1

When the shells of nuts and almonds are cracked, they are still considered as attached to the food until the shell is shattered.

א

הָאֱגוֹזִין וְהַשְּׁקֵדִים שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה קְלִפָּתָן עֲדַיִן הוּא חִבּוּר לָאֹכֶל עַד שֶׁיְּרַצֵּץ אֶת הַקְּלִפָּה:

2

Once a perforation has been made through which to suck out the contents of a soft-roasted egg, the remainder of the shell is not considered as connected to it. When an egg has been cooked, its shell is considered as connected to it until it is shattered. If the shell has been spiced, even if it is shattered entirely, it is still considered as connected.

ב

בֵּיצָה מְגֻלְגֶּלֶת מִשֶּׁיִּקֹּב בָּהּ מָקוֹם לְגָמְעָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ אֵין שְׁאָר קְלִפָּתָהּ חִבּוּר. וּשְׁלוּקָה קְלִפָּתָהּ חִבּוּר עַד שֶׁיְּרַצֵּץ אֶת הַקְּלִפָּה. וְאִם נִתְבַּלָּה בִּקְלִפָּתָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרִצְצָהּ כֻּלָּהּ חִבּוּר:

3

When a bone contains marrow, the bone is considered as connected to the marrow until it is shattered. The wool on the heads of sheep and the hair on a goat's beard even when charred with fire are still considered as connected to the food until one begins removing them.

ג

עֶצֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מוֹחַ חִבּוּר עַד שֶׁיְּרַצֵּץ. צֶמֶר שֶׁבְּרָאשֵׁי הַכְּבָשִׂים וְשֵׂעָר שֶׁבִּזְקַן הַתְּיָשִׁים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחֲרָכָן בָּאוּר הֲרֵי הֵן חִבּוּר עַד שֶׁיַּתְחִיל לִתְלֹשׁ:

4

Even though one already passed a knife over the wings of locusts or the scales of fish, they are considered as connected until one begins actually peeling them off. When the seeds of a pomegranate have separated, they are still considered as connected until one strikes it with a reed.

ד

כַּנְפֵי חֲגָבִים וְקַשְׂקַשֵּׂי דָּגִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר סַכִּין עֲלֵיהֶן חִבּוּר עַד שֶׁיַּתְחִיל לְקַלֵּף. הָרִמּוֹן שֶׁפִּרְדּוֹ חִבּוּר עַד שֶׁיַּקִּישׁ עָלָיו בְּקָנֶה:

5

The stalks of a date palm are not considered as connected to each other.

ה

הַשַּׁרְבִיטִים שֶׁל תְּמָרִים אֵינָן חִבּוּר זֶה לָזֶה:

6

When one cut a cucumber and placed it on the table, the portions are considered as connected until one begins to separate one from the other. If one begins to separate, a piece and anything that ascends with it is considered as connected. The remainder is not considered as connected. The lower tip is considered as connected to itself and not to the other pieces.

When there were two or three cucumbers, one cut each one of them and placed them on the table and began eating one of them, the one he began eating is considered as connected and the others are not considered as connected. Even if he said: "I am eating half in the morning and half in the evening," the half with which he began is considered as connected and the remainder is not considered as connected.

ו

מְלָפְפוֹן שֶׁחֲתָכוֹ וּנְתָנוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן חִבּוּר עַד שֶׁיַּתְחִיל לְפָרֵק. הִתְחִיל לְפָרֵק חֲתִיכָה וְכָל הָעוֹלֶה עִמָּהּ חִבּוּר וְהַשְּׁאָר אֵינָהּ חִבּוּר. פִּיקָה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה חִבּוּר לְעַצְמָהּ וְאֵינָהּ חִבּוּר לַחֲתִיכוֹת. הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה מְלָפְפוֹנוֹת וְחָתַךְ כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְהִנִּיחָן עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהִתְחִיל בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן זֶה שֶׁהִתְחִיל בּוֹ חִבּוּר וְהַשְּׁאָר אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר. אֲפִלּוּ אָמַר חֶצְיוֹ אֲנִי אוֹכֵל שַׁחֲרִית וְחֶצְיוֹ עַרְבִית זֶה הַחֵצִי שֶׁהִתְחִיל בּוֹ חִבּוּר וְהַשְּׁאָר אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר:

7

When a person cuts vegetables and the like to cook them, even though he did not finish cutting them to the extent that they were separated, they are no longer considered as connected. Instead, if one piece contracts impurity, the other does not contract impurity even though they remain attached.

If one cuts a vegetable to pickle, to cook lightly, or to serve on the table, the pieces are considered as connected, even if he begins to separate what he cut.

ז

הַמְחַתֵּךְ יְרָקוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן לְבַשֵּׁל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא מֵרֵק וְהִבְדִּיל אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר. אֶלָּא אִם נִטְמָא זֶה לֹא נִטְמָא זֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְעֹרֶה בּוֹ. חָתַךְ לִכְבּשׁ אוֹ לִשְׁלֹק אוֹ לְהָנִיחַ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן הֲרֵי זֶה חִבּוּר וַאֲפִלּוּ הִתְחִיל לְפָרֵק מַה שֶּׁחָתַךְ:

8

Any food that was still not separated is considered as connected. If part of it contracts impurity, it is impure in its entirety.

ח

כָּל אֹכֶל שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא פֵּרְקוֹ חִבּוּר וְאִם נִטְמָא מִקְצָתוֹ נִטְמָא כֻּלּוֹ:

9

The following rules apply when food was divided, but the pieces were still partially attached and an impure person touched one piece. Were he to hold the piece that he touched, the other piece would ascend with it, they are considered as connected. If when one holds the impure piece and lifts it up, the other one would break off and fall, they are not considered as connected. Instead, the second piece is considered as touching the piece that contracted impurity.

ט

אֹכֶל שֶׁנִּפְרַס וּמְעֹרֶה בְּמִקְצָת וְנָגַע טָמֵא בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן אִם אָחַז בְּזֶה שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ וְהַשֵּׁנִי עוֹלֶה עִמּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה חִבּוּר. וְאִם כְּשֶׁאוֹחֵז בָּזֶה הַטָּמֵא וּמַגְבִּיהוֹ יִשָׁמֵט הָאַחֵר וְיִפּל אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר אֶלָּא הֲרֵי זֶה הָאַחֵר כְּנוֹגֵעַ בָּרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִּטְמָא:

10

The following laws apply whenever leaves or stems are connected to foods. Those that are usually held by their leaves, should be held by their leaves. If they are held by their stalks, they should be held by their stalks. If the food remains hanging from the leaves or the stems, it is considered as connected when touched by a person who immersed in a mikveh that day. Needless to say, this applies to other impurities.

Similarly, if a fruit has a part that could be considered as a handle, it should be held by the handle. If it has both leaves and a handle, it should be held by whichever one desires. If it has neither leaves nor a handle, concerning such a situation, our Sages said: If when one holds the impure piece and lifts it up, the other one ascends with it, they are considered connected. If not, they are not considered connected.

י

כָּל הָאֳכָלִין שֶׁהָיוּ עָלִין אוֹ קְלָחִין מְחֻבָּרִין בָּהֶן אֶת שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהֵאָחֵז בֶּעָלֶה אוֹחֲזִין אוֹתוֹ בֶּעָלֶה. בַּקֶּלַח אוֹחֲזִין אוֹתוֹ בַּקֶּלַח. אִם נִתְלָה עִמּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה חִבּוּר בִּטְבוּל יוֹם וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בִּשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה לוֹ יָד אוֹחֲזִין אוֹתוֹ בַּיָּד שֶׁלּוֹ. הָיְתָה לוֹ יָד וְעָלֶה אוֹחֲזִין אוֹתוֹ בְּאֵי זֶה מֵהֶן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. לֹא הָיְתָה לוֹ יָד וְלֹא עָלֶה, בָּזֶה אָמְרוּ אִם אוֹחֵז בַּטָּמֵא וְהַשֵּׁנִי עוֹלֶה עִמּוֹ חִבּוּר וְאִם לָאו אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר:

11

When one cut off nuts with their stems when they are soft and joined them together like a rope or joined onions together in a like manner, they are considered as joined. If he begins separating the nuts or cutting off the onions, the remainder are not considered as joined. Even if there were 100 kor left, they are all not considered as connected, because he has indicated that his intent is to undo all of them.

יא

הָאֱגוֹזִין שֶׁקְּצָצָן בְּעֵקְצֵיהֶן כְּשֶׁהֵן רַכִּין וַאֲמָנָן כֻּלָּן כְּמוֹ חֶבֶל וְכֵן הַבְּצָלִים שֶׁחִבְּרָן בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֹּאת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חִבּוּר. הִתְחִיל לְפָרֵק בָּאֱגוֹזִים וּלְפַקֵּל בַּבְּצָלִים אֵין הַשְּׁאָר חִבּוּר. אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ לְפָנָיו מֵאָה כּוֹר אֵין כֻּלָּן חִבּוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי הוֹכִיחַ שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לְפָרֵק הַכּל:

12

When there is a braided chain of garlic heads and liquids fell on one of them, it is impure, but those joined to it are pure. For articles joined together by humans are not considered as joined together for all matters. Similarly, when an esrog was separated into pieces and skewered by a weaving needle or a sliver of wood, the pieces are not considered as joined.

יב

קְלִיעָה שֶׁל שׁוּם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ מַשְׁקִין עַל אֶחָד מֵהֶן הוּא טָמֵא וְחִבּוּרוֹ טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין חִבּוּרֵי אָדָם חִבּוּר לְכָל דָּבָר. וְכֵן אֶתְרוֹג שֶׁנִּפְרַשׁ וּתְחָבוֹ בְּכוּשׁ אוֹ בְּקֵיסָם אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר:

13

When a dough was kneaded with fruit juice, the portions of the dough are not considered as joined, for the only entities that join food are the seven liquids.

יג

עִסָּה שֶׁלָּשָׁהּ בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת אֵינָהּ חִבּוּר. שֶׁאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר שֶׁמְּחַבֵּר אֶת הָאֳכָלִין אֶלָּא שִׁבְעָה מַשְׁקִין בִּלְבַד:

14

When one crushes foods together and amasses them, e.g., dried figs, dates, or raisins that were amassed and made into a single block, they are not considered as joined. Therefore, when impure liquids fell on a portion of a ring of dried figs, one may remove the portion on which the liquids fell and the remainder is pure.

יד

הַמְמַעֵךְ אֳכָלִין זֶה בָּזֶה וְקִבְּצָן כְּגוֹן הַדְּבֵלָה וְהַתְּמָרִים וְהַצִּמּוּקִין שֶׁקִּבְּצָן וַעֲשָׂאָן גּוּף אֶחָד אֵינָן חִבּוּר. לְפִיכָךְ עִגּוּל שֶׁל דְּבֵלָה שֶׁנָּפְלוּ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין עַל מִקְצָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹטֵל מִמֶּנּוּ מְקוֹם הַמַּשְׁקִין בִּלְבַד וְהַשְּׁאָר טָהוֹר:

15

If one cooked dates and dried figs together and made them a single mass, they are considered as joined.

טו

הַתְּמָרִים וְהַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת שֶׁשְּׁלָקָן וְנַעֲשׂוּ אוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה חִבּוּר:

16

When olives were stored and combined together in a single mass, they are considered as joined, since at the outset, they were placed in the pit with the intent that their fluids flow from one to another.

Therefore if the carcass of a creeping animal was found on a mound of olives, i.e., olives that have become a single mass, even if it touched only a barley-sized portion of the mass, the entire amount is impure, because it is all a single entity.

If a person had a mass of olives and he was planning to turn it over, once he inserts the spade into the mass, they are no longer considered as connected even though there are many lumps. If a mass is formed after they were turned over, they are not considered as joined.

טז

הַזֵּיתִים שֶׁעֲטָנָן וְנַעֲשׂוּ גּוּשׁ אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה חִבּוּר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה לֹא נְתָנָן לַמַּעֲטָן אֶלָּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁיִּינְקוּ זֶה מִזֶּה. לְפִיכָךְ שֶׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא עַל אוֹם שֶׁל זֵיתִים וְהֵן הַזֵּיתִים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ כֻּלָּן גּוּף אֶחָד אֲפִלּוּ נָגַע בְּכִשְׂעוֹרָה הַכּל טָמֵא שֶׁהַכּל גּוּף אֶחָד. הָיְתָה לוֹ אוֹם שֶׁל זֵיתִים וְעָתִיד לְהָפְכָהּ כֵּיוָן שֶׁתָּקַע בָּהּ אֶת הַיָּתֵד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ גּוּשִׁים הַרְבֵּה אֵינָן חִבּוּר. וְאִם מִשֶּׁהֲפָכָהּ נַעֲשׂוּ אוֹם אֵינָן חִבּוּר:

17

When separate foods are all collected in the same place and are clinging to each other, even though they are not considered as joined with regard to the contraction of impurity, and they are not considered as a single mass, as explained, they are still combined to produce the measure of an egg-sized portion to impart impurity to other foods. If the foods were not collected as one mass, but instead were separate like cooked food and legumes, they are not considered as a combined entity even in that context until they are collected and formed into a single mass.

When there were many lumps of food, one next to another and a primary source of impurity touched one of them, that lump is considered as a primary derivative of impurity. The lump next to it is considered as a secondary derivative, the one next to the second, a tertiary derivative, and the one next to the third, a derivative of the fourth degree.

יז

אֹכֶל פָּרוּד שֶׁהוּא כֻּלּוֹ מְכֻנָּס וְדָבֵק זֶה בָּזֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חִבּוּר לְהִתְטַמֵּא וְאֵינוֹ כְּגוּף אֶחָד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הֲרֵי הוּא מִצְטָרֵף לִכְבֵיצָה לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִים אֲחֵרִים. וְאִם לֹא כְּנָסוֹ אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא מְפֹרָד כְּמַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה וְהַקִּטְנִית אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף עַד שֶׁיְּקַבְּצֵם וְיַעֲשֵׂם גּוּשׁ אֶחָד. הָיוּ גּוּשִׁים הַרְבֵּה זֶה בְּצַד זֶה וְנָגַע אַב הַטֻּמְאָה בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן הֲרֵי הוּא רִאשׁוֹן וְהַגּוּשׁ שֶׁבְּצִדּוֹ שֵׁנִי וְשֶׁבְּצַד הַשֵּׁנִי שְׁלִישִׁי וְשֶׁבְּצַד הַשְּׁלִישִׁי רְבִיעִי:

18

If a loaf that was terumah was a primary derivative of impurity became attached to others, they are all considered as primary derivatives. If it was separated, it is considered as a primary derivative and the others, as secondary derivatives. If it was a secondary derivative and it became attached to others, they are all considered as secondary derivatives. If it was separated, it is considered as a secondary derivative and the others, as tertiary derivatives. If it was a tertiary derivative and it became attached to others, it remains a tertiary derivative and they are all considered as pure, whether they were separated or not.

יח

כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁהָיְתָה רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה וְהִשִּׁיךְ לָהּ אֲחֵרוֹת כֻּלָּם רִאשׁוֹן. פֵּרְשָׁה הִיא רִאשׁוֹן וְכֻלָּן שְׁנִיּוֹת. הָיְתָה שְׁנִיָּה וְהִשִּׁיךְ לָהּ אֲחֵרוֹת כֻּלָּן שְׁנִיּוֹת. פֵּרְשָׁה הִיא שְׁנִיָּה וְכֻלָּן שְׁלִישִׁיּוֹת. הָיְתָה שְׁלִישִׁית וְהִשִּׁיךְ לָהּ אֲחֵרוֹת הִיא שְׁלִישִׁית וְכֻלָּן טְהוֹרוֹת בֵּין שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרְשׁוּ:

19

When loaves that are terumah are attached to each other and one of them contracted impurity from the carcass of a crawling animal, they are all considered as primary derivatives even if they are separated afterwards. If one of them contracted impurity from impure liquids, they are all considered as secondary derivatives even if they are separated afterwards. If one contracted impurity from impure hands, they are all considered as primary derivatives even if they are separated afterwards. The rationale for this law is that the loaves were a single entity at the impurity was contracted.

יט

כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה נוֹשְׁכוֹת זוֹ בְּזוֹ נִטְמֵאת אַחַת מֵהֶן בְּשֶׁרֶץ כֻּלָּן רִאשׁוֹן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ אַחַר מִכָּאן. [נִטְמֵאת אַחַת בְּמַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין כֻּלָּן שְׁנִיּוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ אַחַר מִכָּאן]. נִטְמֵאת אַחַת מֵהֶן בְּיָדַיִם כֻּלָּן שְׁלִישִׁיּוֹת וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיוּ גּוּף אֶחָד בִּשְׁעַת טֻמְאָתָן: