1

The term yad when used in connection with food refers to the thin stems that are close to fruit from which the fruit hangs from the tree, e.g. the stems of figs and pears and the edges of a grape cluster. In this category are also included seeds and other entities required by the foods and any shomrim for foods, i.e., the shell over the foods that protects it. Similar laws apply to all analogous substances.

א

יְדוֹת הָאֳכָלִים הֵן הָעֵצִים הָרַכִּין הַסְּמוּכִין לָאֹכֶל שֶׁהָאֹכֶל נִתְלֶה בָּהֶן מִן הָאִילָן. כְּמוֹ עֵקְצֵי הַתְּאֵנִים וְהָאֲגַסִּים וּקְצָת הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל. וְכֵן הַגַּרְעִינִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁהָאֹכֶל צָרִיךְ לָהֶן. וְשׁוֹמְרֵי הָאֳכָלִין הֵן הַקְּלִפָּה שֶׁעַל הָאֹכֶל שֶׁהִיא שׁוֹמַרְתּוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

2

Any substance that is a yad, but not a shomer is susceptible to impurity, imparts impurity, but is not considered as part of the food. Any substance that is a shomer, even though it is not a yad is susceptible to impurity, imparts impurity, and is combined together with the food. Any entity that is not a shomer, nor a yad, is neither susceptible to impurity, nor does it impart impurity. Needless to say, it is not considered as part of the food.

What is meant by saying "it is susceptible to impurity, imparts impurity, but is not considered as part of the food"? If impurity touched the yad, the food suspended from it becomes impure. If impurity touched the food, the yad becomes impure. The yad is not combined with the food to comprise an egg-sized portion or a half a pras. If, however, an entity is a shomer it is considered as part of an egg-sized portion or a half a pras.

ב

כָּל שֶׁהוּא יָד וְאֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵר מִתְטַמֵּא וּמְטַמֵּא וְלֹא מִצְטָרֵף. וְכָל שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹמֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָד מְטַמֵּא וּמִתְטַמֵּא וּמִצְטָרֵף. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ לֹא שׁוֹמֵר וְלֹא יָד אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא וְלֹא מְטַמֵּא וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף. כֵּיצַד מִתְטַמֵּא וּמְטַמֵּא וְאֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף. שֶׁאִם נָגְעָה טֻמְאָה בַּיָּד נִטְמָא הָאֹכֶל הַתָּלוּי בּוֹ. וְאִם נָגְעָה טֻמְאָה בָּאֹכֶל נִטְמָא הַיָּד. וְאֵין הַיָּד מִצְטָרֶפֶת עִם הָאֹכֶל לְהַשְׁלִימוֹ לִכְבֵיצָה אוֹ לְכַחֲצִי פְּרָס. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה שׁוֹמֵר הֲרֵי זֶה מִצְטָרֵף לִכְבֵיצָה וְלִכַחֲצִי פְּרָס:

3

Just as there is a concept of a yad with regard to contracting impurity, so too, there is a concept of a yad with regard to making foods susceptible to impurity through exposure to liquids. If the yad was exposed to a liquid, all of the food hanging from it is susceptible to impurity.

The concept of a yad applies even though the fruit is smaller than an olive-sized portion and the concept of a shomer applies even though the fruit is smaller than a bean. When a shomer is divided, it no longer is combined with the food.

ג

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיָּד לְטֻמְאָה כָּךְ יֵשׁ יָד לְהֶכְשֵׁר. שֶׁאִם הֻכְשַׁר הַיָּד הֻכְשַׁר כָּל הָאֹכֶל הַתָּלוּי בּוֹ. וְיֵשׁ יָד לְפָחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת. וְיֵשׁ שׁוֹמֵר לְפָחוֹת מִכְּפוֹל. וְשׁוֹמֵר שֶׁחִלְּקוֹ אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף עִם הָאֹכֶל:

4

What is the source that teaches that the shomerim of food contract impurity together with the food when they are connected to it? Leviticus 11:37 states: "On any type of kernels of seed that will be sown." Implied is that the kernels are considered in the form which people use to sow, e.g., wheat in its coating, barley in its shell, lentils in their coverings. Similar laws apply to other shomerim.

ד

וּמִנַּיִן לְשׁוֹמְרֵי אֳכָלִין שֶׁהֵן מִתְטַמְּאִין עִם הָאֹכֶל כְּשֶׁהֵן מְחֻבָּרִין בָּהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לז) "עַל כָּל זֶרַע זֵרוּעַ אֲשֶׁר יִזָּרֵעַ" כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁבְּנֵי אָדָם מוֹצִיאִין לִזְרִיעָה. חִטִּים בְּשִׁעוּרֵיהֶן וּשְׂעוֹרִים בִּקְלִפֵּיהֶן וַעֲדָשִׁים בִּקְלִפֵּיהֶן. וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר הַשּׁוֹמְרִין:

5

What is the source that teaches that the yadot of food are susceptible to impurity and impart impurity when they are connected to foods? It is written ibid.: 38: "They shall be impure for you," included is anything necessary for you so that the food can be eaten.

ה

וּמִנַּיִן לִידוֹת הָאֳכָלִין שֶׁהֵן מִתְטַמְּאוֹת וּמְטַמְּאוֹת כְּשֶׁהֵן מְחֻבָּרִין עִם הָאֳכָלִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לח) "טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם" לְכָל שֶׁבְּצָרְכֵיכֶם:

6

When a person harvests grapes for a winepress, there is no concept of yadot, for he has no need of the yad, because it absorbs the liquid.

ו

הַבּוֹצֵר לַגַּת אֵין לוֹ יָדוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לוֹ צֹרֶךְ בְּיָד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמּוֹצֵץ אֶת הַמַּשְׁקֶה:

7

When one harvests produce to use as a covering for his sukkah, there is no concept of yadot, for he has no need of the yad.

ז

הַקּוֹצֵר לְסִכּוּךְ אֵין לוֹ יָדוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַיָּד:

8

Whenever the yadot of food were crushed in the granary, they are pure.

ח

כָּל יְדוֹת הָאֳכָלִין שֶׁבִּסְּסָן בְּגֹרֶן טְהוֹרִין:

9

When a sprig of a cluster is stripped of its grapes, it is pure. If one grape remained, it is considered as a yad for that grape and it is susceptible to impurity. Similarly, if a stalk from a date palm was stripped of its dates, it is pure. If one date remained, it is impure. Similarly, if a pod of legumes was emptied, it is pure. If one legume remained, it is susceptible to impurity.

ט

פְּסִיגָה שֶׁל אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁרִקְּנָהּ טְהוֹרָה. וְאִם נִשְׁתַּיֵּר בָּהּ גַּרְגֵּר אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה יָד לְאוֹתוֹ גַּרְגֵּר וּמְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְכֵן שַׁרְבִיט תְּמָרָה שֶׁרִקְּנוֹ טָהוֹר. שִׁיֵּר בּוֹ תְּמָרָה אַחַת טָמֵא. וְכֵן שַׁרְבִיט קִטְנִיּוֹת שֶׁרִקְּנוֹ טָהוֹר. שִׁיֵּר בּוֹ גַּרְגֵּר אֶחָד מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

10

There can never be a concept of a shomer for a shomer. Only the protective covering that is closest to the food is considered as part of it.

י

לְעוֹלָם אֵין שׁוֹמֵר עַל גַּבֵּי שׁוֹמֵר אֶלָּא שׁוֹמֵר אֶחָד בִּלְבַד הַסָּמוּךְ לָאֹכֶל הוּא הַנֶּחְשָׁב עִמּוֹ:

11

There are three peels to an onion: the inner peel, whether it is whole or cut, it is combined with the food. When the middle peel is whole, it is combined. If it is cut, it is not combined. The outer peel is pure in both instances.

יא

שָׁלֹשׁ קְלִפּוֹת בַּבָּצָל. פְּנִימִית בֵּין שְׁלֵמָה בֵּין קְדוּרָה מִצְטָרֶפֶת. אֶמְצָעִית שְׁלֵמָה מִצְטָרֶפֶת קְדוּרָה אֵינָהּ מִצְטָרֶפֶת. הַחִיצוֹנָה בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ טְהוֹרָה:

12

All shells become susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, and are combined together with the food because they are shomerim. When the pods of beans and vetch are discarded, they do not become susceptible to impurity. If they were saved to be served as food, they do become susceptible to impurity. If food remains inside them, they are susceptible to impurity regardless.

Cucumber peels are susceptible to the impurity of foods, even though they are not connected to the cucumber at all. When barley kernels are dry, their shell is included with them. If the kernels are fresh, the shells are not included with them. The shells of wheat kernels are included with them in all instances.

יב

כָּל הַקְּלִפִּין מִתְטַמְּאוֹת וּמְטַמְּאוֹת וּמִצְטָרְפוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן שׁוֹמֵר. קְלִפֵּי פּוֹלִין וְתוּרְמוּסִין זְרָקָן אֵינָן מִתְטַמְּאוֹת כְּנָסָן לָאֳכָלִין מִתְטַמְּאִין. וְאִם נִשְׁאַר בָּהֶן אֹכֶל בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ מִתְטַמְּאִין. קְלִפַּת מְלָפְפוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן מִתּוֹךְ הַמְּלָפְפוֹן מִתְטַמְּאוֹת טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין. הַשְּׂעוֹרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן יְבֵשִׁין קְלִפָּתָן מִצְטָרֶפֶת עִמָּהֶן וּבִזְמַן שֶׁהֵן לַחִין אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין. אֲבָל הַחִטָּה בֵּין לֶחָה בֵּין יְבֵשָׁה קְלִפָּתָהּ מִצְטָרֶפֶת:

13

All seeds become susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, but are not combined together with the food with the exception of a fresh date seed. The seed of a dried date, by contrast, is not combined with the food.

יג

כָּל הַגַּרְעִינִין מִתְטַמְּאוֹת וּמְטַמְּאוֹת וְלֹא מִצְטָרְפוֹת חוּץ מִגַּרְעִינוֹת הָרֹטֶב. אֲבָל שֶׁל תְּמָרָה יָבֵשָׁה אֵינָהּ מִצְטָרֶפֶת:

14

The covering of a fresh date seed is not combined with the fruit. The covering of a dry date seed, by contrast, is combined with the fruit. Since it cleaves to the fruit, it is considered as part of the fruit.

יד

הַחֹתֶל שֶׁעַל הַגַּרְעִינָה שֶׁל רֹטֶב אֵינָהּ מִצְטָרֶפֶת וְשֶׁעַל גַּרְעִינַת הַיְּבֵשָׁה מִצְטָרֶפֶת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא דָּבוּק בָּאֹכֶל נֶחְשָׁב כְּאֹכֶל:

15

When a portion of a date seed projects outside the fruit, the portion that has food around it is combined with it. The portion that projects beyond it does not.

Similarly, when there is a bone with meat on it, any portion of the bone that has meat around it is combined with the meat. If it has meat on it only from one side, only the portion of bone under the meat is combined with it and only the upper portion of the bone until its cavity. If a bone does not have a cavity, we consider it as the thickness of a hyssop stem. Only that portion is combined with the meat; the remainder is not combined. The rationale is that the bones are considered like shomerim for the meat.

טו

גַּרְעִינָה שֶׁל רֹטֶב שֶׁיָּצָאת מִקְּצָתָהּ כָּל שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד הָאֹכֶל מִצְטָרֵף וְהַיּוֹצֵא אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף. וְכֵן עֶצֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו בָּשָׂר כָּל שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד הַבָּשָׂר מִצְטָרֵף. הָיָה עָלָיו הַבָּשָׂר מִצַּד אֶחָד אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא הָעֶצֶם שֶׁתַּחַת הַבָּשָׂר עַד חֲלַל הָעֶצֶם. וְאִם לֹא הָיָה לָעֶצֶם חָלָל רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הוּא כָּעֳבִי הָאֵזוֹב וּשְׁאָר הָעֶצֶם אֵין מִצְטָרֵף שֶׁהָעֲצָמוֹת לַבָּשָׂר כְּשׁוֹמֵר הֵן חֲשׁוּבִין:

16

A thigh bone that has meat - even a mere bean-size portion - upon it causes the entire bone to be included in the reckoning for impurity.

טז

קוּלִית שֶׁהָיָה עָלֶיהָ בָּשָׂר אֲפִלּוּ כְּפוֹל גּוֹרֵר אֶת כֻּלָּהּ לְטֻמְאָה:

17

Even if olive and date seeds were cooked to be eaten they are not susceptible to impurity.

יז

גַּרְעִינֵי זֵיתִים וּתְמָרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁלָקָן לָאֳכָלִין אֵין מִתְטַמְּאִין:

18

Even though one collected carob seeds with the intent of eating them, they are not susceptible to impurity. If one cooked them with the intent of eating them, they are susceptible to impurity.

יח

גַּרְעִינֵי חָרוּבִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּנָסָן לָאֳכָלִין אֵין מִתְטַמְּאִין. שְׁלָקָן לָאֳכָלִין מִתְטַמְּאִין:

19

The following are susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, and are combined together with the food: the roots of garlic, onions, and leek, when they are fresh, their protuberance, whether fresh or dry, their stalk which is opposite the food, the roots of lettuce and Israeli radishes, and the main root of large radishes are combined with the food. The thin roots of large radishes, by contrast, are not combined. The roots of mint and rue and the roots of wild vegetables that were uprooted with the intent of replanting them, the center stalk of grain and the husks of its kernels, the stems of figs, dried figs, thin figs, and carobs are susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, and are combined together with the food.

יט

וְאֵלּוּ מִתְטַמְּאִין וּמְטַמְּאִין וּמִצְטָרְפִין. שָׁרְשֵׁי הַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים וְהַקַּפְלוֹטוֹת בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן לַחִין. וְהַפִּטְמָה שֶׁלָּהֶן בֵּין לֶחָה בֵּין יְבֵשָׁה. וְהָעַמּוּד שֶׁהוּא מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד הָאֹכֶל. וְשָׁרְשֵׁי הַחֲזָרִין וְהַנָּפוּס. וְשֹׁרֶשׁ צְנוֹן גָּדוֹל מִצְטָרֵף. וְהַסִּיב שֶׁלּוֹ אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף. וְשָׁרְשֵׁי הַמִּנְתָּא וְהַפֵּיגָם. וְשָׁרְשֵׁי יַרְקוֹת שָׂדֶה וְיַרְקוֹת גִּנָּה שֶׁעִקָּרָן לִשְׁתָלִים. וְהַשּׁוּרָה שֶׁל שִׁבּלֶת וְהַלְּבוּשׁ שֶׁלָּהּ. וְעֻקְצֵי תְּאֵנִים וּגְרוֹגָרוֹת. וְהַכְּלֻסִּים וְהֶחָרוּבִין:

20

The following are susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, but are not combined together with the food: the roots of garlic, onions, and leek, when they are dry, stalks growing from them that are not opposite their central portion, the mila'in of grain stalks, i.e., the dark hairs on top of a grain stalk that resemble the teeth of a saw, the stems of pears, small pears, quince, and crabapples, the handbreadth of the stem of squash that is closest to the vegetable itself, a handbreadth of the stem of an artichoke, and similarly, a handbreadth from either side of a branch from which a twig of a grape vine grows. From the twig of a grape vine grow many clusters. This same ruling is applied to the stem of a cluster regardless of its size. The yad of the tail end of the shoot of the cluster from which the grapes were removed and that of a branch of a date palm is four handbreadths long. The term branch refers to the red branch that the stalks hang from; the dates hang from the stalks. Three handbreadths of the stem of the grainstalk are considered as a yad. Similarly, three handbreadths of the stem of all plants that are reaped are considered as a yad. If plants are not reaped, their stems and roots are considered as yadot regardless of their length.

All of the aforementioned are susceptible to impurity, impart impurity, but are not combined together with the food, because they are yadot.

כ

וְאֵלּוּ מִתְטַמְּאִים וּמְטַמְּאִין וְלֹא מִצְטָרְפִין. שָׁרְשֵׁי הַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים וְהַקַּפְלוֹטוֹת בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן יְבֵשִׁין. וְהָעַמּוּד שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד הָאֹכֶל. וּמַלָעִין שֶׁל שִׁבֳּלִים וְהֵן הַשְּׂעָרוֹת הַשְּׁחוֹרוֹת שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הַשִּׁבּלֶת שֶׁדּוֹמִין כְּמוֹ מַסָּר. וְעֵקְצֵי הָאֲגַסִּים וְהַקְּרוּסְטְמָלִין וְהַפְּרִישִׁין וְהָעוּזְרָדִין. וְעֹקֶץ דְּלַעַת טֶפַח הַסָּמוּךְ לָאֹכֶל. וְעֹקֶץ קֻנְדָּס טֶפַח. וְכֵן יַד הַפַּרְכִּיל טֶפַח מִכָּאן וְטֶפַח מִכָּאן. וְהַפַּרְכִּיל הוּא הַשָּׂרִיג שֶׁהָאֶשְׁכְּלוֹת תְּלוּיִין בּוֹ. וְיַד הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל כָּל שֶׁהוּא. וּזְנַב הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁרִקְּנוֹ. וְיַד הַמִּכְבָּד שֶׁל תְּמָרָה אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים. וְהַמִּכְבָּד הוּא הָעֵץ הָאָדֹם שֶׁהַשַּׁרְבִיטִין תְּלוּיִין בּוֹ וְהַתְּמָרִין דְּבוּקוֹת בַּשַּׁרְבִיטִין. וּקְנֵה הַשִּׁבּלֶת שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. וְיַד כָּל הַנִּקְצָרִין שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. וְשֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהִקָּצֵר יְדֵיהֶם וְשָׁרְשֵׁיהֶן כָּל שֶׁהֵן. כָּל אֵלּוּ מִתְטַמְּאִין וּמְטַמְּאִין וְלֹא מִצְטָרְפִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן יְדוֹת אֳכָלִין:

21

The following are not susceptible to impurity, do not impart impurity, and are not combined together with the food: other stems, the roots of cabbage heads, the roots of beets, the roots of turnips - this refers to the deep roots that remain when the cabbage and turnips are harvested from which the plants grow a second time - and all the roots that are cut off when they are uprooted together with the food.

The button of a pomegranate is combined together with the fruit. The buds that grow from it are not combined.

כא

וְאֵלּוּ לֹא מִתְטַמְּאִין וְלֹא מְטַמְּאִין וְלֹא מִצְטָרְפִין. שְׁאָר כָּל הָעֳקָצִים. וְשָׁרְשֵׁי קִלְחֵי הַכְּרוּב. וְחַלְפֵי תְּרָדִים וְחַלְפֵי הַלֶּפֶת וְהֵן הָעִקָּרִין שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ בַּקַּרְקַע כְּשֶׁלָּקְטוּ הַכְּרוּב וְהַלֶּפֶת וְחָזְרוּ וְהֶחְלִיפוּ. וְכָל הַשָּׁרָשִׁין שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְהִגָּזֵז שֶׁנֶּעֶקְרוּ עִם הָאֹכֶל. הַפִּטְמָה שֶׁל רִמּוֹן מִצְטָרֶפֶת וְהַנֵּץ שֶׁלּוֹ אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף:

22

When part of a pomegranate or a watermelon decomposed, the remainder is not considered as joined to the part that decomposed. The remainder of the peel is not combined with the fruit, for its protection of the fruit is of no benefit. Similarly, if such fruit was intact on either side, but rotten in the center, the portions of fruit on the sides are not considered as joined to each other, nor is the peel combined with the food.

The green leaves of vegetables are combined with the foods. The white leaves are not, because they are of no benefit.

כב

הָרִמּוֹן וְהָאֲבַטִּיחַ שֶׁנִּמּוֹק מִקְצָתוֹ אֵין הַנִּשְׁאָר חִבּוּר לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁנִּמּוֹק. וְאֵין הַנִּשְׁאָר מִן הַקְּלִפָּה מִצְטָרֵף שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שְׁמִירָתוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה שָׁלֵם מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן וְנִמּוֹק בָּאֶמְצַע אֵין הַצְּדָדִין חִבּוּר זֶה לָזֶה וְאֵין קְלִפָּתוֹ מִצְטָרֶפֶת. עֲלֵי יְרָקוֹת יְרֻקִּין מִצְטָרְפִין וּלְבָנִים אֵינָם מִצְטָרְפִין שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָן כְּלוּם: