Adar - Ta’anis Esther

Refer back to numbers 45-49 regarding saying Selichos and fasting.

50. When Purim comes out on a Sunday and therefore the fast is advanced to the Thursday before, if he finds it difficult to fast that Thursday because of his traveling, he may delay his fasting to Friday. If he will be traveling on both days (Thursday and Friday) and finds it difficult to fast, he can eat on that day and substitute a different day after Purim to fast in its place. This alternative may be used since the fast is not on its regular date (and the public is not fasting on Friday)1.

51. If he did not realize that Thursday had been an advanced fast and inadvertently ate and did not find out until that night that it had been a fast day, he must fast on Friday2.

52. For machatzis hashekel one needs to give a half of the standard currency of the country that he finds himself on Ta’anis Esther (or the night of Purim) when he is giving the machatzis hashekel.

53. It would seem that one should follow the custom of the place that he is visiting as regards when to give the machatzis hashekel — at Minchah of Ta’anis Esther or before the reading of the Megilah on the night of Purim.

Reading of the Megilah

54. One who is planning to be on a trip over Purim must make sure to take along a kosher Megilah3.

Even if he will be leaving 30 days before Purim and most definately if he leaves from Rosh Chodesh Adar onwards, he must make sure to take the Megilah with him4.

55. If one is not able to obtain a kosher Megilah to take with him on the trip, he should at least take along a printed Megilah so that he can read from it on Purim without the berachos5.

56. One who is unable to take along a kosher Megilah on his journey should also consult with a halachic authority, because there are possibilities of having the Megilah read for him anytime between Rosh Chodesh Adar and the 13th of Adar6.

57. If one did indeed hear the Megilah anytime before 14 Adar and then he happens to obtain a kosher Megilah for 14 Adar, he needs to read the Megilah again with the berachos on Purim day7.

58. If he does not obtain the Megilah until 15 Adar, and he comes from a place where the Megilah is read on the 14th, he should still read it on the 15th but without the berachos. However if he obtains the Megilah after 15 Adar, he does not read from it at all8.

59. Even though one should not read the Megilah on the morning of 14 Adar until after sunrise (neitz hachamah), if he must leave earlier he may read the Megilah from daybreak (amud hashachar) onwards9.

60. One should make sure to take along with him a Sidur when traveling on Purim so that he can say “Al hanissim” from a printed text10.

61. When a person who dwells in a city where they read the Megilah on the 14th visits a city where they read the Megilah on the 15th (Jerusalem), or vice versa, he should consult with a halachic authority, since the halachos depend on various circumstances and intentions. For a detailed chart concerning this matter, see the Sefer Eretz HaTzvi by Rabbi Tzvi Teichman, p. 102-105.

Mishlo’ach Manos, Matanos La’evyonim

62. When a person spends Purim away from home, it is necessary for him to also fulfill the mitzvos of mishlo’ach manos, matanos la’evyonim and se’udas Purim. While it is possible for one to fulfill the mitzvah of matanos la’evyonim if his family members back home will give on his behalf, he must send mishlo’ach manos personally where he is. Sending mishlo’ach manos on behalf of a person who is not there is not considered mishlo’ach manos11.

63. If he knows in advance that on Purim day he will not be at a place where there are Jews with whom to fulfill the mitzvah of mishlo’ach manos, he can prepare them before he leaves and appoint someone to deliver them on his behalf on Purim day12.

64. It there are no poor people to whom to give matanos la’evyonim, he should set aside the money on Purim day and distribute it when he gets back home13.

65. When the Megilah is read in the morning, one should have in mind while the “shehecheyanu” is being said that it should also include the other three mitzvos of Purim upon which no “shehecheyanu” is said. If a person finds himself in a situation that the Megilah was not read, he should make an effort Purim morning to say a “shehecheyanu” over a new fruit or garment and at the same time have in mind the other three mitzvos of mishlo’ach manos, matanos la’evyonim and se’udas Purim14.