops reached the "phase of tithing," he does not have to tithe in lieu of him.84 [If it began] after they reached the "phase of tithing," he must tithe in lieu of him.85

What must he do? He should stand over the grainheap86 and take [the produce that must be separated]. He need not be concerned with what they ate,87 for we are not responsible for their actions.


הַנּוֹתֵן שָׂדֵהוּ בְּקַבָּלָה לְעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ לְמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן עַל הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא בָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת מַעַשְׂרוֹת צָרִיךְ לְעַשֵּׂר עַל יָדָם. נְתָנָהּ לְעַם הָאָרֶץ עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְעַשֵּׂר עַל יָדָם. וּמִשֶּׁבָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת צָרִיךְ לְעַשֵּׂר עַל יָדָם. כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה. עוֹמֵד עַל הַגֹּרֶן וְנוֹטֵל וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לְמַה שֶּׁאָכְלוּ שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ אַחְרָאִין לָהֶם: