1

What is the minimum measure for the impurity of foods? For them to contract impurity, even the slightest amount. Even a sesame or mustard seed contracts impurity, as Leviticus 11:34 states: "Any food that shall be eaten," including even the slightest amount.

Food does not impart impurity to other foods or liquids or a person's hands until it is the size of an egg without its shell. And a person who partakes of impure foods is not disqualified from partaking of terumah and sacrificial foods unless he partakes of a portion of impure food the size of an egg and a half. This is half a p'ras.

א

כַּמָּה שִׁעוּר אֳכָלִין לְטֻמְאָה. לְטֻמְאַת עַצְמָן כָּל שֶׁהֵן אֲפִלּוּ שֻׁמְשֹׁם אוֹ חַרְדָּל מִתְטַמֵּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר מִ(ויקרא יא לד) "כָּל הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל", כָּל שֶׁהוּא. וְאֵין אֹכֶל טָמֵא מְטַמֵּא אֹכֶל אַחֵר אוֹ מַשְׁקִין אוֹ יָדַיִם עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בּוֹ כְּבֵיצָה בְּלֹא קְלִפָּתָהּ. וְכֵן הָאוֹכֵל אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִים אֵינוֹ נִפְסָל עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּבֵיצָה וּמֶחֱצָה וְזֶהוּ חֲצִי פְּרָס:

2

Even the slightest amount of liquid can contract ritual impurity and impart ritual impurity. Even a drop of an impure liquid the size of a mustard seed that touched foods, keilim, or other liquids causes them to become impure. Nevertheless, a person who drinks impure liquids does not become disqualified unless he drinks a revi'it, as we explained.

ב

הַמַּשְׁקִין מִתְטַמְּאִין כָּל שֶׁהֵן וּמְטַמְּאִין בְּכָל שֶׁהֵן. אֲפִלּוּ טִפַּת מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִים כְּחַרְדָּל שֶׁנָּגְעָה בָּאֳכָלִין אוֹ בְּכֵלִים אוֹ בְּמַשְׁקִין אֲחֵרִים נִטְמְאוּ. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין הַשּׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין נִפְסָל עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה רְבִיעִית כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

All liquids can be combined to comprise the minimum measure and disqualify a person's body if he drank a revi'it. All foods can be combined to comprise the minimum measure of an egg-sized portion that imparts the impurity associated with foods and to a half a pras to disqualify a person. Even wheat can be combined with flour, with dough, with figs, with meat and the like. Everything can be combined.

ג

כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין מִצְטָרְפִין לִפְסל אֶת הַגְּוִיָּה לִרְבִיעִית. וְכָל הָאֳכָלִין מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְבֵיצָה לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִים. וּלְכַחֲצִי פְּרָס לִפְסל אֶת הַגְּוִיָּה. אֲפִלּוּ חִטָּה עִם קֶמַח עִם בָּצֵק עִם תְּאֵנָה וּבָשָׂר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ הַכּל מִצְטָרֵף:

4

When an animal's hide is connected to its meat, the juice it secretes, the spices, the meat connected to the hide - although one had the intent to eat part of it and did not have the intent to eat the remainder, even though part of it was separated by a beast of prey and part of it was separated by a knife - the bones that are connected to the meat, the giddim, the soft portions of the horns and the hoofs, the thin feathers and the wooly hairs of a fowl, the soft portion of its nails and the beak that are embedded in its flesh: all of these contract impurity, impart impurity, and are included in an egg-sized portion or half a pras.

ד

הָעוֹר הַמְחֻבָּר בַּבָּשָׂר וְהַמָּרָק וְהַתַּבְלִין וְהָאָלָל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּקְצָתוֹ חָשַׁב עָלָיו וּמִקְצָתוֹ לֹא חָשַׁב עָלָיו. מִקְצָתוֹ פְּלָטַתּוּ חַיָּה וּמִקְצָתוֹ פְּלָטַתּוּ סַכִּין. וְהָעֲצָמוֹת הַמְחֻבָּרוֹת בַּבָּשָׂר. וְהַגִּידִים וְהַמְּקוֹמוֹת הָרַכִּים מִן הַקַּרְנַיִם וּמִן הַטְּלָפַיִם וְהַכְּנָפַיִם וְהַנּוֹצָה. וְהַמְּקוֹמוֹת הָרַכִּים מִן הַצִּפָּרְנַיִם וּמִן הַחַרְטֹם הַמֻּבְלָעִין בַּבָּשָׂר. כָּל אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ מִתְטַמְּאִין וּמְטַמְּאִין וּמִצְטָרְפִין לִכְבֵיצָה אוֹ לְכַחֲצִי פְּרָס:

5

When an egg-sized portion of impure food was left in the sun and it shrank, it does not impart impurity. Similarly, an olive-sized portion from a human corpse or an animal carcass and a lentil-sized portion from a dead creeping animal that was left in the sun and shrank are pure.

ה

כְּבֵיצָה אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִים שֶׁהִנִּיחָן בַּחַמָּה וְנִתְמַעֲטוּ אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִים. וְכֵן כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת אוֹ מִן הַנְּבֵלָה וְכַעֲדָשָׁה מִן הַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁהִנִּיחָן בַּחַמָּה וְנִתְמַעֲטוּ טְהוֹרִין:

6

When an olive-sized portion of fat, blood, notar, or piggul was left in the sun and it shrank, one is not liable for karet for partaking of them. If he left them in the rain and they swelled, returning to the specified volume, they return to their original status, whether that involves severe impurity, a lesser impurity, or a prohibition against partaking of the substance.

ו

כְּזַיִת חֵלֶב וְדָם וְנוֹתָר וּפִגּוּל שֶׁהִנִּיחָן בַּחַמָּה וְנִתְמַעֲטוּ אֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כָּרֵת. הִנִּיחָן בַּגְּשָׁמִים וְנִתְפְּחוּ חָזְרוּ לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ. בֵּין לְטֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה בֵּין לְטֻמְאָה קַלָּה בֵּין לְאִסּוּר:

7

Onion leaves and onion shoots that are hollow which possess sap are measured according to their present size. If they are hollow and empty, their hollow should be compressed before their volume is measured.

ז

עֲלֵי בְּצָלִים וּבְנֵי בְּצָלִים שֶׁהֵן חֲלוּלִין אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם רִיר מִשְׁתַּעֲרִין כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן. וְאִם הָיוּ חֲלוּלִין וְרֵיקָנִים מְמַעֵךְ אֶת חֲלָלָן:

8

A puffy bread is measured as it is. If it has a cavity, the cavity should be compressed.

ח

פַּת סֻפְגָּנִין מִשְׁתַּעֶרֶת כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ חָלָל מְמַעֵךְ אֶת חֲלָלָהּ:

9

When the meat of a calf expands or the meat of an older animal shrinks, its volume should be measured in its present state.

ט

בְּשַׂר הָעֵגֶל שֶׁנִּתְפַּח וּבְשַׂר זְקֵנָה שֶׁנִּתְמַעֲטָה מִשְׁתַּעֲרִין כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן:

10

The volume of nuts, dates, and almonds that have dried are measured in their present state.

י

הָאֱגוֹז וְהַתְּמָרִים וְהַשָּׁקֵד הַמִּתְקַרְקְשִׁים מִשְׁתַּעֲרִין כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן:

11

All entities whose type of impurity and minimum measures are similar can be combined with each other to reach that measure. If their impurity was similar, but not the minimum measures or the minimum measures, but not the impurity, they should not be combined, not even to impart the lesser type of impurity. What is meant by the type of its impurity, but not the minimum measure? E.g., the flesh of a corpse and the decomposed mass from it. What is meant by its minimum measure, but not its type? E.g., the flesh of a human corpse and the flesh of an animal carcass. Needless to say, impure entities that are not similar, neither in their measure and their type of impurity, e.g., the flesh of an animal carcass and the flesh of a dead crawling animal, are not combined.

יא

כָּל שֶׁטֻּמְאָתוֹ וְשִׁעוּרוֹ שָׁוִין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. הָיוּ טֻמְאָתָן שָׁוִין אֲבָל לֹא שִׁעוּרָן. שִׁעוּרָן אֲבָל לֹא טֻמְאָתָן אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין וַאֲפִלּוּ לְטַמֵּא כַּקַּל שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵיהֶן. כֵּיצַד טֻמְאָתוֹ וְלֹא שִׁעוּרוֹ. כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר הַמֵּת וְרֶקֶב שֶׁלּוֹ. שִׁעוּרוֹ וְלֹא טֻמְאָתוֹ כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר הַמֵּת וּבְשַׂר הַנְּבֵלָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם לֹא הָיוּ שָׁוִים לֹא בְּשִׁעוּר וְלֹא בְּטֻמְאָה כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר נְבֵלָה וּבְשַׂר הַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁאֵין מִצְטָרְפִין:

12

The measure of all impure food is the same. For all impure foods do not impart impurity unless there is an egg-sized portion present. And their impurity is of the same type, for all impure foods impart impurity only through touch and they do not impart impurity to humans or to keilim. Therefore, they can be combined to impart impurity according to the lesser level of impurity among them.

What is implied? When there was a half an egg-sized portion of food that was a primary derivative of impurity and a half of an egg-sized portion of food that was a secondary derivative that were mixed together, they are considered as an egg-sized portion that is a secondary derivative. If the mixture touches food that was terumah, it disqualifies it.

When there was a half an egg-sized portion of food that was a secondary derivative of impurity and a half of an egg-sized portion of food that was a tertiary derivative that were mixed together, they are considered as an egg-sized portion that is a tertiary derivative. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. Even when there was a half an egg-sized portion of food that was a primary derivative and a half of an egg-sized portion of sacrificial food that was a fourth degree derivative that were mixed together, they are considered as an egg-sized portion that is a fourth degree derivative.

יב

אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִים שִׁעוּרָם שָׁוֶה שֶׁכָּל אֹכֶל טָמֵא אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶלָּא כְּבֵיצָה. וְטֻמְאָתָם שָׁוָה שֶׁכָּל אֹכֶל טָמֵא אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶלָּא בְּמַגָּע וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא לֹא אָדָם וְלֹא כֵּלִים. לְפִיכָךְ מִצְטָרְפִין לְטַמֵּא כַּקַּל שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵיהֶן. כֵּיצַד. כַּחֲצִי בֵּיצָה אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן וְכַחֲצִי בֵּיצָה אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָּזֶה הֲרֵי זֶה שֵׁנִי וְאִם נָגַע בִּתְרוּמָה פְּסָלָהּ. כַּחֲצִי בֵּיצָה אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי וְכַחֲצִי בֵּיצָה אֹכֶל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבְּלָלָן הֲרֵי זֶה שְׁלִישִׁי. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה אֲפִלּוּ חֲצִי בֵּיצָה אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן וַחֲצִי בֵּיצָה אֹכֶל רְבִיעִי שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָּזֶה הֲרֵי הַכּל רְבִיעִי:

13

When an egg-sized portion of food that was a primary derivative of impurity and an egg-sized portion of food that was a secondary derivative were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a primary derivative. If the mixture was divided, each portion is a secondary derivative.

If one of the portions of the mixture that was divided fell on a loaf of bread that was terumah and then the other fell upon it, they disqualify it. If the two fell at the same time, they cause it to be considered as a secondary derivative.

יג

כְּבֵיצָה אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן וּכְבֵיצָה אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָּזֶה הַכּל רִאשׁוֹן. חִלְּקָן כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן שֵׁנִי. נָפַל זֶה לְעַצְמוֹ וְזֶה לְעַצְמוֹ עַל כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה פְּסָלוּהוּ. נָפְלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן כְּאֶחָד עֲשָׂאוּהוּ שֵׁנִי:

14

When an egg-sized portion of food that was a secondary derivative of impurity and an egg-sized portion of food that was a tertiary derivative were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a secondary derivative. If the mixture was divided, each portion is a tertiary derivative. If one of the portions of the mixture that was divided fell on a loaf of bread that was terumah and then the other fell upon it, they do not disqualify it. If the two fell at the same time, they cause it to be considered as a tertiary derivative.

יד

כְּבֵיצָה אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי וּכְבֵיצָה אֹכֶל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָּזֶה הֲרֵי הַכּל שֵׁנִי. חִלְּקָן כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן שְׁלִישִׁי. נָפַל זֶה לְעַצְמוֹ [וְזֶה לְעַצְמוֹ] עַל כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה לֹא פְּסָלוּהוּ. נָפְלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן כְּאֶחָד פְּסָלוּהוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲשָׂאוּהוּ שְׁלִישִׁי:

15

When an egg-sized portion of food that was a primary derivative of impurity and an egg-sized portion of food that was a tertiary derivative were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a primary derivative. If the mixture was divided, each portion is a secondary derivative. The rationale is that when a tertiary derivative touches a primary derivative, it becomes a secondary derivative.

טו

כְּבֵיצָה אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן וּכְבֵיצָה אֹכֶל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָּזֶה רִאשׁוֹן. חִלְּקָן זֶה שֵׁנִי וְזֶה שֵׁנִי. שֶׁהַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁנָּגַע בָּרִאשׁוֹן נַעֲשָׂה שֵׁנִי:

16

When two egg-sized portions of food that were primary derivatives of impurity and two egg-sized portions of food that were secondary derivatives were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a primary derivative. If the mixture was divided in half, each portion is a primary derivative. If they were divided into three or four portions, each one of them is considered a secondary derivative.

Similarly, when two egg-sized portions of food that were secondary derivatives of impurity and two egg-sized portions of food that were tertiary derivatives were mixed together, the entire mixture is considered as a secondary derivative. If the mixture was divided in half, each portion is a secondary derivative. If they were divided into three or four portions, each one of them is considered a tertiary derivative.

טז

כִּשְׁתֵּי בֵּיצִים אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן וְכִשְׁתֵּי בֵּיצִים אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי שֶׁבְּלָלָן הַכּל רִאשׁוֹן. חִלְּקָן לִשְׁנַיִם כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן רִאשׁוֹן. חִלְּקָן לִשְׁלֹשָׁה חֲלָקִים אוֹ לְאַרְבָּעָה כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן שֵׁנִי. וְכֵן כִּשְׁתֵּי בֵּיצִים אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי וְכִשְׁתֵּי בֵּיצִים אֹכֶל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבְּלָלָן הַכּל שֵׁנִי. חִלְּקָן לִשְׁנַיִם כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן שֵׁנִי. לִשְׁלֹשָׁה וּלְאַרְבָּעָה הֲרֵי כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן שְׁלִישִׁי: