1

The prohibition against mixed fabrics in clothes involves only wool1 and linen, as [Deuteronomy 22:11] states: "Do not wear sha'atnez, wool and linen together." In seaports, there is something like wool that grows on stones in the Mediterranean Sea2 whose appearance resembles gold and it is very soft. It is called kelech.3 It is forbidden [to be mixed] with linen because of the appearance it creates, because it resembles lambs' wool. Similarly, silk and kelech are forbidden because of the appearance it creates.4

א

אֵין אָסוּר בְּכִלְאֵי בְּגָדִים אֶלָּא צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתָּן בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יא) "לֹא תִלְבַּשׁ שַׁעַטְנֵז צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים יַחְדָּו". וְיֵשׁ בִּכְרַכֵּי הַיָּם כְּמוֹ צֶמֶר שֶׁגָּדֵל עַל הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁבְּיָם הַמֶּלַח תַּבְנִיתוֹ כְּתַבְנִית הַזָּהָב וְהוּא רַךְ בְּיוֹתֵר וְכָלָךְ שְׁמוֹ וְאָסוּר עִם הַפִּשְׁתָּן מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן שֶׁהוּא דּוֹמֶה לְצֶמֶר רְחֵלִים. וְכֵן הַשֵּׁירִים וְהַכָּלָךְ אֲסוּרִין מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן:

2

When a ewe is born to a she-goat, one is not liable for [mixing] its wool [with linen]. It is, however, forbidden according to Rabbinic decree, because of the impression it creates.

If wool and linen are connected in any manner, they are considered mixed fabrics according to Scriptural Law.5 What is implied? When wool and linen were mixed together, combed together, and made into a smooth mass, they are considered as mixed fabrics. If they were mixed and combed as one and then a garment was woven from this combed fabric, they are considered mixed fabrics.

ב

רָחֵל בַּת עֵז צַמְרָהּ אֵין לוֹקִין עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם כִּלְאַיִם אֲבָל אָסוּר הוּא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְחַבֵּר הַצֶּמֶר עִם הַפִּשְׁתָּן צַד חִבּוּר בָּעוֹלָם הֲרֵי זֶה כִּלְאַיִם מִן הַתּוֹרָה. כֵּיצַד. צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים שֶׁטְּרָפָן זֶה עִם זֶה וְשָׁע אוֹתָן וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן לְבָדִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִּלְאַיִם. טְרָפָן וְטָוָה אוֹתָן כְּאֶחָד וְאָרַג בֶּגֶד מִטִּוּוּי זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה כִּלְאַיִם:

3

If one sewed woolen fabric to linen6 - even if he sewed them with silk, sewed a woolen garment with linen thread, or a linen garment with woolen thread, one tied woolen threads with linen threads or braided them together, or even if one placed wool and linen together in a sack or a basket and wound them,7 they are considered as mixed fabrics. Even if one tied a braid of wool to a braid of linen, even if there is a strap of leather in between,8 they are considered mixed fabrics. [This law also applies] if one folded over woolen and linen fabric and tied them together. [The rationale is that the prooftext states:] "Wool and linen together." Since they are combined - regardless of how - they are forbidden.

ג

תָּפַר בֶּגֶד צֶמֶר בְּשֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן וַאֲפִלּוּ תְּפָרָן בְּמֶשִׁי אוֹ שֶׁתָּפַר בֶּגֶד צֶמֶר בְּחוּטֵי פִּשְׁתָּן אוֹ בֶּגֶד פִּשְתִּים בְּחוּטֵי צֶמֶר אוֹ קָשַׁר חוּטֵי צֶמֶר בְּחוּטֵי פִּשְתִּים אוֹ גְּדָלָן אֲפִלּוּ נָתַן צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים בְּשַׂק אוֹ בְּקֻפָּה וּכְרָכָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִּלְאַיִם. וַאֲפִלּוּ קָשַׁר גְּדִיל שֶׁל צֶמֶר בִּגְדִיל שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָרְצוּעָה בְּאֶמְצַע. וְכֵן אִם כָּפַל בִּגְדֵי צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתָּן וּקְשָׁרָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִּלְאַיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יא) "צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים יַחְדָּו" מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְאַחֵד נֶאֱסַר:

4

What is the source that teaches that all these prohibitions are Scriptural in origin? [We derive this from the fact that] the Torah had to explicitly state that kilayim are permitted in tzitzit.9 As we learned according to the Oral Tradition,10 the passage concerning kilayim11 was positioned next to the passage concerning tzitzit12 solely to teach that kilayim are permitted in tzitzit. Now the tzitzit are strands that are tied together. Thus it can be derived that a connection of this type in a situation that does not involve a mitzvah is forbidden according to Scriptural Law.13 For the Torah would not exclude something that is forbidden only according to Rabbinic Law.

ד

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּרִין אֵלּוּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הֻצְרַךְ הַכָּתוּב לְהַתִּיר כִּלְאַיִם בְּצִיצִית. כְּמוֹ שֶׁלָּמְדוּ מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא נִסְמְכָה פָּרָשַׁת כִּלְאַיִם לְפָרָשַׁת צִיצִית אֶלָּא לְהַתִּיר כִּלְאַיִם בְּצִיצִית. וְהַצִּיצִית חוּטִין קְשׁוּרִין בִּלְבַד הֵן. מִכְלָל שֶׁחִבּוּר כָּזֶה שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה. שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְמַעֵט בַּתּוֹרָה דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

5

There is no minimum measure for kilayim. Even the smallest thread of wool in a large linen garment or a thread of linen in a woolen garment is forbidden.14

ה

הַכִּלְאַיִם אֵין לוֹ שִׁעוּר אֲפִלּוּ חוּט כָּל שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל צֶמֶר בְּבֶגֶד גָּדוֹל שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן אוֹ שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן בְּצֶמֶר אָסוּר:

6

[The following laws apply when] one mixed the wool of ewes with the wool of camels and the like and made thread from them. If half [of the mixture] is from the ewes, it is considered as kilayim with flax. If, however, the majority is from the camels, it is permitted to mix them with flax, because the form of the entire mixture is that of camel wool. We do not pay attention to the strands of wool that are mixed with them, for they are not threads of wool.15

ו

צֶמֶר רְחֵלִים וְצֶמֶר גְּמַלִּים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁטְּרָפָן זֶה בְּזֶה וְטָוָה מֵהֶן טִוּוּי. אִם הָיָה הַחֵצִי מִן הָרְחֵלִים הֲרֵי הַכּל כְּצֶמֶר רְחֵלִים וַהֲרֵי הוּא כִּלְאַיִם עִם הַפִּשְׁתָּן. וְאִם הָיָה הָרֹב מִן הַגְּמַלִּים מֻתָּר לְעָרְבוֹ עִם הַפִּשְׁתָּן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצּוּרַת הַכּל צוּרַת צֶמֶר גְּמַלִּים וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְנִימוֹת שֶׁל צֶמֶר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת בָּהֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן חוּטֵי צֶמֶר:

7

Therefore when sheep hides are used to make garments,16 they are permitted even though they are sewed with flax. We are not concerned with the strands of wool - even though they become entwined with the linen threads used to sew it, because the wool is insignificant because of the minute amount that is there.17

ז

לְפִיכָךְ עוֹרוֹת הַכְּבָשִׂים שֶׁעוֹשִׂין מֵהֶן בְּגָדִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתּוֹפְרִין אוֹתָן בְּפִשְׁתָּן מֻתָּרִין וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְנִימוֹת שֶׁל צֶמֶר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְרְכוּ בִּכְלַל חוּט הַפִּשְׁתָּן שֶׁתָּפְרוּ בּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּטְלוּ בְּמִעוּטָן:

8

Similar [laws apply when] hemp and linen were mixed with each other. If the majority is hemp, it is permitted to weave these threads with woolen threads. If they are half and half, it is forbidden.

ח

וְכֵן הַקַּנְבּוֹס וְהַפִּשְׁתָּן שֶׁטְּרָפָן זֶה בָּזֶה אִם רֹב מִן הַקַּנְבּוֹס מֻתָּר לֶאֱרֹג הַטִּוּוּי מֵהֶן עִם חוּטֵי צֶמֶר וְאִם הָיוּ מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה אָסוּר:

9

If a person makes a garment entirely out of camel's wool, rabbit wool, or hemp and weaves one thread of [sheep's] wool on one side and one thread of linen on the other side,18 it is forbidden as kilayim.19

ט

הָעוֹשֶׂה בֶּגֶד כֻּלּוֹ צֶמֶר גְּמַלִּים אוֹ צֶמֶר אַרְנָבִים אוֹ קַנְבּוֹס וְאָרַג בּוֹ חוּט שֶׁל צֶמֶר מִצַּד זֶה וְחוּט שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן מִצַּד זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם כִּלְאַיִם:

10

When a woolen garment becomes torn, it is permitted to join it together with threads of linen and tie them, but one may not sew them.20

י

בֶּגֶד צֶמֶר שֶׁנִּפְרַם מֻתָּר לִפְרֹף אוֹתוֹ בְּחוּטֵי פִּשְׁתָּן. וְקוֹשֵׁר אֲבָל לֹא יִתְפֹּר:

11

A person may wear woolen garments and linen garments and tie a belt around them from the outside,21 provided he does not wind together cords [of each fabric] and tie them22 between his shoulders.

יא

לוֹבֵשׁ אָדָם בִּגְדֵי צֶמֶר וּבֶגֶד פִּשְׁתָּן וְחוֹגֵר עֲלֵיהֶם מִבַּחוּץ וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִכְרֹךְ אֶת הַמְּשִׁיחָה וְיִקְשֹׁר בָּהּ בֵּין כְּתֵפָיו:

12

It is permitted to make mixed fabrics and sell them.23 It is forbidden only to wear them or cover oneself with them.24 [This is derived from] the verses [Deuteronomy 22:11]: "Do not wear sha'atnez" and [Leviticus 19:19: "A garment that is of mixed fabrics, sha'atnez] shall not come upon you." [The association of the verses implies] that to be forbidden, [a garment must] "come upon [you]" as one wears it. If, however, it comes upon one not in a manner of wearing, i.e., a tent that is kilayim, it is permitted to sit under it.

Similarly, it is permitted according to Scriptural Law to sit on spreads25 that are made of kilayim. For "Shall not come upon you" [implies], that you may spread it under you. According to Rabbinic decree, however, even if there are ten spreads one on top of the other and the bottom one is kilayim, it is forbidden to sit on the top one, lest a strand [of kilayim] becomes wound around one's flesh.

יב

כִּלְאֵי בְּגָדִים מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָם וּלְמָכְרָם וְאֵין אָסוּר אֶלָּא לְלָבְשָׁן בִּלְבַד אוֹ לְהִתְכַּסּוֹת בָּהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יא) "לֹא תִלְבַּשׁ שַׁעַטְנֵז". וְנֶאֱמַר (ויקרא יט יט) "לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ". הָעֲלִיָּה שֶׁהִיא דֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁה אָסוּר אֲבָל עֲלִיָּה שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁה כְּגוֹן אֹהֶל שֶׁהוּא כִּלְאַיִם מֻתָּר לֵישֵׁב תַּחְתָּיו. וְכֵן מֻתָּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה לֵישֵׁב עַל מַצָּעוֹת שֶׁל כִּלְאַיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ אֲבָל אַתָּה מַצִּיעוֹ תַּחְתֶּיךָ. וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֲפִלּוּ עֶשֶׂר מַצָּעוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ וְהַתַּחְתּוֹן שֶׁבָּהֶן כִּלְאַיִם אָסוּר לֵישֵׁב עַל הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁמָּא תִּכָּרֵךְ נִימָא עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ:

13

When does the above apply? With regard to [spreads made from] soft [fabrics], e.g., curtains and sheets. With regard to [those made from] firm [fabrics] that will not become wound [upon a person's body], e.g., pillows and cushions,26 it is permitted to sit or lie upon them, provided one's flesh does not touch them.27

יג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּרַכִּין כְּגוֹן יְרִיעוֹת וּשְׂמָלוֹת. אֲבָל בְּקָשִׁין שֶׁאֵינָן נִכְרָכִין כְּגוֹן כָּרִים וּכְסָתוֹת מֻתָּר לֵישֵׁב וּלְהָסֵב עֲלֵיהֶן. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בְּשָׂרוֹ נוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶם:

14

Similar [laws apply when] a drape is made from kilayim. If it is soft, it is forbidden lest a servant lean against it and it become draped around his body.28 If it was firm and would not be draped, it is permitted.

יד

וְכֵן הַפָּרֹכֶת שֶׁהִיא כִּלְאַיִם אִם הָיְתָה רַכָּה אֲסוּרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסָּמֵךְ לָהּ הַשַּׁמָּשׁ וְתַעֲלֶה עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ. וְאִם הָיְתָה קָשָׁה שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִכְרֶכֶת מֻתֶּרֶת:

15

It is permissible to wear slippers29 from kilayim that do not have a heel.30 [The rationale is that] the skin of the foot is tough and does not derive satisfaction as does the skin of the other [portions] of his body.

טו

מִנְעָל שֶׁהוּא כִּלְאַיִם וְאֵין לוֹ עָקֵב מֻתָּר לְלָבְשׁוֹ. שֶׁעוֹר הָרֶגֶל קָשֶׁה הוּא וְאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כִּשְׁאָר עוֹר הַגּוּף:

16

Seamtresses sewing garments may sew [kilayim] in their ordinary manner,31 provided they do not intend [to benefit from them,32 using them as a shield] against the sun in the summer and the rain in the rainy season. The meticulous33 sew [with the garment lying] on the earth.34

Similarly, people who sell garments may sell them in the ordinary manner,35as long as they do not have the intent that the kilayim on their shoulders will protect them from the heat in the summer and warm them in the rainy season. The meticulous [hang the clothes on] a pole extended over their backs.

טז

תּוֹפְרֵי כְּסוּת תּוֹפְרִין כְּדַרְכָּן וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוְּנוּ בַּחַמָּה מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה וּבַגְּשָׁמִים מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים. וְהַצְּנוּעִין תּוֹפְרִים בָּאָרֶץ. וְכֵן מוֹכְרֵי כְּסוּת מוֹכְרִין כְּדַרְכָּן וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוְּנוּ בַּחַמָּה שֶׁיָּצֵל לָהֶם הַכִּלְאַיִם שֶׁעַל כְּתֵפָן מִן הַחַמָּה. וְלֹא יִתְכַּוְּנוּ בַּגְּשָׁמִים לְהִתְחַמֵּם בּוֹ. וְהַצְּנוּעִין מַפְשִׁילִין בְּמַקֵּל לַאֲחוֹרֵיהֶן:

17

A person should not pick up a hot egg with a cloth that is kilayim for he is [then] benefiting from the mixed fabrics as protection from the heat or from the cold.36 Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

יז

לֹא יִקַּח אָדָם בֵּיצָה כְּשֶׁהִיא חַמָּה בְּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא נֶהֱנֶה בְּכִלְאַיִם מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַצִּנָּה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

18

A person should not wear kilayim [even] temporarily and even on top of ten other garments in which instance, he is not deriving benefit from [the mixed fabrics].37 This is forbidden even to deceive customs inspectors.38 If one wears them for such a purpose, he is liable for lashes.

יח

לֹא יִלְבַּשׁ אָדָם כִּלְאַיִם עַרְאַי וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי עֲשָׂרָה בְּגָדִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְהַנֵּהוּ כְּלוּם. וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַבְרִיחַ אֶת הַמֶּכֶס. וְאִם לָבַשׁ כֵּן לוֹקֶה:

19

The prohibition against [wearing] kilayim applies only to garments that [are worn] to provide warmth, e.g., a long shirt, a hat, pants, a belt, a dress, knee pants, gloves, or the like. However, small belts that people make with their pockets prepared to hold money, spices, or the like are permitted [despite the fact they contain kilayim] even though one's flesh touches them, because this is not the ordinary way in which one warms himself. [The same principles apply with regard to] a rag on which one places a bandage, poultice, dressing, or the like.

יט

אֵין אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם כִּלְאַיִם אֶלָּא בְּגָדִים שֶׁהֵן דֶּרֶךְ חִמּוּם כְּגוֹן הַכְּתֹנֶת וְהַמִּצְנֶפֶת וְהַמִּכְנָסַיִם וְהָאַבְנֵט וְהַשִּׂמְלָה וּבְגָדִים שֶׁמְּחַפִּין בָּהֶן אֶת הַשּׁוֹקַיִם וְאֶת הַיָּדַיִם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם. אֲבָל צִלְצוּלִין קְטַנִּים שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן הָעָם בְּבֵית יָד שֶׁלָּהֶן לִצְרֹר בָּהֶן מָעוֹת אוֹ תַּבְלִין וּסְמַרְטוּט שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין עָלָיו רְטִיָּה אוֹ מְלוּגְמָא אוֹ אִסְפְּלָנִית וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּשָׂרוֹ נוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ חִמּוּם בְּכָךְ:

20

A forehead piece of leather, silk or the like to which are attached strands of wool and strands of leather that hang over a persons face to chase away flies are not [forbidden] as kilayim, because this is not the manner through which a person derives warmth.

כ

צִיץ שֶׁל עוֹר אוֹ מֶשִׁי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁתָּלָה בָּהֶן חוּטֵי צֶמֶר וְחוּטֵי פִּשְׁתָּן מְדֻלְדָּלִין עַל פְּנֵי הָאָדָם כְּדֵי לְהַפְרִיחַ הַזְּבוּבִין אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם כִּלְאַיִם שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ חִמּוּם בְּכָךְ:

21

It is permitted for a person who is leading animals to hold the leashes attached to them in his hand even though some of them are linen and some of them are wool. [He may] even wind them around his hand. If, however, he ties them all [together],39 they are considered as kilayim40 and it is forbidden for him to bind them around his hand.41

כא

הַמַּנְהִיג בְּהֵמוֹת וּמַכְנִיס חֲבָלִים לְתוֹךְ יָדוֹ מֵהֶן פִּשְתִּים וּמֵהֶן צֶמֶר הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכּוֹרְכָן עַל יָדוֹ. אֲבָל אִם קְשָׁרָן כֻּלָּן נַעֲשׂוּ כִּלְאַיִם וְאָסוּר לוֹ לְכָרְכָן עַל יָדוֹ:

22

Towels used to clean hands,42 cloths used to wipe down utensils and land,43 mantles for Torah scrolls,44 and a barber's cloth45 are all forbidden [to be made from] kilayim.46 [The rationale is that one's] hands touch them and they always become wound around the hands and warm them.

כב

מִטְפָּחוֹת שֶׁמְּקַנְּחִין בָּהֶן אֶת הַיָּדַיִם וּמִטְפָּחוֹת שֶׁמְּסַפְּגִין בָּהֶן הַכֵּלִים וְהַקַּרְקָעוֹת (וּמִטְפַּחַת סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה) וּמִטְפָּחוֹת סְפָרִים אֲסוּרִים מִשּׁוּם כִּלְאַיִם שֶׁהֲרֵי הַיָּדַיִם נוֹגְעוֹת בָּהֶן וְהֵן נִכְרָכִין עַל הַיָּד תָּמִיד וּמִתְחַמְּמִין:

23

[The following law applies to] tickets47 that launderers and weavers make for clothes so that each person could identify his own. If the ticket was of wool on a linen garment or a linen ticket on a woolen garment, it is forbidden even though it is not significant for him.

כג

אוֹתוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין הַכּוֹבְסִין וְהַגְּרָדִין בַּבְּגָדִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא כָּל אֶחָד מַכִּיר אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ. אִם הָיְתָה אוֹת שֶׁל צֶמֶר בְּפִשְׁתָּן אוֹ פִּשְׁתָּן בְּצֶמֶר הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב אֶצְלוֹ:

24

When a person joined a woolen cloth to a linen cloth with one thrust [of the needle and thread], they are not considered as having been joined together48 and they are not considered as kilayim.49 If he gathered the two heads of the thread [and tied them] together50 or [joined the cloths with] two thrusts [of the needle and thread],51 they are considered as kilayim.

כד

בֶּגֶד צֶמֶר שֶׁחִבְּרוֹ עִם בֶּגֶד פִּשְׁתָּן בִּתְכִיפָה אַחַת אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר וְאֵין זֶה כִּלְאַיִם. קִבֵּץ שְׁנֵי רָאשֵׁי הַחוּט כְּאֶחָד אוֹ שֶׁתָּכַף שְׁתֵּי תְּכִיפוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה כִּלְאַיִם:

25

It is permitted to make shrouds for the deceased from kilayim, for the deceased are not obligated in any mitzvot.52 [Kilayim] may be used as a saddle-blanket for a donkey53 and one may sit on it, provided his flesh is not touching it.54 He should not place this saddle-blanket on his shoulder even to take out the compost.55

כה

מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מִן הַכִּלְאַיִם תַּכְרִיכִין לְמֵת שֶׁאֵין עַל הַמֵּתִים מִצְוָה. וְלַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מַרְדַּעַת לַחֲמוֹר וְיוֹשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בְּשָׂרוֹ נוֹגֵעַ בָּהּ. וְלֹא יַנִּיחַ מַרְדַּעַת זוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְהוֹצִיא עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת הַזֶּבֶל:

26

It is permissible to carry a corpse or an animal that is dressed in kilayim on one's shoulders.56

כו

הַמֵּת וְהַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁהָיוּ מְלֻבָּשִׁין כִּלְאַיִם מֻתָּר לְנָשְׂאָן עַל כְּתֵפוֹ:

27

When a thread of linen becomes lost within a woolen garment or a thread of wool becomes lost within a linen garment, the garment should not be sold to a gentile lest the gentile sell it to a Jew.57 Nor should he make it a saddle-blanket for a donkey, lest another person find it and tear it off the saddle-blanket and wear it, because the kilayim are not discernable within it.

What can be done to correct the situation regarding this garment? It should be dyed. Because wool and linen will not dye in the same manner. Thus [the lost thread] will become recognizable and then he should remove it. If it is not recognizable [after the dying], it is permitted [to use the garment], for perhaps [the lost thread] fell off. After all, he checked and did not find it. As we explained already in the laws of forbidden intimate relations,58 any prohibition arising from a doubt is of Rabbinical origin. Therefore, [our Sages] were lenient because of the doubt.59

כז

בֶּגֶד צֶמֶר שֶׁאָבַד בּוֹ חוּט שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן. אוֹ בֶּגֶד פִּשְׁתָּן שֶׁאָבַד בּוֹ חוּט שֶׁל צֶמֶר. הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִי שֶׁמָּא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ מַרְדַּעַת לַחֲמוֹר שֶׁמָּא יִמְצָא אוֹתוֹ אַחֵר וְיִקְרָעֶנּוּ מֵעַל הַמַּרְדַּעַת וְיִלְבָּשֶׁנּוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַכִּלְאַיִם נִכָּר בּוֹ. וְכֵיצַד תַּקָּנַת בֶּגֶד זֶה. צוֹבְעוֹ שֶׁאֵין הַצֶּמֶר וְהַפִּשְׁתִּים עוֹלִים בְּצֶבַע אֶחָד וּמִיָּד הוּא נִכָּר לוֹ וְשׁוֹמְטוֹ. וְאִם לֹא נִכַּר הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁמַט וְהָלַךְ לוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּדַק וְלֹא מְצָאוֹ. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת בִּיאוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּר סְפֵקוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וּלְפִיכָךְ הֵקֵלּוּ בְּסָפֵק:

28

When a person purchases woolen garments from gentiles, he must check them very carefully, lest they be sewn with linen thread.60

כח

הַלּוֹקֵחַ כְּלִי צֶמֶר מִן הַנָּכְרִי צָרִיךְ לְבָדְקוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה שֶׁמָּא הֵן תְּפוּרִין בְּפִשְׁתָּן:

29

When a person sees kilayim that are forbidden by Scriptural Law on his friend - even if the latter is walking in the market place - he should jump up and rip it off him immediately.61 [This applies] even to his teacher from whom he has learned wisdom.62 For [the obligation to] honor people at large does not supercede a negative prohibition in the Torah.63

Why is such [a prohibition] superceded with regard to returning a lost object?64 Because the prohibition involves financial matters.65

Why is [a prohibition] superceded with regard to the ritual impurity associated with a corpse?66 Because Scripture made an exclusion regarding his sister.67According to the Oral Tradition,68 it was taught: For his sister, he may not become impure, but he may become impure for a corpse that it is a mitzvah to bury.

If, however, a prohibition is Rabbinic in origin, it is superceded by the consideration of a person's honor in all situations. Although the Torah states [Deuteronomy 17:11]: "Do not deviate from any of the statements they relate to you,"69 this prohibition is superceded by considerations of a person's honor. Accordingly, if [another person] has upon him sha'atnez that is forbidden according to Rabbinical law, one may not rip it off him in the marketplace, nor must [the person himself] remove it in the marketplace until he reaches home. If [the sha'atnez was forbidden] according to Scriptural Law, he must remove it immediately.

כט

הָרוֹאֶה כִּלְאַיִם שֶׁל תּוֹרָה עַל חֲבֵרוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בַּשּׁוּק קוֹפֵץ לוֹ וְקוֹרְעוֹ עָלָיו מִיָּד. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה רַבּוֹ שֶׁלִּמְּדוֹ חָכְמָה. שֶׁאֵין כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת דּוֹחֶה אִסּוּר לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה הַמְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה. וְלָמָּה נִדְחֶה בְּהֶשֵׁב אֲבֵדָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא לָאו שֶׁל מָמוֹן. וְלָמָּה נִדְחֶה בְּטֻמְאַת מֵת הוֹאִיל וּפֵרֵט הַכָּתוּב (ויקרא כא ג) (במדבר ו ז) "וּלְאַחֹתוֹ". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ לַאֲחוֹתוֹ אֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא אֲבָל מִטַּמֵּא הוּא לְמֵת מִצְוָה. אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם הֲרֵי הוּא נִדְחֶה מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה (דברים יז יא) "לֹא תָסוּר מִן הַדָּבָר" הֲרֵי לָאו זֶה נִדְחֶה מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה עָלָיו שַׁעַטְנֵז שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם אֵינוֹ קוֹרְעוֹ עָלָיו בַּשּׁוּק וְאֵינוֹ פּוֹשְׁטוֹ בַּשּׁוּק עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ וְאִם הָיָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה פּוֹשְׁטוֹ מִיָּד:

30

A person who wears kilayim or covers himself with them is liable for lashes. If he was wearing kilayim the entire day, he is liable only for one set of lashes.70 If he repeatedly stuck his head in and out of the garment - even though he did not take off the entire garment, he is liable for each time [he stuck his head out].71

When is he liable for only one set of lashes? When he received one warning. If, however, they warned him and told him: "Take it off, take it off," and he continued to wear it and remained wearing for the amount of time necessary to remove it and put it on after they warned him, he is liable [for lashes] for each interval that he waited,72 for he was warned regarding it and, nevertheless, did not remove [the forbidden garment].

ל

הַלּוֹבֵשׁ כִּלְאַיִם אוֹ הַמִּתְכַּסֶּה בּוֹ לוֹקֶה. הָיָה לָבוּשׁ בְּכִלְאַיִם כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֶלָּא אַחַת. הוֹצִיא רֹאשׁוֹ מִן הַבֶּגֶד וְהֶחְזִירוֹ הוֹצִיא רֹאשׁוֹ וְהֶחְזִירוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָּשַׁט הַבֶּגֶד כֻּלּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב אַחַת כָּל הַיּוֹם כְּשֶׁהִתְרוּ בּוֹ הַתְרָאָה אַחַת. אֲבָל אִם הִתְרוּ בּוֹ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ פְּשֹׁט פְּשֹׁט וְהוּא לָבוּשׁ בּוֹ וְשָׁהָה כְּדֵי לִפְשֹׁט וְלִלְבּשׁ אַחַר שֶׁהִתְרוּ בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב עַל כָּל שְׁהִיָּה וּשְׁהִיָּה שֶׁהִתְרוּ בּוֹ עָלֶיהָ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָּשַׁט:

31

[The following laws apply when] a person dresses a colleague in kilayim. If the wearer acted consciously, he is liable for lashes73 and the person who dressed him is liable for "plac[ing] a stumbling block before the blind."74 If the person wearing the garment did not know that it was kilayim and the person who dressed him acted willfully, that person is liable for lashes75 and the wearer is exempt.

לא

הַמַּלְבִּישׁ אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ כִּלְאַיִם אִם הָיָה הַלּוֹבֵשׁ מֵזִיד הַלּוֹבֵשׁ לוֹקֶה וְהַמַּלְבִּישׁ עוֹבֵר מִשּׁוּם (ויקרא יט יד) "וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשׁל". וְאִם לֹא יָדַע הַלּוֹבֵשׁ שֶׁהַבֶּגֶד הוּא כִּלְאַיִם וְהָיָה הַמַּלְבִּישׁ מֵזִיד הַמַּלְבִּישׁ לוֹקֶה וְהַלּוֹבֵשׁ פָּטוּר:

32

When priests wear their priestly garments when they are not performing service even though they are in the Temple,76 they are liable for lashes because the sash contains kilayim77 and license to wear it was granted only while performing service, for that is a positive commandment like tzitzit.78

לב

כֹּהֲנִים שֶׁלָּבְשׁוּ בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת עֲבוֹדָה אֲפִלּוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ לוֹקִין מִפְּנֵי הָאַבְנֵט שֶׁהוּא כִּלְאַיִם וְלֹא הֻתְּרוּ בּוֹ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת עֲבוֹדָה שֶׁהִיא מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה כְּצִיצִית: סְלִיקוּ לְהוּ הִלְכוֹת כִּלְאַיִם בְּסִיַעְתָּא דִּשְׁמַיָּא

Blessed be the Merciful One who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות כלאים בס"ד: